Monthly Archives: October 2007

Softening And Expanding

Being Receptive To What You Want
In order to get what we want in life, we have to be willing to receive it when it appears, and in order to do that we have to be open. Often we go through life with defenses we developed early on in order to protect ourselves. These defenses act as barriers, walls we needed at one time to feel safe, but that now serve to shut out desired influences, like intimacy or love. So an essential part of being receptive to what we want is to soften these barriers enough to let those things in when they show up. For example, we may spend a lot of time alone as a way to protect ourselves from being hurt by other people, but we can see how this is now preventing us from meeting new friends.

Another obstacle to our receptivity can be our tendency to believe that we have to act aggressively in order to achieve our desired goal. This can cause us to become mono-focused and to fail to see, and be open to, opportunities on the periphery of our vision. So becoming receptive involves a softening of our defenses and a willingness to remain open to possibilities outside our immediate realm of vision. If we are looking for love or friendship, it means first looking within ourselves to see where we are shut down, and second, not getting too fixated on where we might find the love we want. In this way, we become more open as individuals and more expansive in terms of what we see as possible.

Often, the things and people we want to draw into our lives elude us because we are unconsciously blocking them out, either with our defenses, or with tunnel vision that causes us to not see them when they appear. When this is the case, we can take action by exploring and softening our barriers, and expanding our vision to encompass new possibilities. These actions are the essence of receptivity.

Source:Daily Om

Dental Caries

Dental caries is an infectious disease which damages the structures of teeth. Tooth decay or cavities are consequences of caries. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss, infection, and, in severe cases, death of the tooth.

CLICK TO SEE…>…..(1).….(2).…....(3)..…...(4).
.Destruction of a tooth by cervical decay from dental caries

There is a long history of dental caries, with evidence showing the disease was present in the Bronze, Iron, and Medieval ages but also prior to the neolithic period. The largest increases in the prevalence of caries have been associated with diet changes. Today, it remains one of the most common diseases throughout the world.

There are numerous ways to classify dental caries. Although the presentation may differ, the risk factors and development among distinct types of caries remain largely similar. Initially, it may appear as a small chalky area but eventually develop into a large, brown cavitation. Though sometimes caries may be seen directly, radiographs are frequently needed to inspect less visible areas of teeth and to judge the extent of destruction.

Tooth decay is caused by certain types of acid-producing bacteria which cause damage in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The resulting acidic levels in the mouth affect teeth because a tooth’s special mineral content causes it to be sensitive to low pH. Specifically, a tooth (which is primarily mineral in content) is in a constant state of back-and-forth demineralization and remineralization between the tooth and surrounding saliva. When the pH at the surface of the tooth drops below 5.5, demineralization proceeds faster than remineralization (i.e. there is a net loss of mineral structure on the tooth’s surface). This results in the ensuing decay. Depending on the extent of tooth destruction, various treatments can be used to restore teeth to proper form, function, and aesthetics, but there is no known method to regenerate large amounts of tooth structure. Instead, dental health organizations advocate preventive and prophylactic measures, such as regular oral hygiene and dietary modifications, to avoid dental caries.

Epidemiology:
An estimated 90% of schoolchildren worldwide and most adults have experienced caries, with the disease being most prevalent in Asian and Latin American countries and least prevalent in African countries. In the United States, dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, being at least five times more common than asthma. It is the primary pathological cause of tooth loss in children. Between 29% and 59% of adults over the age of fifty experience caries.

The number of cases has decreased in some developed countries, and this decline is usually attributed to increasingly better oral hygiene practices and preventive measures such as fluoride treatment. Nonetheless, countries that have experienced an overall decrease in cases of tooth decay continue to have a disparity in the distribution of the disease. Among children in the United States and Europe, 60-80% of cases of dental caries occur in 20% of the population. A similarly skewed distribution of the disease is found throughout the world with some children having none or very few caries and others having a high number. Some countries, such as Australia, Nepal, and Sweden, have a low incidence of cases of dental caries among children, whereas cases are more numerous in Costa Rica and Slovakia.

Clasification:
Caries can be classified by location, etiology, rate of progression, and affected hard tissues. When used to characterize a particular case of tooth decay, these descriptions more accurately represent the condition to others and may also indicate the severity of tooth destruction.

Location:
Generally, there are two types of caries when separated by location: caries found on smooth surfaces and caries found in pits and fissures. The location, development, and progression of smooth-surface caries differ from those of pit and fissure caries.

Pit and fissure caries:
Pits and fissures are anatomic landmarks on a tooth where tooth enamel infolds creating such an appearance. Fissures are formed during the development of grooves, and have not fully fused (unlike grooves), thus possessing a unique linear-like small depression in enamel’s surface structure, which would be a great place for dental caries to develop and flourish.

CLICK TO SEE
The pits and fissures of teeth provide a location for caries formation

Fissures are mostly located on the occlusal (chewing) surfaces of posterior teeth and palatal surfaces of maxillary anterior teeth. Pits are small, pinpoint depressions that are found at the ends or cross-sections of grooves. In particular, buccal pits are found on the facial surface of molars. For all types of pits and fissures, the deep infolding of enamel makes oral hygiene along these surfaces difficult, allowing dental caries to be common in these areas.
The occlusal surfaces of teeth represent 12.5% of all tooth surfaces but are the location of over 50% of all dental caries.

Among children, pit and fissure caries represent 90% of all dental caries. Pit and fissure caries can sometimes be difficult to detect. As the decay progresses, caries in enamel nearest the surface of the tooth spreads gradually deeper. Once the caries reaches the dentin at the dentino-enamel junction, the decay quickly spreads laterally. Within the dentin, the decay follows a triangle pattern that points to the tooth’s pulp. This pattern of decay is typically described as two triangles (one triangle in enamel, and another in dentin) with their bases conjoined to each other at the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). This base-to-base pattern is typical of pit and fissure caries, unlike smooth-surface caries (where base and apex of the two triangles join).

Smooth-surface caries
There are three types of smooth-surface caries. Proximal caries, also called interproximal caries, form on the smooth surfaces between adjacent teeth. Root caries form on the root surfaces of teeth. The third type of smooth-surface caries occur on any other smooth tooth surface.

CLICK TOM SEE
In this radiograph, the dark spots in the adjacent teeth show proximal caries

Proximal caries are the most difficult type to detect. Frequently, this type of caries cannot be detected visually or manually with a dental explorer. Proximal caries form cervically (toward the roots of a tooth) just under the contact between two teeth. As a result, radiographs are needed for early discovery of proximal caries.

Root caries, which are sometimes described as a category of smooth-surfaces caries, are the third most common type of caries and usually occur when the root surfaces have been exposed due to gingival recession. When the gingiva is healthy, root caries is unlikely to develop because the root surfaces are not as accessible to bacterial plaque. The root surface is more vulnerable to the demineralization process than enamel because cementum begins to demineralize at 6.7 pH, which is higher than enamel’s critical pH. Regardless, it is easier to arrest the progression of root caries than enamel caries because roots have a greater reuptake of fluoride than enamel. Root caries are most likely to be found on facial surfaces, then interproximal surfaces, then lingual surfaces. Mandibular molars are the most common location to find root caries, followed by mandibular premolars, maxillary anteriors, maxillary posteriors, and mandibular anteriors.

Lesions on other smooth surfaces of teeth are also possible. Since these occur in all smooth surface areas of enamel except for interproximal areas, these types of caries are easily detected and are associated with high levels of plaque and diets promoting caries formation.

Other general descriptions:
Besides the two previously mentioned categories, carious lesions can be described further by their location on a particular surface of a tooth. Caries on a tooth’s surface that are nearest the cheeks or lips are called “facial caries”, and caries on surfaces facing the tongue are known as “lingual caries”. Facial caries can be subdivided into buccal (when found on the surfaces of posterior teeth nearest the cheeks) and labial (when found on the surfaces of anterior teeth nearest the lips).

Lingual caries can also be described as palatal when found on the lingual surfaces of maxillary teeth because they are located beside the hard palate.Caries near a tooth’s cervix—the location where the crown of a tooth and its roots meet—are referred to as cervical caries.

Occlusal caries are found on the chewing surfaces of posterior teeth. Incisal caries are caries found on the chewing surfaces of anterior teeth. Caries can also be described as “mesial” or “distal.” Mesial signifies a location on a tooth closer to the median line of the face, which is located on a vertical axis between the eyes, down the nose, and between the contact of the central incisors. Locations on a tooth further away from the median line are described as distal.

Etiology:
In some instances, caries are described in other ways that might indicate the cause. “Baby bottle caries”, “early childhood caries”, or “baby bottle tooth decay” is a pattern of decay found in young children with their deciduous (baby) teeth. The teeth most likely affected are the maxillary anterior teeth, but all teeth can be affected. The name for this type of caries comes from the fact that the decay usually is a result of allowing children to fall asleep with sweetened liquids in their bottles or feeding children sweetened liquids multiple times during the day.

.CLICK TO SEE
………….Rampant caries as seen here may be due to methamphetamine use.

Another pattern of decay is “rampant caries”, which signifies advanced or severe decay on multiple surfaces of many teeth. Rampant caries may be seen in individuals with xerostomia, poor oral hygiene, methamphetamine use (due to drug-induced dry mouth, and/or large sugar intake. If rampant caries is a result from previous radiation to the head and neck, it may be described as radiation-induced caries. Problems can also be caused by the self destruction of roots and whole Tooth Resorption when new teeth erupt or later from unknown causes.

Rate of progression:
Temporal descriptions can be applied to caries to indicate the progression rate and previous history. “Acute” signifies a quickly developing condition, whereas “chronic” describes a condition which has taken an extended time to develop. Recurrent caries, also described as secondary, is caries that appears at a location with a previous history of caries. This is frequently found on the margins of fillings and other dental restorations. On the other hand, incipient caries describes decay at a location that has not experienced previous decay. Arrested caries describes a lesion on a tooth which was previously demineralized but was remineralized before causing a cavitation.

Affected hard tissue:
Depending on which hard tissues are affected, it is possible to describe caries as involving enamel, dentin, or cementum.

Early in its development, caries may affect only enamel. Once the extent of decay reaches the deeper layer of dentin, “dentinal caries” is used. Since cementum is the hard tissue that covers the roots of teeth, it is not often affected by decay unless the roots of teeth are exposed to the mouth. Although the term “cementum caries” may be used to describe the decay on roots of teeth, very rarely does caries affect the cementum alone. Roots have a very thin layer of cementum over a large layer of dentin, and thus most caries affecting cementum also affects dentin.

Signs and symptoms:
Until caries progresses, a person may not be aware of it. The earliest sign of a new carious lesion, referred as incipient decay, is the appearance of a chalky white spot on the surface of the tooth, indicating an area of demineralization of enamel. As the lesion continues to demineralize, it can turn brown but will eventually turn into a cavitation, a “cavity”.

The process before this point is reversible, but once a cavitation forms, the lost tooth structure cannot be regenerated. A lesion which appears brown and shiny suggests dental caries was once present but the demineralization process has stopped, leaving a stain. A brown spot which is dull in appearance is probably a sign of active caries.

As the enamel and dentin are destroyed further, the cavitation becomes more noticeable. The affected areas of the tooth change color and become soft to the touch. Once the decay passes through enamel, the dentinal tubules, which have passages to the nerve of the tooth, become exposed and cause the tooth to hurt. The pain can be worsened by heat, cold, or sweet foods and drinks. Dental caries can also cause bad breath and foul tastes. In highly progressed cases, infection can spread from the tooth to the surrounding soft tissues which may become life-threatening, as in the case with Ludwig’s angina.

Diagnosis:
Primary diagnosis involves inspection of all visible tooth surfaces using a good light source, dental mirror and explorer.

CLICK TO SEE…>....…(1)..…...(2).….…(3)..

Dental radiographs, produced when X-rays are passed through the jaw and picked up on film or digital sensor, may show dental caries before it is otherwise visible, particularly in the case of caries on interproximal (between the teeth) surfaces.

Large dental caries are often apparent to the naked eye, but smaller lesions can be difficult to identify. Unextensive dental caries was formerly found by searching for soft areas of tooth structure with a dental explorer. Visual and tactile inspection along with radiographs are still employed frequently among dentists, particularly for pit and fissure caries.

Some dental researchers have cautioned against the use of dental explorers to find caries. In cases where a small area of tooth has begun demineralizing but has not yet cavitated, the pressure from the dental explorer could cause a cavitation.

Since the carious process is reversible before a cavitation is present, it may be possible to arrest the caries with fluoride to remineralize the tooth surface. When a cavitation is present, a restoration will be needed to replace the lost tooth structure. A common technique used for the diagnosis of early (uncavitated) caries is the use of air blown across the suspect surface, which removes moisture, changing the optical properties of the unmineralized enamel. This produces a white ‘halo’ effect detectable to the naked eye. Fiberoptic transillumination, lasers and disclosing dyes have been recommended for use as an adjunct when diagnosing smaller carious lesions in pits and fissures of teeth.

Causes:
There are four main criteria required for caries formation: a tooth surface (enamel or dentin); cariogenic (or potentially caries-causing) bacteria; fermentable carbohydrates (such as sucrose); and time. The caries process does not have an inevitable outcome, and different individuals will be susceptible to different degrees depending on the shape of their teeth, oral hygiene habits, and the buffering capacity of their saliva. Dental caries can occur on any surface of a tooth that is exposed to the oral cavity, but not the structures which are retained within the bone.

Teeth:
There are certain diseases and disorders affecting teeth which may leave an individual at a greater risk for caries.

Amelogenesis imperfecta, which occurs between 1 in 718 and 1 in 14,000 individuals, is a disease in which the enamel does not form fully or in insufficient amounts and can fall off a tooth.Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a similar disease. In both cases, teeth may be left more vulnerable to decay because the enamel is not as able to protect the tooth as it would in health.

In most people, disorders or diseases affecting teeth are not the primary cause of dental caries. Ninety-six percent of tooth enamel is composed of minerals. These minerals, especially hydroxyapatite, will become soluble when exposed to acidic environments. Enamel begins to demineralize at a pH of 5.5. Dentin and cementum are more susceptible to caries than enamel because they have lower mineral content. Thus, when root surfaces of teeth are exposed from gingival recession or periodontal disease, caries can develop more readily. Even in a healthy oral environment, the tooth is susceptible to dental caries.

The anatomy of teeth may affect the likelihood of caries formation. In cases where the deep grooves of teeth are more numerous and exaggerated, pit and fissure caries are more likely to develop. Also, caries are more likely to develop when food is trapped between teeth.

Bacteria:
The mouth contains a wide variety of bacteria, but only a few specific species of bacteria are believed to cause dental caries: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli among them. Particularly for root caries, the most closely associated bacteria frequently identified are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscosus, Nocardia spp., and Streptococcus Bacteria collect around the teeth and gums in a sticky, creamy-coloured mass called plaque, which serves as a biofilm. Some sites collect plaque more commonly than others. mutans.

……………………………..germ.jpg
…………….A gram stain image of Streptococcus mutans.

The grooves on the biting surfaces of molar and premolar teeth provide microscopic retention, as does the point of contact between teeth. Plaque may also collect along the gingiva. In addition, the edges of fillings or crowns can provide protection for bacteria, as can intraoral appliances such as orthodontic braces or removable partial dentures.

Fermentable carbohydrates:
Bacteria in a person’s mouth convert sugars (glucose and fructose, and most commonly sucrose – or table sugar) into acids such as lactic acid through a glycolytic process called fermentation. If left in contact with the tooth, these acids may cause demineralization, which is the dissolution of its mineral content. The process is dynamic, however, as remineralization can also occur if the acid is neutralized; suitable minerals are available in the mouth from saliva and also from preventative aids such as fluoride toothpaste, dental varnish or mouthwash. Caries advance may be arrested at this stage. If sufficient acid is produced over a period of time to the favor of demineralization, caries will progress and may then result in so much mineral content being lost that the soft organic material left behind would disintegrate, forming a cavity or hole.

Time:
The frequency of which teeth are exposed to cariogenic (acidic) environments affects the likelihood of caries development. After meals or snacks containing sugars, the bacteria in the mouth metabolize them resulting in acids as by-products which decreases pH. As time progresses, the pH returns to normal due to the buffering capacity of saliva and the dissolved mineral content from tooth surfaces. During every exposure to the acidic environment, portions of the inorganic mineral content at the surface of teeth dissolves and can remain dissolved for 2 hours. Since teeth are vulnerable during these periods of acidic environments, the development of dental caries relies greatly on the frequency of these occurrences.

For example, when sugars are eaten continuously throughout the day, the tooth is more vulnerable to caries for a longer period of time, and caries are more likely to develop than if teeth are exposed less frequently to these environments and proper oral hygiene is maintained. This is because the pH never returns to normal levels, thus the tooth surfaces cannot remineralize, or regain lost mineral content.

The carious process can begin within days of a tooth erupting into the mouth if the diet is sufficiently rich in suitable carbohydrates, but may begin at any other time thereafter. The speed of the process is dependent on the interplay of the various factors described above but is believed to be slower since the introduction of fluoride. Compared to coronal smooth surface caries, proximal caries progress quicker and take an average of 4 years to pass through enamel in permanent teeth. Because the cementum enveloping the root surface is not nearly as durable as the enamel encasing the crown, root caries tends to progress much more rapidly than decay on other surfaces. The progression and loss of mineralization on the root surface is 2.5 times faster than caries in enamel. In very severe cases where oral hygiene is very poor and where the diet is very rich in fermentable carbohydrates, caries may cause cavitation within months of tooth eruption. This can occur, for example, when children continuously drink sugary drinks from baby bottles. On the other hand, it may take years before the process results in a cavity being formed, if at all.

Other risk factors:
In addition to the four main requirements for caries formation, reduced saliva is also associated with increased caries rate since the buffering capability of saliva is not present to counterbalance the acidic environment created by certain foods. As a result, medical conditions that reduce the amount of saliva produced by salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland, are likely to cause widespread tooth decay. Some examples include Sjögren’s syndrome, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and sarcoidosis. Medications, such as antihistamines and antidepressants, can also impair salivary flow. Moreover, 63% of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States list dry mouth as a known side effect. Radiation therapy to the head and neck may also damage the cells in salivary glands, increasing the likelihood for caries formation.

The use of tobacco may also increase the risk for caries formation. Smokeless tobacco frequently contains high sugar content in some brands, possibly increasing the susceptibility to caries. Tobacco use is a significant risk factor for periodontal disease, which can allow the gingiva to recede. As the gingiva loses attachment to the teeth, the root surface becomes more visible in the mouth. If this occurs, root caries is a concern since the cementum covering the roots of teeth is more easily demineralized by acids in comparison to enamel. Currently, there is not enough evidence to support a causal relationship between smoking and coronal caries, but there is suggestive evidence of a causal relationship between smoking and root-surface caries

Treatment:
Destroyed tooth structure does not fully regenerate, although remineralization of very small carious lesions may occur if dental hygiene is kept at optimal level. For the small lesions, topical fluoride is sometimes used to encourage remineralization. For larger lesions, the progression of dental caries can be stopped by treatment. The goal of treatment is to preserve tooth structures and prevent further destruction of the tooth.

Generally, early treatment is less painful and less expensive than treatment of extensive decay. Anesthetics — local, nitrous oxide (“laughing gas”), or other prescription medications — may be required in some cases to relieve pain during or following treatment or to relieve anxiety during treatment. A dental handpiece (“drill”) is used to remove large portions of decayed material from a tooth. A spoon is a dental instrument used to remove decay carefully and is sometimes employed when the decay in dentin reaches near the pulp.Once the decay is removed, the missing tooth structure requires a dental restoration of some sort to return the tooth to functionality and aesthetic condition.

Restorative materials include dental amalgam, composite resin, porcelain, and gold. Composite resin and porcelain can be made to match the color of a patient’s natural teeth and are thus used more frequently when aesthetics are a concern. Composite restorations are not as strong as dental amalgam and gold; some dentists consider the latter as the only advisable restoration for posterior areas where chewing forces are great. When the decay is too extensive, there may not be enough tooth structure remaining to allow a restorative material to be placed within the tooth. Thus, a crown may be needed. This restoration appears similar to a cap and is fitted over the remainder of the natural crown of the tooth. Crowns are often made of gold, porcelain, or porcelain fused to metal.

In certain cases, root canal therapy may be necessary for the restoration of a tooth. Root canal therapy, also called “endodontic therapy”, is recommended if the pulp in a tooth dies from infection by decay-causing bacteria or from trauma.

During a root canal, the pulp of the tooth, including the nerve and vascular tissues, is removed along with decayed portions of the tooth. The canals are instrumented with endodontic files to clean and shape them, and they are then usually filled with a rubber-like material called gutta percha. The tooth is filled and a crown can be placed. Upon completion of a root canal, the tooth is now non-vital, as it is devoid of any living tissue.

An extraction can also serve as treatment for dental caries. The removal of the decayed tooth is performed if the tooth is too far destroyed from the decay process to effectively restore the tooth. Extractions are sometimes considered if the tooth lacks an opposing tooth or will probably cause further problems in the future, as may be the case for wisdom teeth.

Extractions may also be preferred by patients unable or unwilling to undergo the expense or difficulties in restoring the tooth.

Prevention:
Oral hygiene
Personal hygiene care consists of proper brushing and flossing daily. The purpose of oral hygiene is to minimize any etiologic agents of disease in the mouth. The primary focus of brushing and flossing is to remove and prevent the formation of plaque. Plaque consists mostly of bacteria.As the amount of bacterial plaque increases, the tooth is more vulnerable to dental caries. A toothbrush can be used to remove plaque on most surfaces of the teeth except for areas between teeth.

………………………………………….180px-toothbrush_20050716_004.jpg
……………………… Toothbrush are commonly used to clean teeth

When used correctly, dental floss removes plaque from areas which could otherwise develop proximal caries. Other adjunct hygiene aids include interdental brushes, water picks, and mouthwashes.

Professional hygiene care consists of regular dental examinations and cleanings. Sometimes, complete plaque removal is difficult, and a dentist or dental hygienist may be needed. Along with oral hygiene, radiographs may be taken at dental visits to detect possible dental caries development in high risk areas of the mouth.

CARIES PREVENTION IN CHILDREN- THE INDIAN CHALLENGE.

Ayurvedic Treatment & Prevention Of Tooth Decay

Homeopathic Treatment & Prevention of Tooth Decay…………..(1)………….(2).…….(3)

Dietary modification:
For dental health, the frequency of sugar intake is more important than the amount of sugar consumed. In the presence of sugar and other carbohydrates, bacteria in the mouth produce acids which can demineralize enamel, dentin, and cementum. The more frequently teeth are exposed to this environment, the more likely dental caries are to occur. Therefore, minimizing snacking is recommended, since snacking creates a continual supply of nutrition for acid-creating bacteria in the mouth.

Also, chewy and sticky foods (such as dried fruit or candy) tend to adhere to teeth longer, and consequently are best eaten as part of a meal. Brushing the teeth after meals is recommended. For children, the American Dental Association and the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry recommend limiting the frequency of consumption of drinks with sugar, and not giving baby bottles to infants during sleep. Mothers are also recommended to avoid sharing utensils and cups with their infants to prevent transferring bacteria from the mother’s mouth.

It has been found that milk and certain kinds of cheese like cheddar can help counter tooth decay if eaten soon after the consumption of foods potentially harmful to teeth. Also, chewing gum containing xylitol (wood sugar) is widely used to protect teeth in some countries, being especially popular in the Finnish candy industry. Xylitol’s effect on reducing plaque is probably due to bacteria’s inability to utilize it like other sugars. Chewing and stimulation of flavour receptors on the tongue are also known to increase the production and release of saliva, which contains natural buffers to prevent the lowering of pH in the mouth to the point where enamel may become demineralised.

Other preventive measures:
The use of dental sealants is a good means of prevention. Sealants are thin plastic-like coating applied to the chewing surfaces of the molars. This coating prevents the accumulation of plaque in the deep grooves and thus prevents the formation of pit and fissure caries, the most common form of dental caries. Sealants are usually applied on the teeth of children, shortly after the molars erupt. Older people may also benefit from the use of tooth sealants, but their dental history and likelihood of caries formation are usually taken into consideration.

Fluoride therapy is often recommended to protect against dental caries. It has been demonstrated that water fluoridation and fluoride supplements decrease the incidence of dental caries. Fluoride helps prevent decay of a tooth by binding to the hydroxyapatite crystals in enamel. The incorporated fluoride makes enamel more resistant to demineralization and, thus, resistant to decay. Topical fluoride is also recommended to protect the surface of the teeth. This may include a fluoride toothpaste or mouthwash. Many dentists include application of topical fluoride solutions as part of routine visits.

Furthermore, recent research shows that low intensity laser radiation of argon ion lasers may prevent the susceptibility for enamel caries and white spot lesions. Also, as bacteria are a major factor contributing to poor oral health, there is currently research to find a vaccine for dental caries. As of 2004, such a vaccine has been successfully tested on non-human animals, and is in clinical trials for humans of May 2006.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_caries

Enhanced by Zemanta

Beech

Botanical Name: Fagus sylvatica
Family: Corylaceae (Fagaceae)
Kingdom: Plantae
Genus:     Fagus
Order:     Fagales
Synonyms: Buche. Buke. Boke. Bog. Bok. Buk. Hetre. Faggio. Faya. Haya. Fagos.
Part Used: The oil of the nuts.
Habitat: Europe, including Britain. (Indigenous only in England.) Armenia, Palestine, Asia Minor Tanan.
Beech grows on a wide range of soil types, acid or basic, provided they are not waterlogged. The tree canopy casts dense shade, and carpets the ground with dense leaf litter, and the ground flora beneath may be sparse.

The southern beeches Nothofagus previously thought closely related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, Nothofagaceae. They are found in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, New Caledonia and South America.

Description:Beech (Fagus) is a genus of ten species of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe and North America. Beech was a late entrant to Britain after the last glaciation, and may have been restricted to basic soils in the south of England. Today, beech is widely planted for hedging and in deciduous woodlands, and mature, regenerating stands occur throughout mainland Britain below about 650m. The leaves are entire or sparsely toothed, from 5-15 cm long and 4-10 cm broad. The flowers are small single-sex, wind-pollinated catkins, produced in spring shortly after the new leaves appear. The bark is smooth and light gray. The fruit is a small, sharply 3-angled nut 10-15 mm long, borne in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5-2.5 cm long, known as cupules. The nuts are edible, though bitter with a high tannin content, and are called beechmast.

click & see

.Uses:
The beech blight aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator) is a common pest of beech trees. Beeches are also used as food plants by some species of Lepidoptera .
The beech most commonly grown as an ornamental tree is the European Beech (Fagus sylvatica), widely cultivated in North America as well as its native Europe. Many varieties are in cultivation, notably the weeping beech F. sylvatica ‘Pendula’, several varieties of Copper or purple beech, the fern-leaved beech F. sylvatica ‘Asplenifolia’, and the tricolour beech F. sylvatica ‘roseomarginata’. The strikingly columnar Dawyck beech occurs in green, gold and purple forms, named after Dawyck Garden in the Scottish Borders, one of the four garden sites of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

The European species, Fagus sylvatica, yields a utility timber that is tough but dimensionally unstable. It is widely used for furniture framing and carcass construction, flooring and engineering purposes, in plywood and in household items like plates, but rarely as a decorative timber.

Chips of beech wood are used in the brewing of Budweiser beer as a fining agent. Beech logs are burned to dry the malts used in some German smoked beers, to give the beers their typical flavor.

Also, beech pulp is used as the basis for manufacturing a textile fibre known as Modal.

The fruit of the beech, also called “Beechnuts“, are found in the small burrs that drop from tree in Autumn. They are small and triangular, are edible, have a sweet taste and are highly nutritious. (~ 20% protein content). However, they do contain organic substances which are slightly TOXIC (it has been reported that eating approx. 50 nuts may make you ill) so that they should not be eaten in larger quantities.

Constituents: The wood ash of the Beech affords a large proportion of potash. The oil of the nuts occupies a position in the fixed oils between the vegetable non-drying and the true drying oils. Like the Cotton-seed oils, it forms more or less elaidin on treatment with nitrous acid or mercuric nitrate, but does not become wholly solidified. Beech tar is completely soluble in 95 per cent. acetic acid. Turpentine oil, chloroform and absolute ether do not entirely dissolve it. The petroleum ether is not coloured by copper acetate solution. Choline is present in the seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
The tar is stimulating and antiseptic, used internally as a stimulating expectorant in chronic bronchitis, or externally as an application in various skin diseases.

The oil is used in the same ways as the other fixed oils of its class.

Other Species:BEECH DROPS (OROBANCHE VIRGINIANA,EPIFAGUS VIRGINIANA, BROOM RAPE, CANCER ROOT), a parasite on Beech tree roots, has a bitter, nauseous, astringent taste, diminished by drying. It is given internally in bowel affections, and is reputed to cure cancer, though this is doubtful As a local application to wounds or ulcers it will arrest gangrene. It appears to act upon the capillary system like the tincture of muriate of iron.

ALBANY BEECH DROPS (Pterospora Andromeda) is a rare plant of North America valuable as a sedative diaphoretic in typhus, pleurisy and erysipelas

COPPER-BEECH (F. sylvatica var. purpurea). The leaves of this species may be used like those of the Red-leaved Hazel for the extraction of anthocyan pigment.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beech

http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/beech-27.html

A Walk A Day Keeps The Cold Away

It’s no surprise that regular exercise, particularly brisk walking, can lower your risk of heart disease and diabetes, but did you know it may reduce the risk of catching common cold too? Yes, researchers in the US have carried out a study and found that exercise, like walking, for at least half-an-hour daily helps to ward off common old.

According Cornelia Ulrich of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre in Seattle, “There’s a lot of anecdotal proof that exercise prevents infection, and colds in particular.”

Ulrich and her team came to the conclusion after conducting a study of the effects of regular exercise on breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Half of the 115 women involved in the study were put on a programme in which they did moderate exercise five times a week. The other group did not exercise, but participated in a weekly stretching class.

It was found that the women in the non-exercise group suffered from twice as many colds as those who did exercise. The protection against colds among the exercise participants was greatest during the last three months of the trial, during which the non-exercisers had three times the risk of catching a cold. The effects of exercise on the immune system were seen in the active group despite the fact that they managed just 30 minutes of walking a day, on average, according to the findings reported in the American Journal of Medicine.

Source: The Times Of India

Care Your Skin

  Learn some natural skin care tips. Do not waste money on cosmetics and skin care products. Get flawless skin and beauty naturally and harmlessly.

Skin Care : Cleansing
Clean your skin every evening – The skin pores get blocked dut to exposure to air pollutions, wind, sun, air conditioning, dirt and grime from our fingers.It is really important to remove stale make-up, perspiration, dirt, dust, excess oil etc. Use a good, natural cleanser that removes only the impurities without stripping the skin of nutrients and moisture.

Wipe your face with a piece of cotton wool dipped in milk (unboiled or not heated). Almond oil is a good cleanser for skin under the eyes.

Skin Care : Exfoliating
It is important to help the skin renewal process by removing dead skin cells. Exfoliate at least twice a week to get rid of dead skin cells. Care should be taken if you have broken capillaries/surface veins.

Clay Masks
Clay helps to deep cleanse and draw out impurities and to soften and condition the skin.(It has several minerals in it which help the skin to disinfect and get rid of external pollution)

Skin Care : Moisturising
Moisturing helps to protect your skin from daily pollutants. Moisturising morning and evening with a natural moisturiser will hydrate, moisturise and protect your skin.

For a moisturizing and nourishing mask, blend a mashed banana with white cosmetic clay and apply.

For normal skin care, mix 1 cup yogurt, 1 tablespoon orange juice and 1 tablespoon lemon juice and apply it on your face. Clean it off after 20 minutes.

For dry skin care, use a mixture of cooked oatmeal and honey; it is a very good moisturizer and cleansing agent.
Body Care For Hands: Mash a banana with some butter and rub on your hands. Before Shower: Body brushing helps exfoliate, tone and stimulate the skin as well as helping the natural drainage of our lymph glands. Dry body brushing before a shower with a natural bristle brush. Always brush upwards to the heart in quick, rhythmic strokes and brush down to the heart when you reach the shoulder/neck area.

After Shower: Apply body lotion. Water is a natural hydration for the skin.

Natural Skin Care Tips:

* Avoid excessive exposure to sun. It may result in sunburn. Read the treatment for sunburn.
* Avoid excessive use of cosmetics. Health experts say that excessive usage of cosmetics by children enhances their risk to various types of cancer and other problems later in life. Most of cosmetic products use potentially dangerous chemicals like parabens and phthalates. The parabens chemical have been recently found in breast cancer tissues. This chemical can affect the hormone oestrogen. The phthalates are linked to lower sperm counts in men, premature breast development and allergies.
* Regular sleep gives our body the chance to work on repairing cells.
* Regular Exercising and massage stimulates circulation and blood flow.
* Drinking eight glasses of water a day keeps skin plump, hydrated and healthy. The body is composed of 70% water. Well hydrated skin is healthy and young looking.
* Take only warm showers and stay away from prolonged sauna exposure.
* Stay protected from the sun to prevent the skin from becoming dehydrated and the damaging effects of UV rays on the skin.
* Eat a balanced diet, avoid foods high in fat, cholesterol and sodium.
Follow an anti-aging diet rich in fruits and green leafy vegetables that are full of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants help prevent free-radical damageto the body. If you do not get enough antioxidants from your diet, then your skin cells could lose their ability to function well.
The antioxidants include ingredients such as vitamins A, C and E, flavonoids, beta carotene, selenium, glutathione and zinc. Eat foods high in antioxidants.

Do pranayama daily and keep your skin healthy and smooth…….click & see

Source:http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/beauty/skin-care.html

Know Your Skin

The skin is the largest organ of the body and is made up of multiple layers of cells that are constantly going through self shedding and regeneration once every 30 days. The skin is made up of 3 main layers: Epidermis, Dermis and Subcutaneous or hypodermis. These layers are held together by the protein, collagen and elastin fibres. Collagen provides durability and strength. Time taken for deepest layer to come to the top is 45-75 days.

 

Click to see the different layers

click to see..>...(1).……..(2).…….(3)……………

  1. Top layer – Epidermis
    It is made up of 5 layers: Stratum Corneum – horny layer, Stratum lucidum – clear layer, Stratum granulosum – granular layer, Stratum spinosum – spiny layer – prickle cell, melanin production, and Stratum Germinativum – basal Layer- where the cells divide and grow upwards.
    Each of these layers has their own layers. The Stratum spinosum gives skin its color.
  2. Middle layer – Dermis
    It is made up of: Blood vessels (supply nutrients to the skin), Lymph vessels (defence mechanism for the immune system), Hair follicles (protection and sebum production), Sweat glands (regulators of heat), and Pain and touch receptors (carry impulses to the brain).
  3. Bottom layer – Subcutaneous or hypodermis
    These are fat cells that conserve body heat while protecting other organs from injury. They provide a cushioning effect and are a source of energy in lean times.

Thickness of layer varies – the thinnest layer is on our eyelids making them light and flexible, the thickest is on our hands and feet for gripping.

Functions of Skin
This skin provides a protective layer for organs and tissues from pathogens, heat and light. It regulates body temperature. It stores water, fat and Vitamin D and has touch receptors that sense pain or pleasure. Skin is an excretory and absorption organ.

Skin has a natural moisturising factor (NMF). Teen skin is prone to oiliness as hormones are regulating. At 20-30 years skin cell turnover provides optimum condition. At 30-40 years cell turnover starts to decrease and fine lines start to appear. At 40-50 years skin becomes more dry. Over 50 years of age, cell turnover drops by 50% resulting in flaky patches and deeper lines.

The skin may be sensitive. Sensitive skin reddens easily due to environmental changes or cosmetic products. Skin can become permanently sensitive due to allergy, shaving, and use of skin care productscontaining alpha hydroxy and retinoic acid skin.

Source:http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/beauty/skin.html

Enhanced by Zemanta

Biting Back At Malaria With Mosquitoes

ROCKVILLE (US): An American scientist is leading an international team of researchers using an army of blood-sucking mosquitoes to produce a potentially potent vaccine against malaria.

Stephen Hoffman, 58, founded Sanaria Inc, a biotech firm solely dedicated to the production of a vaccine against malaria.
Hoffman officially opened a manufacturing facility on Friday in the Washington suburb of Rockville, where he said he aims to produce 75 to 100 million doses a year. “The opening of this facility is an important step in the process to develop a whole-parasite malaria vaccine,” he said. The scientist said he was optimistic the vaccine could be tested in clinical trials by late 2008.

His goal, which has received US government support, was given a major boost in late 2006 when the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation donated 29.3 million dollars through the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative, Hoffman said. Hoffman knows the debilitating effects of malaria all too well.

In the 1980s, when he was director of the US Navy’s malaria research programme, he was so confident in a new vaccine that he reportedly let himself be bitten by mosquitoes carrying Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite responsible for over 95% of severe malarial illnesses and deaths worldwide.

Sure enough, he came down with the symptoms. The vaccine did not work. Despite that failure, the researcher has taken the same approach and hopes that a vaccine can be mass produced and maintain its potency. His firm is “turning the mosquitoes into the production factories for the vaccine,” he said, adding that each mosquito can produce two doses of the vaccine. “We have a long way to go before we’ll be able to license and deploy an effective vaccine to control and eventually eradicate malaria from the world, but most importantly to prevent the 3,000 deaths that will occur today among children and one million in a year.”

Source:The Times Of India

Red Meat And Alcohol Up Cancer Risk

LONDON: It’s well documented that eating too much red meat and drinking too much alcohol can increase the risk of developing cancer.

But, according to a new study carried out by a group of 21 international researchers, eating red meat and drinking alcohol even in small quantities could cause cancer, ‘The Observer’ reported here on Sunday.

According to one of the researchers, Prof David Shuker of Open University, “Our research shows that eating as little as 100 gms of red meat a day increases the risk of developing cancer. Any alcohol above zero increases risk of developing breast cancer and other cancers.

“We know that red meat increases your risk of bowel cancer. We might say that it’s just like cigarette smoking. So if you are concerned about bowel cancer you would come to the conclusion, supported by the evidence, that one should reduce one’s consumption of red meat.”

According to the report of the researchers to be published later this week, men should have no more than two drinks per day, and women just one, if they want to reduce their cancer risk.

The report will also set out 10 recommendations which the experts believe are a definitive blueprint for how those seeking to avoid cancer should live.

The 10 will cover — body fatness; physical activity; foods and drinks that promote weight gain; plant foods, notably fruit and vegetables; animal foods, particularly meat; alcoholic drinks; the preservation, processing and preparation of food; dietary supplements; lactation and breastfeeding; and cancer survivors.

Source: The Times Of India

Nyctalopia(Night Blindness)

Night blindness (nyctalopia) is the inability to see well at night or in poor light. It is not a disorder in itself, but rather a symptom of an underlying disorder or problem, especially untreated nearsightedness.

Nyctalopia (Greek for “night blindness”) is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light. It is a symptom of several eye diseases. Night blindness may exist from birth, or be caused by injury or malnutrition (for example, a lack of vitamin A).

Causes:

Night blindness is due to a disorder of the cells in the retina that are responsible for vision in dim light. It has many causes, including:

The most common cause of nyctalopia is retinitis pigmentosa, a disorder in which the rod cells in the retina gradually lose their ability to respond to the light. Patients suffering from this genetic condition have progressive nyctalopia and eventually their daytime vision may also be affected. In X-linked congenital stationary night blindness, from birth the rods either do not work at all, or work very little, but the condition doesn’t get worse.Another cause of night blindness is a deficiency of retinol, or vitamin A, found in fish oils, liver and dairy products. In the Second World War misinformation was spread by the British to cover up the reason for their pilots’ successful night time missions. Their success was, in the misinformation, attributed to improved night vision and pilots flying night missions were encouraged to eat plenty of carrots, which contain carotenoids and can be converted into retinol. The actual reason for their success was their use of advanced radar technologies.

The opposite problem, known as hemeralopia, is much rarer.

The outer area of the retina is made up of more rods than cones. The rod cells are the cells that enable us to see in poor illumination. This is the reason why loss of side vision often results in night blindness. Individuals suffering from night blindness not only see poorly at night, but also require some time for their eyes to adjust from brightly lit areas to dim ones. Contrast vision may also be greatly reduced.

In order to determine what is causing night blindness, the eye doctor will perform a thorough eye exam and may order any of a number of specialized exams .

Historical usage
Aulus Cornelius Celsus, writing ca. 30 AD, described night blindness and recommended an effective dietary supplement: “There is besides a weakness of the eyes, owing to which people see well enough indeed in the daytime but not at all at night; in women whose menstruation is regular this does not happen. But success sufferers should anoint their eyeballs with the stuff dripping from a liver whilst roasting, preferably of a he-goat, or failing that of a she-goat; and as well they should eat some of the liver itself.”

Historically, nyctalopia, also known as moonblink, was a temporary night blindness believed to be caused by sleeping in moonlight in the tropics.
Treatment:

Treatment for night blindness will depend upon its cause. Treatment may be as simple as a new prescription for your eyeglasses or switching glaucoma medications, or it may require surgery in cases of cataracts.

Click for Alternative medication & life style to prevent night blindness

Vitamin A Deficiency, Prevention and Treatment through Ayurveda

CLICK TO SEE :Bilberry Extract Improve Night Blindness

Useful Herbs for Eye Care

Vitamine & mineral guide for eye care against Night Blindness

Night Blindness- Prevention,Treatment & Healing
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Night_blindness

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=43325

Enhanced by Zemanta

The Art of Recalling is in Your Brain

WASHINGTON: Ever wonder how you remember a person’s name but just can’t recall where you met them? Well that’s the question scientists at The University of Western Ontario have found the answer to.

According to the researchers, the sometimes eerie feeling experience when recognising someone, yet failing to remember how or why relies on a distinct brain mechanism and does not simply reflect a weak form of memory.

“Recognition based on familiarity can be contrasted with recognition when we spontaneously conjure up details about the episode in which we encountered the person before, such as where we met the person or when it happened,” said psychology professor Stefan Kohler.

The research is based on Western psychology graduate student Ben Bowles’ Master’s thesis.

The study is important as it has implications for understanding memory deficits in neurology, including in Alzheimer’s disease.

Bowels and Kohler also report that a rare form of brain surgery that can be highly effective for treatment of epilepsy can selectively impair the ability to assess familiarity.

“It is counterintuitive but makes a lot of sense from a theoretical perspective that familiarity can be affected, while the ability to recollect episodic detail is completely spared,” adds Kohler.

The study was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the London Health Sciences Centre, McGill University, and at the University of California.

Supported by a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) to Dr Kohler, the research was recently published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA .

Source: The Times Of India