Indian Dill (Anethum sowa)/Anethum graveolens

Botanical Name:Anethum sowa
Family: Apiaceae (ay-pee-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Anethum (uh-NAY-thum) (Info)
Species: sowa
Synonyms: Peucedanum graveolens ((L.)C.B.Clarke.), Anethum sowa (Roxb. ex Fleming.) A. graveloens[E] Lomatium graveolens var. graveolens[B,P] Lomatium kingii[B,P] Peucedanum kingii[B,P]

Sanskrit Name :Satahva

Other Common Names: From various places around the Web, may not be correct. See below.
Baston Do Diale [E], Catahva [E], Datli Boyana [E], Dereotu [E], Dill [L,B,H,S,P], Dille [D], East Indian Dill [E], Eneldo [E], Habbat Helwah [E], Hinojo [E], Indian Dill [H,E], Inojo [E], Inondo [E], King Desertparsley [P], Sadhab Al Barr [E], Surva [H],

Habitat :India, Pakisthan, Burma, Bangladesh and some other Asian Countries.(Surva) Pungent, somewhat more bitter variety extensively grown in India and Japan.Range: W. Asia. Naturalized in Europe in the Mediterranean.

Description:Annual growing to 0.75m by 0.15m . It is in leaf from May to November, in flower from April to July, and the seeds ripen from July to August. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

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Cultivation details:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a moderately rich loose soil and full sun. Requires a well-drained soil and shelter from the wind. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.3 to 7.8.

Dill is a commonly cultivated herb, especially in warm temperate and tropical zones. It is grown mainly for its edible leaves and seeds, though it is also used medicinally. There are many named varieties. ‘Bouquet’ is an American cultivar that has a prolific production of seeds. The sub-species A. graveolens sowa from India has a slightly different flavour to the type species. The plant quickly runs to seed in dry weather. It often self-sows when growing in a suitable position.

A good companion for corn and cabbages, also in moderation for cucumbers, lettuce and onions, but it inhibits the growth of carrots. Dill reduces a carrot crop if it is grown to maturity near them. However, the young plant will help to deter carrot root fly.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Propagation
Seed – sow April to early summer in situ and only just cover. The seed germinates in 2 weeks if the soil is warm. A regular supply of leaves can be obtained if successional sowings are made from May to the end of June. Autumn sowings can succeed if the winters are mild. Dill is very intolerant of root disturbance and should not be transplanted because it will then quickly run to seed.

Other details:This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds
Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater
Flowers are good for cutting.

Edible Uses
Condiment; Leaves; Seed; Tea.
Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring in salads etc. The leaves lose their flavour if the are cooked for any length of time and so are best used raw or added to cooked dishes only a few minutes before the cooking is complete. The leaves can be harvested at any time the plant is growing, but are best just before the plant flowers. Per 100g, the plant contains 253 calories, 7.2g water, 20g protein, 4.4g fat, 55.8g carbohydrate, 11.9g fibre, 12.6g ash, 1784mg calcium, 543mg phosphorus, 48.8mg iron, 451mg magnesium, 208mg sodium, 3,308mg potassium, 3.3mg zinc, 0.42mg thiamine, 0.28mg riboflavin, 2.8mg niacin and 1.5mg vitamin B6.

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Seed – raw or cooked. Very pungent and bitter in taste. It is used as a flavouring in salads, preserves etc, its chief uses being perhaps in making dill vinegar and as a flavouring in pickled gherkins. It can also be sprouted and used in breads, soups and salad dressings. Per 100g, the seed contains 305 calories, 7.7g water, 14.5g fat (0.73g saturated, 124mg phytosterol and no cholesterol), 55.2g carbohydrate, 21g fibre, 6.7g ash, 1,516mg calcium, 277mg phosphorus, 16.3mg iron, 256mg magnesium, 20mg sodium, 1,186mg potassium, 5.2mg zinc, 53IU vitamin A, 0.42mg thiamine and 0.28mg riboflavin.

An essential oil from the seed is used as a flavouring in the food industry.

A tea is made from the leaves and/or the seeds.

Composition
Seed (Fresh weight)
In grammes per 100g weight of food:
Water: 7.7 Calories: 305 Fat: 14.5 Carbohydrate: 55.2 Fibre: 21.1 Ash: 6.7
In milligrammes per 100g weight of food:
Calcium: 1516 Phosphorus: 277 Iron: 16.3 Magnesium: 256 Sodium: 20 Potassium: 1186 Zinc: 5.2 VitaminA: 53 Thiamine: 0.42 Riboflavin: 0.28

Leaves (Fresh weight)
In grammes per 100g weight of food:
Water: 7.2 Calories: 253 Protein: 20 Fat: 4.4 Carbohydrate: 55.8 Fibre: 11.9 Ash: 12.6
In milligrammes per 100g weight of food:
Calcium: 1784 Phosphorus: 543 Iron: 48.8 Magnesium: 451 Sodium: 208 Potassium: 3308 Zinc: 3.3 Thiamine: 0.42 Riboflavin: 0.28 Niacin: 2.8 VitaminB6: 1.5

Medicinal Uses:
Antihalitosis; Aromatic; Carminative; Diuretic; Galactogogue; Stimulant; Stomachic.

Dill has a very long history of herbal use going back more than 2,000 years. The seeds are a common and very effective household remedy for a wide range of digestive problems. An infusion is especially efficacious in treating gripe in babies and flatulence in young children.

The seed is aromatic, carminative, mildly diuretic, galactogogue, stimulant and stomachic. It is also used in the form of an extracted essential oil. Used either in an infusion, or by eating the seed whole, the essential oil in the seed relieves intestinal spasms and griping, helping to settle colic. Chewing the seed improves bad breath. Dill is also a useful addition to cough, cold and flu remedies, it can be used with antispasmodics such as Viburnum opulus to relieve period pains. Dill will also help to increase the flow of milk in nursing mothers and will then be taken by the baby in the milk to help prevent colic.

Claimed Therapeutic Use
(According to Ayurveda): For improving hunger, appetiser, anti-febric, vermifugal, digestive, abdominal colic, intestinal colic, ophthalmic disorders, pelvic inflammatory disease conditions, analgesic, body pain .

Other Uses
Essential; Insecticide.
The seed contains up to 4% essential oils. It is used in perfuming soaps, medicines and as a food flavouring.
Some compounds of dill (d-carvone is mentioned as one of them), when added to insecticides, have greatly increased the effectiveness of the insecticides.

Fresh foliage is eaten with steamed rice and used to flavour soup. Essential ingredient in curry powders. Fruits are carminative, stomachic and stimulant; and so are used chiefly for flatulence. Oil is used in the pharmaceutical and perfumery industries.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/62272/index.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_herbs_and_minerals_in_Ayurveda
http://www.sacredseed.com/ricanes.htm
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Anethum+graveolens

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