Pharyngitis: (far-in-jÄ«’ tis) is a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. Infection of the tonsils, tonsillitis may occur simultaneously.
Inflammation of the pharynx (the hollow tube in the back of the throat about 5 inches long that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea). Pharyngitis is popularly known as a sore throat…CLICK & SEE
Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
The major cause is infection, of which 90% are viral, the remainder caused by bacterial infection and rarely oral thrush (fungal candidiasis e.g. in babies). Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by irritation from agents such as pollutants or chemical substances.

Pharyngitis is caused by a variety of microorganisms. Most cases are caused by a virus, including the virus causing the common cold, flu (influenza virus), adenovirus, mononucleosis, HIV, and various others.

Bacterial causes include Group A streptococcus, which causes strep throat, in addition to corynebacterium, arcanobacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and others. In up to 30% of cases, no organism is identified.

Most cases of pharyngitis occur during the colder months — during respiratory disease season. It often spreads among family members.

Strep throat is a serious cause of pharyngitis. The complications of strep throat can include acute rheumatic fever, kidney dysfunction, and severe diseases such as bacteremia and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

Sore throat
Strep throat may be accompanied by fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck
Viral pharyngitis may be associated with runny nose and postnasal drip
Severe cases may be accompanied by difficulty swallowing and, rarely, difficulty breathing
Additional symptoms are dependent on the underlying microorganisms

Signs and tests
The health care provider will perform an examination of the pharynx to look for drainage or coating. The skin, eyes, and neck lymph nodes may be examined.
A rapid antigen test may be done for strep. If the rapid test is positive, the patient is treated with an antibiotic. If the rapid test is negative, a throat culture may be done.
If there is suspicion for strep throat a streptococcal screen and/or throat swab culture may be performed. Additional throat cultures or blood tests may be done depending on the suspected organism (e.g., mononucleosis, gonorrheae).

Modern Treatment:
The treatment depends on the underlying cause. Viral infections are managed with warm salt water gargles, pain relievers, and fluids. Antibiotics are needed if strep throat is diagnosed.But most sore throats are viral and will not respond to antibiotics. Bacterial causes include Group A streptococcus. The cephalosporin antibiotics such as cephalexin (Keflex, Keftabs, Biocef) and cefadroxil (Duricef) have been found to be much less likely to fail in eradicating the strep than penicillin.

Symptomatic Treatment:
Twenty-two non-antibiotic managements for sore throat have been studied in controlled trials.Analgesics are among the most effective, but there are many simple measures that can also be used.

Avoid foods and liquids highly acidic in nature, as they will provoke temporary periods of intense pain
Analgesics such as NSAIDs can help reduce the pain associated with a sore throat.

Throat lozenges (cough medicine) are often used for short-term pain relief.

Gargling with warm salty water is a popular household remedy, although there is only anecdotal evidence this gives anything other than temporary relief and likewise for the use of aspirin gargles. Gargling with salty water can help clear up mucus.

Honey has long been used for treating sore throats due to its antiseptic properties.

Warm tea (true or herbal) or soup can help temporarily alleviate the pain of a sore throat.

Cold beverages and popsicles numb the nerves of the throat somewhat, alleviating the pain for a brief time.

Mouthwash (when gargled) reduces the pain but only for a brief time.

There have been some studies that show ingesting a solution high in protein can have a profound relieving effect on sore throats, particularly if they are allergy related.

Drinking heavy amounts of liquid reduces the pain for a short time.

Peppermint candy might help with some cases as well as other hard candies. It will reduce the pain for a short time.
Raw juice of papaya leaves may help to recover sore throat.

Yogurt has been shown to help alleviate the pain temporarily by coating the affected area. Milk also has the same effect.

Raw juice of lemon or lime may help destroy bacteria in bacteria-related throat infections but the high acid content may irritate the affected throat tissues more.

Alcohol has a mild analgesic and antiseptic effect, but may also weaken the immune system.

Powdered liquorice root is very effective.

Malt vinegar when gargled is very effective for treating sore throats.

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Expectations (prognosis)
Most cases of pharyngitis go away on their own, without complications.

The possible complications of strep throat include rheumatic fever, kidney inflammation, chorea, bacteremia (bloodstream infection) and, rarely, streptococcal shock syndrome
In some severe forms of pharyngitis (e.g., severe mononucleosis-pharyngitis) the airway may become blocked.
Peritonsillar abscess or retropharyngeal abscess are possible.

When to call your health care provider
Notify your provider if you develop a persistent sore throat that does not resolve in several days or if you have high fevers, swollen lymph nodes in the neck or rash. If you have a sore throat and develop difficulty breathing, you must seek medical care immediately.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

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