Monthly Archives: August 2006

Sound Pollution

No one on earth can escape the sounds of noise- an unwanted, disturbing sound that causes a nuisance in the eye of the beholder. Noise is a disturbance to the human environment that is escalating at such a high rate that it will become a major threat to the quality of human lives. In the past thirty years, noise in all areas, especially in urban areas, have been increasing rapidly. There are numerous effects on the human environment due to the increase in noise pollution.Although we attempt to set standards for some of the most major sources of noise, we often are unable to monitor them. Major sources of noise can be airplanes at takeoff and landing, and a truck just off the assembly line, yet we seem accept and enjoy countless other sounds, from hard rock music to loud Harley Davidson motor cycles. The following areas will be investigated in some detail; adolescent education, neural-effects, sleep, hearing damage, occupational environment, transportation, and physiological effects.

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Most of society is now aware that noise can damage hearing. However, short of a threat that disaster would overtake the human race if nothing is done about noise, it is unlikely that many people today would become strongly motivated to do something about the problem. Yet, the evidence about the ill effects of noise does not allow for complacency or neglect. For instance, researchers working with children with hearing disorders are constantly reminded of the crucial importance of hearing to children. In the early years the child cannot learn to speak without special training if he has enough hearing loss to interfere effectively with the hearing of words in context (Bugliarello, et al., 1976). In this respect, there is a clear need for parents to protect their childrens’ hearing as they try to protect their eyesight. If no steps are taken to lessen the effects of noise, we may expect a significant percentage of future generations to have hearing damage. It would be difficult to predict the total outcome if total population would suffer hearing loss. Conceivably, the loss could even be detrimental to our survival if it were ever necessary for us to be able to hear high frequencies.

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Water Pollution

 

The main sources of water pollution.

Although some kinds of water pollution can occur through natural processes, it is mostly a result of human activities. We use water daily in our homes and industries, The water we use is taken from lakes and rivers, and from underground (groundwater); and after we have used it– and contaminated it– most of it returns to these locations.

The used water of a community is called wastewater, or sewage. If it is not treated before being discharged into waterways, serious pollution is the result. Historically, it has taken humanity quite a bit of time to come to grips with this problem. Water pollution also occurs when rain water runoff from urban and industrial areas and from agricultural land and mining operations makes its way back to receiving waters (river, lake or ocean) and into the ground.
There are many causes for water pollution but two general categories exist: direct and indirect contaminant sources.
Direct sources include effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, waste treatment plants etc.. that emit fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies.
Indirect sources include contaminants that enter the water supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rain water. Soils and groundwaters contain the residue of human agricultural practices (fertilizers, pesticides, etc..) and improperly disposed of industrial wastes. Atmospheric contaminants are also derived from human practices (such as gaseous emissions from automobiles, factories and even bakeries).
Contaminants can be broadly classified into organic, inorganic, radioactive and acid/base. Examples from each class and their potential sources are too numerous to discuss here.

The effects of water pollution.
The effects of water pollution are varied. They include poisonous drinking water, poisionous food animals (due to these organisms having bioaccumulated toxins from the environment over their life spans), unbalanced river and lake ecosystems that can no longer support full biological diversity, deforestation from acid rain, and many other effects. These effects are, of course, specific to the various contaminants.

Some ways we can take to decrease those problem.
Science provides many practical solutions to minimizing the present level at which pollutants are introduced into the environment and for remediating (cleaning up) past problems. All of these solutions come with some cost (both societal and monetary). In our everyday lives, a great deal can be done to minimize pollution if we take care to recycle materials whose production creates pollution and if we act responsibly with household chemicals and their disposal. Additionally, there are choices we make each day that also can affect the quantity of pollutants our actions will introduce into the environment. Heavily packaged foods, for instance, contain boxes, cartons, bottles etc.. made with polluting dyes, many of which are released from groundwater at municipal land fills. Whether we choose to drive to the corner store rather than walk or ride a bicycle will determine how much we personally contribute to acid and hydrocarbon emissions to the atmosphere (and ultimately to global fresh water supplies).
In the end, there are many choices on the personal and societal level that we must make (consciously or not) that affect the amount of pollution our town or country will be forced to live with. Our standard of living and very way of life is based upon practices which are inherently “dirtier” than those of our distant ancestors, although they too polluted their environment to some extent. Without taking a step backward in terms of our standards of living, the answer seems to lie in a combination of many small changes in our daily practices and paying more for goods and services, so that manufacturers of various materials and drivers of automobiles (for instance) will have cleaner devices with which to conduct their activities.

Air pollution

 

What Is Air Pollution?……...CLICK & SEE

Air pollution is the contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances. Air pollution can cause health problems including burning eyes and nose, itchy irritated throat, and breathing problems. Some chemicals found in polluted air can cause cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve damage, and long-term injury to the lungs and breathing passages in certain circumstances. Above certain concentrations and durations, certain air pollutants are extremely dangerous and can cause severe injury or death.Air pollution can also damage the environment and property. Trees, lakes, and animals have been harmed by air pollution. Air pollution has thinned the protective ozone layer above the Earth. Air pollution can damage buildings, monuments, statues, and other structures.

Air pollution also can result in haze, which reduces visibility in national parks and elsewhere, and can sometimes interfere with aviation.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES…>..(1)..…….(2)..……..(3).…………(4).……….(5).….

THE MAJOR AIR POLLUTENTS ARE:-

Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas. After being inhaled, CO molecules can enter the bloodstream, where they inhibit the delivery of oxygen throughout the body. Low concentrations can cause dizziness, headaches, and fatigue; high concentrations can be fatal.

CO is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon-based fuels, including gasoline, oil, and wood. It is also produced from incomplete combustion of natural and synthetic products, such as cigarette smoke. It can build up in high concentrations in enclosed areas such as garages, poorly ventilated tunnels, and even along roadsides in heavy traffic.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the principal greenhouse gas emitted as a result of human activity (e.g., burning of coal, oil, and natural gas). CO2 can cause burns, frostbite, and blindness if an area is exposed to it in solid or liquid form. If inhaled, it can be toxic in high concentrations, causing an increase in the breathing rate, unconsciousness, and death.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are chemicals used in great quantities in industry, for refrigeration and air conditioning, and in consumer products. CFCs, when released into the air, rise into the stratosphere (a layer of atmosphere high above the Earth). In the stratosphere, CFCs take part in chemical reactions that result in reduction of the stratospheric ozone layer, which protects the Earth’s surface from the sun. Reducing the release of CFC emissions and eliminating the production and use of ozone-destroying chemicals is very important to the Earth’s stratosphere.

Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) are chemicals that cause serious health and environmental effects. Health effects include cancer, birth defects, nervous system problems, and death due to massive accidental releases, such as the disaster that occurred at a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India.

Hazardous air pollutants are released by sources such as chemical plants, dry cleaners, printing plants, and motor vehicles including cars, trucks, buses, planes.

Lead is a highly toxic metal that produces a range of adverse health effects particularly in young children. Lead can cause nervous system damage and digestive problems, and some lead-containing chemicals cause cancer. Lead can also harm wildlife.

Lead has been phased out of gasoline, which has considerably reduced the contamination of air by lead. However, lead can still be inhaled or ingested from other sources. The sources for lead include paint (for houses and cars), smelters, manufacture of lead batteries, fishing lures, certain parts of bullets, some ceramic ware, miniblinds, water pipes, and a few hair dye products.

Ozone (O3 is a gas that is a variety of oxygen. Oxygen consists of two oxygen atoms; ozone consists of three. Ozone in the upper atmosphere, where it occurs naturally in what is known as the ozone layer, shields the Earth from the sun’s dangerous ultraviolet rays. However, at ground level where it is a pollutant with highly toxic effects, ozone damages human health, the environment, crops, and a wide range of natural and artificial materials. Ground-level ozone can irritate the respiratory tract, cause chest pain, persistent cough, an inability to take a deep breath, and an increased susceptibility to lung infection. Ozone can damage trees and plants and reduce visibility.

Ground-level ozone comes from the breakdown (oxidation) of volatile organic compounds found in solvents. It is also a product of reactions between chemicals that are produced by burning coal, gasoline, other fuels, and chemicals found in paints and hair sprays. Oxidation occurs readily during hot weather. Vehicles and industries are major sources of ground-level ozone.

Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) is a major contributor to smog and acid rain. Nitrogen oxides react with volatile organic compounds to form smog. In high doses, smog can harm humans by causing breathing difficulty for asthmatics, coughs in children, and general illness of the respiratory system. Acid rain can harm vegetation and run into lakes and rivers which changes the chemistry of the water, and makes it potentially uninhabitable for all but acid-tolerant bacteria.

Nitrogen oxides are produced from burning fuels, including gasoline and coal. (NOx) acid aerosols can reduce visibility.

Particulate Matter is any type of solid in the air in the form of smoke, dust, and vapors, which can remain suspended for extended periods. Aside from reducing visibility and soiling clothing, microscopic particles in the air can be breathed into lung tissue becoming lodged and causing increased respiratory disease and lung damage. Particulates are also the main source of haze, which reduces visibility.

Particulates are produced by many sources, including burning of diesel fuels by trucks and buses, fossil fuels, mixing and application of fertilizers and pesticides, road construction, industrial processes such as steel making, mining, agricultural burning, and operation of fireplaces and woodstoves.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is an odorless gas at low concentrations, but can have a very strong smell at high concentrations. SO2 is a gas produced by burning coal, most notably in power plants. Some industrial processes, such as production of paper and smelting of metals, produce sulfur dioxide.

Like nitrogen oxides, SO2 is a major contributor to smog and acid rain. SO2 is closely related to sulfuric acid, a strong acid. It can harm vegetation and metals and can cause lung problems, including breathing problems and permanent damage to lungs.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals. All organic compounds contain carbon, and organic chemicals are the basic chemicals found in all living things and in all products derived from living things. Many organic compounds we use do not occur in nature, but were synthesized by chemists in laboratories. Volatile chemicals produce vapors easily. At room temperature vapors readily escape from volatile liquid chemicals.

VOCs include gasoline, industrial chemicals such as benzene, solvents such as toluene and xylene, and perchloroethylene (principal dry cleaning solvent). VOCs are released from burning fuel, such as gasoline, wood, coal, natural gas and from solvents, paints, glues, and other products used at home or work. Vehicle emissions are an important source of VOCs. Many VOCs are hazardous air pollutants; for example, benzene causes cancer.

THE WAYS THAT EVERY SINGLE PERSON SHOULD TRY TO DO TO CONTRIBUTE A LITTLE TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTION

There are many ways to reduce air pollution. People can contribute significantly to cleaning the air if they take (or do not take — as the case may be) certain simple actions to reduce air pollution.

Since vehicles contribute greatly to air pollution by emitting CO, NOx, ozone, VOCs, HAPs, CFCs, and particulate matter, each driver who makes personal changes in driving habits contributes to the reduction of air pollution.

Limit driving, use public transportation, walk, use carpools, bike, or so forth. These are the best ways an individual can help reduce air pollution!

If you must drive, then try to follow these guidelines:

  • Avoid high speeds.
  • Buy a vehicle with high miles per gallon.
  • Do not overfill or top off your gasoline tank.
  • Do not refuel on high ozone days — try to refuel after dark.
  • Drive a newer vehicle; the new models generally pollute less.
  • Drive alternative vehicles or alternatively fueled vehicles, such as electric vehicles.
  • Drive smoothly and avoid lengthy idling.
  • If the vehicle is a pre-1995 model, have a professional convert the air conditioning from the dangerous CFC R-12 to the safer R-134a to reduce your contribution to the ozone hole.
  • Keep your car well maintained, especially the emissions control system.
  • Keep tires properly inflated.
  • Maintain your vehicle’s air conditioning system — do not allow it to leak.
  • Make fewer trips in your vehicle — plan routes to avoid traffic.
  • Reduce fuel use as often as possible — a vehicle’s shape and design features can affect its fuel use.

Here are some other actions every individuals should try to take to reduce air pollution:

  • Defer lawn and gardening chores that use gasoline-powered equipment on high ground-level ozone days.
  • Eat organically grown food, or at least less pesticide-dependant foods.
  • Limit dry cleaning.
  • Postpone using oil-based paint and solvents on high ground-level ozone days.
  • Reduce consumption of electricity — conserving reduces emissions of SO2, NOx, VOCs and particulate matter into the air.
  • Start charcoal with an electric or chimney-type fire starter instead of lighter fluid.
  • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle — less consumption of products will reduce all types of air pollution.
  • Use airconditioning as less as possible.
  • Plant and try to maintain as maney trees as possible in your locality.
  • Do not encourage fireworks.

Olive oil is good for health

University of Texas Health Science Center in Dallas has found that monounsaturated oils such as olive oil are more protective of HDL (the good cholesterol) levels than polyunsaturated fats such as corn oil and soybean oil. Olive oil reduces total cholesterol without lowering HDL.

Olive oil has several other medical application in addition to it’s heart protective role. such as:

DIGESTION: Olive oil can also help the digestive system to function more efficiently. It is thought to reduce gastric acidity and to be effective in protecting against ulcers and gastritis. It also stimulates bile secretion and regulates the emptying of the gallbladder, reducing the risk of gallstones.

INTESTINAL FUNCTION: Olive oil is the edible fat most easily absorbed by the intestines and regulates the passage of food through the intestines. One or two tablespoons of olive oil has a positive effect as a laxative.

BONE AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT: Olive oil also promotes bone growth by fighting calcium loss and permits improved bone materialization in both children and adults due to its chemical composition. It is considered a good food choice for expectant and nursing mothers since it encourages normal brain development in the infant before and after birth. At the other end of the spectrum, olive oil may be helpful in preventing the wear and tear of age on the brain functions and the aging of organs and tissues in general.

It has been also proved that the use of olive oil in nutrition helps to sustain:

1. Human metabolism at a good balance, body’s growth and bone growth at a good level. It is obvious that olive oil means good health and development for our children.

2. Good level of Vitamin E in our body. This vitamin has the property to delay the change of the cellular structure which leads to natural decadence, the people’s aging, so one of the best medicaments for delaying aging is the olive oil. On the other hand, as we all know, Vitamin E improves our sexual life. So one can say that olive oil is by itself an aphrodisiac!
It is also soothing to mucous membrane and to dissolve cholesterol. Olive oil is useful externally for burns, bruises, insect bites, sprains, and intense itching. With alcohol it makes a good hair tonic, and with oil of rosemary a good treatment for dandruff. One of its most common uses is as a base for liniments and ointments.

[1] It is amazing how many applications there are for olive oil including; skin care, cosmetics, cooking and medicinal. Olive Oil is a staple in the Mediterranean diet and is used more commonly than butter. The use of Olive Oil has been linked to reduced cholesterol and a protection against several types of cancer.

Extra virgin olive oil is particularly rich in the phenolic antioxidants as well as squalene and oleic acid(a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid) , and high consumption of the foregoing in the diet provides considerable protection against colon, breast and skin cancer, coronary heart disease and aging by inhibiting oxidative stress.

Research has shown that scavenging of the hydroxyl radical was significantly higher among extracts of olive oil. This effect was only minimal in seed oils. In addition to their direct antioxidant capacity, extracts of olive oil are also potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase activity.

A constant high olive oil intake in the diet, especially extra virgin olive oil, provides a constant supply of antioxidants. This may reduce oxidative stress through inhibition of lipid peroxidation, a factor that is currently linked to a host of diseases such as cancer and heart disease.

[2] The same study also concluded that a diet high in olive oil may reduce blood pressure levels due to its polyphenol content. Polyphenols are potent antioxidants that help the arteries to dilate thereby reducing blood pressure.
Last but not the least , is that oilve oil dessolves useful substances from the food that can not be absorbed by the human body.It can be used in every form of cooking. It can be used in salads or added in the cooking process of almost any recipe. Olive Oil is the healthiest type of oil with 0% cholesterol, rich in Vitamins against aging and perfect even for frying dishes. Olive oil is the best nutritional gift we can offer to ourselves. Olive oil helps us keep good in health making our life pleasant.

Metamucil-a wonderful fiber supplement

Pronounced: MET-uh-MEW-sil . Generic ingredients: Psyllium, Senna (Overnight Relief Perdiem only)Other brand names: Konsyl Powder, Konsyl for Kids Perdiem.

Constipation or any other type of bowel disorder is very hurmful for everyone. These are caused by the deficiency(lack) 0f particular neutrients and this dificiency prevents the bowel muscles from functioning the way they should function (neutrients are vitamins,minerals,enzymes etc. etc.) One should get rid of these problems just by taking some fibre supplement, and Metamucil is one of them.I myself used it and am very much satisfied with its effect.Metamucil is a bulk-producing laxative and fiber supplement manufactured by Proctar & Gamble.

What this drug is used for

Metamucil, Konsyl, and Perdiem, all of which are based on bulk-producing psyllium fiber, are used for constipation.

Metamucil and Konsyl Powder relieve chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. Doctors also use them, along with other medications, to ease bowel movements in people with hemorrhoids and to treat the constipation that may accompany diverticular disease (a pouch in the wall of the bowel), occasional constipation during pregnancy, constipation during convalescence, and constipation in the very old. Metamucil is available in regular and smooth-texture powder form, as well as in wafers, in a variety of flavors. Konsyl Powder is sugar- and sugar substitute-free.

Perdiem products and Konsyl for Kids are used only for occasional constipation. Fiber Therapy Perdiem and Konsyl for Kids contain psyllium alone. Overnight Relief Perdiem also contains senna, a natural stimulant. Perdiem products come in granule form. Konsyl for Kids is a powder.

How should you take this medication?

Take these products with at least 1 full glass (8 ounces) of water or other liquid. Most produce results in 12 to 72 hours. Overnight Relief Perdiem acts in 6 to 12 hours.

* ADULTS AND CHILDREN 12 YEARS AND OVER
Metamucil
The usual dose is 2 wafers or 1 rounded tablespoonful, rounded teaspoonful, or packet (depending on the variety). Mix powder with 8 ounces of liquid. If mixture thickens, add more liquid and stir again. Wash down wafers with at least 8 ounces of liquid. Can be taken up to 3 times daily, if needed.

Konsyl
Place 1 rounded teaspoonful in a dry shaker cup or container that can be closed. Add 8 ounces of liquid and shake, don’t stir, for 3 to 5 seconds. Drink promptly. If the mixture thickens, add more liquid and shake again. Follow with an 8-ounce glass of liquid. Take this dosage 1 to 3 times daily. To avoid bloating and to help your body adjust, you may wish to start with half-teaspoonful doses for several days, then increase the dose gradually over several more days.

Konsyl for Kids
Add 2 rounded teaspoonfuls to at least 8 ounces of cool water, stir briskly for 3 to 5 seconds, and drink promptly. If the mixture thickens, add more water and stir again. Follow with more liquid. May be taken 1 to 3 times daily.

Perdiem
Take 1 to 2 rounded teaspoonfuls once or twice daily, in the evening and/or before breakfast. Put the granules in your mouth and wash them down with a full glass of cool liquid. Do not chew them.

* CHILDREN UNDER 12
Metamucil
Use half the adult dosage. For children under 6, consult your doctor.

Konsyl
Use half the adult dosage. For children under 6, consult your doctor.

Konsyl for Kids
Use 1 rounded teaspoonful 1 to 3 times a day. For children under 6, consult your doctor.

Perdiem
The usual dosage is 1 rounded teaspoonful once or twice daily. For children under 7, consult your doctor.

* STORAGE
Store at room temperature in a dry place.

Do not take this medication if…

Avoid these products if you have trouble swallowing, or have ever had an allergic reaction to psyllium. Also avoid them if you have an intestinal blockage or impacted stool. Check with your doctor before taking them if you have stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, or rectal bleeding, or have noticed a sudden change in bowel habits lasting 2 weeks or more.

Special warnings about this medication

Be sure to take each dose with at least 1 full glass of water. If you don’t use enough liquid, the product could choke you.

If you have chest pain, vomiting, or difficulty in swallowing or breathing after taking one of these products, see your doctor immediately.

If you are still constipated after 1 week or notice rectal bleeding, stop taking the medication and call your doctor.

When handling Metamucil powder, spoon it into a glass according to the directions on the label in order to keep psyllium dust from escaping into the air.

Do not take one of these products less than 2 hours before or after taking a prescription drug. If you must avoid phenylalanine, do not use the smooth-texture, sugar-free, orange-flavored variety of Metamucil.

Extracted from:http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/otcdrugprofiles/drugs/fgotc146.shtml