Gandhabhadali Or Gandal Pata(Paederia foetida)

Botanical Name: Paederia foetida L.
Family:Rubiaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Paederia
Species: P. foetida
Synonyms: Paederia chinensis Hance, Paederia scandans (Lour.) Merr., Paederia tomentosa Blume
Common names: Chinese fever vine, skunk vine, stinkvine
In Assamese it is called: Bhedailota and is a distinct part of Assamese cuisine.
Organism type: vine, climber

Habitat:It can grow high into the canopy of trees in a variety of habitats.Native to Easterm & Southern parts of India, Bangladesh and also grows in other tropical jones.{Native Range: Asia (USDA-GRIN, 2003)
Known Introduced Range: North America (USDA-GRIN, 2003), and South America (Langeland and Burks, 2000)}

P. foetida may grow high into the trees in a variety of habitats, from mesic hammocks to xeric sand hill communities, although it appears to prefer sunny floodplains and bottomlands. P. foetida can even grow under water (IFAS, 2001). It has been observed that P. foetida occurs frequently in tree gaps, and other disturbed areas (Langeland and Burks, 2000).

Description:
Paederia foetida is an aggressive, competitive vine. It is perinial twining vine from woody rootstock. The vines climb over shrubs and trees, weighing them down and impeding regeneration. Paederia foetida also invades pastureland and is troublesome along roads and on power lines. Chemicals are often used as an effective method of controlling Paederia foetida. The seeds of Paederia foetida may be dispersed by birds and are also spread by the transport of rooted fragments. Paederia foetida has also been cultivated as an ornamental.

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Leaf stalks of P. foetida are commonly up to 6cm long. Leaves and stems have a disagreeable odour, especially when crushed. The flowers are small, greyish pink or lilac in colour and occur in broad or long, “leafy,” curving clusters. Petals are joined to form a corolla with 5 spreading lobes. Fruits persist through winter and are shiny brown, and nearly round, and are typically 0.7cm wide. Inside are two seeds that are black, round and often dotted with white, needle-shaped crystals (Langeland et al. UNDATED).

P. foetida is a fast growing vine, that shows a wide ranging adaptability to different light , soil, and salt conditions. It is able to establish and grow above the frost line. It is also sensitive to fire. P. foetida flowers and fruits mostly in summer and fall (Langeland and Burks, 2000).

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Constituents
*Upon distillation, a volatile oil is obtained with the offensive odor of the fresh crushed leaves.
*Two alkaloids are obtained: a- and b-Paederine.
*The leaves yield an indole.
*Leaves are rich in carotene and vitamin C.
*Considered anodyne, emollient, carminative, tonic, stomachic, vermifuge.

Medicinal Uses:-
Folkloric :-
*Used for rheumatism.
*The leaves, boiled and mashed, applied to the abdomen for urinary retention.
*Decoction of leaves also used for urinary retention and for urinary bladder stones.
*Decoction-soaked cloths applied to the forehead for fevers and taken internally at the same time.
*Bark decoction used as emetic.
*Decoction of leaves used for antirheumatic baths.
*Pounded leaves applied to the abdomen for flatulence.
*Decoction of roots for expelling gas.
*Fruit used for toothaches and to blacken the teeth.
*Decoction of whole plant used for abdominal pain, abscesses, arthritis.
*In many Asia traditional therapies, used for diarrhea and dysentery.
*In Bangladesh, used for diarrhea. Poultice of leaves used to relieve distention and flatulence
*Roots and bark used as emetic, and in the treatment of piles and liver inflmmation.
*Fruit used for toothache.

Studies
* Antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethanol extract of Paederia foetida Linn. (Rubiaceae): Study showed P. foetida has antidiarrheal activity by inhibiting intestinal motility supporting its use in traditional medicine.
* Investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Paederia foetida: The study sought to find pharmacologic basis for the ethnomedical use of the plant.

You may click to see for aditional studies:-
(1)Antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethanol extract of Paederia foetida Linn. (Rubiaceae)

(2)Investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Paederia foetida

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=632&fr=1&sts=sss
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paederia_foetida
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Kantutan.html

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