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The patient complains of an almost continual urge to void and a burning sensation on passing urine. There may be feeling of pain in the pelvis and lower abdomen. The urine may become thick, dark and stringy. It may have an unpleasant smell and may contain blood or pus. Some pain in the lower back may also be felt in certain cases. In an acute stage, there may be rise in body temperature. In the chronic form of cystitis the symptoms are similar but generally less severe and longer lasting, and without a fever.
Cystitis may result from infection in other parts connected with or adjacent to the bladder such as the kidneys, the urethra the vagina, or the prostate gland. There may be local irritation and inflammation in the bladder if urine is retained there for an unduly long time. Cystitis may also results from acute constipation. Other conditions like an infected kidney, stones in the kidneys or bladder, or an enlarged prostate may also lead to this disorder.
When cystitis is suspected, the doctor first examines a person’s abdomen and lower back, to evaluate unusual enlargements of the kidneys or swelling of the bladder. In small children, the doctor checks for fever, abdominal masses, and a swollen bladder.
The next step in diagnosis is collection of a urine sample. The procedure involves voiding into a cup, so small children may be catheterized to collect a sample. Laboratory testing of urine samples as of the early 2000s can be performed with dipsticks that indicate immune system responses to infection, as well as with microscopic analysis of samples. Normal human urine is sterile. The presence of bacteria or pus in the urine usually indicates infection. The presence of hematuria (blood in the urine) may indicate acute UTIs, kidney disease, kidney stones, inflammation of the prostate (in men), endometriosis (in women), or cancer of the urinary tract. In some cases, blood in the urine results from athletic training, particularly in runners.
Women and children with recurrent UTIs can be given ultrasound exams of the kidneys and bladder together with a voiding cystourethrogram to test for structural abnormalities. (A cystourethrogram is an x-ray test in which an iodine dye is used to better view the urinary bladder and urethra.) In some cases, computed tomography scans (CT scans) can be used to evaluate people for possible cancers in the urinary tract.
Uncomplicated cystitis is treated with antibiotics. These include penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin; sulfisoxazole or sulfamethoxazole; trimethoprim; nitrofurantoin; cephalosporins; or fluoroquinolones. (Fluoroquinolones generally are not used in children under 18 years of age.) A 2003 study showed that fluoroquinolone was preferred over amoxicillin, however, for uncomplicated cystitis in young women. Treatment for women is short-term; most women respond within three days. Men and children do not respond as well to short-term treatment and require seven to 10 days of oral antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs.
Persons of either gender may be given phenazopyridine or flavoxate to relieve painful urination.
Trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin are preferred for treating recurrent UTIs in women.
Individuals with pyelonephritis can be treated with oral antibiotics or intramuscular doses of cephalosporins. Medications are given for ten to 14 days and sometimes longer. If the person requires hospitalization because of high fever and dehydration caused by vomiting, antibiotics can be given intravenously.
A minority of women with complicated UTIs may require surgical treatment to prevent recurrent infections. Surgery also is used to treat reflux problems (movement of the urine backward) or other structural abnormalities in children and anatomical abnormalities in adult males.
Alternative treatment for cystitis may emphasize eliminating all sugar from the diet and drinking lots of water. Drinking unsweetened cranberry juice not only adds fluid but also is thought to help prevent cystitis by making it more difficult for bacteria to cling to the bladder wall. A variety of herbal therapies also are recommended. Generally, the recommended herbs are antimicrobials, such as garlic (Allium sativum), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), and bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi); and/or demulcents that soothe and coat the urinary tract, including corn silk and marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis).Cucumber juice ,Radish Leaves ,Spinach ,Sandalwood Oil.
Diet: At the onset of acute Cystitis, it is essential to withhold all solid foods immediately. If there is fever, the patient should take only liquid food like fruit juices, soups, barley water, boiled vegetables etc. After the fever is over then patient should take non-spicy food for few days. Then gradually embark upon the all types of food.
Lifestyle : During the first three or four days of acute cystitis, when the patient is on a liquid diet, it is advisable to rest and keep warm. Pain can be relieved by immersing the pelvis in hot water. Alternatively, heat can applied to the abdomen, by using a towel wrung out in hot water and covering it with a dry towel to retain warmth. The treatment may be continued for three or four days by which time the inflammation should have subsided and the temperature returned to normal.
Homeopathic medicine also can be effective in treating cystitis. Choosing the correct remedy based on the individual’s symptoms is always key to the success of this type of treatment. Acupuncture and Chinese traditional herbal medicine can also be helpful in treating acute and chronic cases of cystitis.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.
Source:www.healthline.com and www.allayurveda.com