Abies Sachalinensis – (F.Schmidt.)Mast.

Botanical Name : Abies sachalinensis – (F.Schmidt.)Mast.
Other Scientific NamesAbies gracilis Kom. ,Abies akotodo Miyabe ex Sargent ,Abies mayriana (Miyabe & Kudo) Miyabe & Kudo ,Abies nemorensis (Mayr) Miyabe & Kudo ,Abies wilsonii Miyabe & Kudo

Family : Pinaceae
Synonyms: Abies veitchii sachalinensis – F.Schmidt.
Common Names : Sachalin fir (Vidakovic 1991).

English : Todo fir ,Saghalien fir ,Sakhalin fir
Russian : pikhta sakhalinskaya
Germany : Sachalin Tanne
Japan : todomatsu

Genus  : Abies
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Species: A. sachalinensis

Habitat : It is found in Japan and Russia. E. Asia – northern Japan.  Forests on moist mountain slopes in Sakhalin Island. In subalpine forests from near the sea level to 1600 metres.Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Description :
An evergreen Tree growing to 30m at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

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The first “discovery” by a European was by Carl Friedrich Schmidt (1811 – 1890), the German botanist on the Russian island of Sakhalin in 1866, but he did not introduce it to Europe. The plant was re-discovered by the English plant-collector, Charles Maries in 1877 near Aomori on the main Japanese island of Honsh?, who initially thought it to be a variety of Abies veitchii.

Cultivation :-
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[200]. Trees come into growth very early in the year and are then susceptible to damage by late frosts but they still do well in Britain[11]. However, young trees are very slow to establish, many trees being less than 90cm after 5 years. Trees grow best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and other areas with cool wet summers. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. The flowers are produced in axils of the previous year’s shoots. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Uses. None known

Other Uses:-
Wood.

Wood – light, soft, not very durable. Used for pulp, construction, boxes, ship building, water works, etc.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+sachalinensis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_sachalinensis
http://www.cabicompendium.org/NamesLists/FC/Full/ABI_SA.htm

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