Measles is a highly contagious viral illness.Measles, also known as rubeola, is a disease caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus.
Reports of measles go back to at least 600 BCE, however, the first scientific description of the disease and its distinction from smallpox is attributed to the Persian physician Ibn Razi (Rhazes) 860-932 who published a book entitled “Smallpox and Measles” (in Arabic: Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah).
Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person’s nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagiousâ€”90% of people without immunity sharing a house with an infected person will catch it. Airborne precautions should be taken for all suspected cases of measles.
The incubation period usually lasts for 4â€“12 days (during which there are no symptoms).
Infected people remain contagious from the appearance of the first symptoms until 3â€“5 days after the rash appears.
Immunity to the disease occurs after vaccination or active infection:
Before widespread immunization, measles was so common during childhood that the majority of the population had been infected by age 20. Measles cases dropped over the last several decades to virtually none in the U.S. and Canada because of widespread immunization, but rates have crept up again recently.
Large studies of thousands of children have found no connection between this vaccine and the development of autism, however, lower vaccination rates can cause outbreaks of measles, mumps, and rubella — which can be serious.
tiny white spots inside the mouth (called Koplik’s spots)
photophobia (light sensitivity)
appears around the fifth day of the disease
may last 4 to 7 days
usually starts on the head and spreads to other areas, progressing downward
maculopapular rash — appears as both macules (flat, discolored areas) and papules (solid, red, elevated areas) that later merge together (confluent)
itching of the rash
Note: The period between the appearance of the earliest symptoms and the appearance of a rash or fever is usually 3 to 5 days.
The classical symptoms of measles include a fever for at least three days, and the three Csâ€”cough, coryza (runny nose) and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The fever may reach up to 105Â° Fahrenheit/ 40Â° Celsius. Koplik’s spots seen inside the mouth are pathognomonic (diagnostic) for measles but are not often seen, even in real cases of measles, because they are transient and may disappear within a day of arising.
The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash that begins several days after the fever starts. It starts on the head before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching. The rash is said to “stain”, changing colour from red to dark brown before disappearing. notice that there is German Measles, that it’s rash never spreads allover the whole body as measles… it is important to differentiate it from German type.
Signs and tests
viral culture (rarely done)
a measles serology.
A detailed history should be taken including course of the disease so far, vaccination, history, contact history, and travel history.
Clinical diagnosis of measles requires a history of fever of at least three days together with at least one of the three Cs. Observation of Koplik’s spots is also diagnostic of measles.
Alternatively, laboratory diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation of positive measles IgM antibodies or isolation of measles virus RNA from respiratory specimens. In cases of measles infection following secondary vaccine failure IgM antibody may not be present. In these cases serological confirmation may be made by showing IgG antibody rises by Enzymeimmunoasay or complement fixation
Positive contact with other patients known to have measles adds strong epidemiological evidence to the diagnosis.
There is no specific treatment or antiviral therapy for uncomplicated measles. Most patients with uncomplicated measles will recover with rest and supportive treatment. Though some children may require supplementation with Vitamin A. Symptoms may be relieved with bed rest, acetaminophen, and humidified air.
Histologically, a unique cell can be found in the paracortical region of hyperplastic lymph nodes in patients affected with the measles. This cell, known as the Warthin-Finkeledey cell, is a multinucleated giant with eosinophilic cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions.
Some herbal medicines:
1.Termeric roots are dried in the sun andground to a fine powder.The powder is mixed with a few drops of honey and juice of few bitter groud leaves and taken with beneficial results.
2.Cinnamon (dalchini) is used as a prophylatic agent to control German measles.
Associated bacterial infection may cause otitis media, bronchitis. Encephalitis occurs in approximately 1 out of 1,000 measles cases.
Complications with measles are relatively common, ranging from relatively common and less serious diarrhea, to pneumonia and encephalitis (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis). Complications are usually more severe amongst adults who catch the virus.
The fatality rate from measles for otherwise healthy people in developed countries is low: approximately 1 death per thousand cases. In underdeveloped nations with high rates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates of 10 percent are common. In immunocompromised patients, the fatality rate is approximately 30 percent.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.
Help taken from: healthline.com/adamcontent/measles, en.wikipedia.org & Miracles of herbs
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