Adenophora Triphylla

Botanical Name : Adenophora triphylla var. japonjca Hara
Family : Campanulaceae
Genus  : Adenophora
Synonyms : Adenophora tetraphylla – (Thunb.)Fisch. ex B.D.Jacks.  Campanula triphylla – Thunb.
Korean Name: Jan-dae
English Name: Three-leaf ladybell
Parts Used : Root

Habitat : E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea.    Grassy places in lowland and mountains, also on woodland edges. In meadows from the lowlands to elevations of 1000 metres. Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Meadow; Cultivated Beds;

Description:
Erect Perennial herb growing to 1m.Root white,thickened. Stem glabrous or white-pilose. Basal leaves long -petiolate,almost round; stem leaves usually in worls of 4 , oralternate, short-pitiolate  or sessile, oblong or oblong-ellipetic or linear, to 10 cm long, serrate. Flowers lower in whorls on very slender pedicels, more paniculate above; corolla pale bluish-violet, narrow urceolate- companulate, slightly constricted above, about 13-22 mm long; style long-exerted. July-Nov

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It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower in September, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

This quite rare & most elegant & graceful member of the Campanula family comes   from Japan. To 2-3’ tall, it forms erect, branching spikes bearing pale blue, perfect little chubby bells in late Summer thru Fall. The lance shaped leaves are glossy & held in whorls. Good garden soil is best. Easy! (Bait for snails).

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:-
Prefers a light rich slightly alkaline soil that is not too dry and a warm sunny position. Prefers a moist peaty soil in sun or partial shade. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. This species is extremely polymorphic, and several varieties and forms have been described in Japan. The many variations in several characters (hairiness, leaf-shape, inflorescence-shape etc.) can be seen in individuals growing intermixed. This species succeeds in a meadow if the grass is not cut until after the plant flowers. Intolerant of root disturbance. The young growth is extremely attractive to slugs, they have been known to destroy even mature plants.

Propagation:-
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. The seed can also be sown in spring. Surface sow 2 – 3 seeds per pot in the spring in order to avoid transplanting. We have found that if transplanted when very small seedlings grow away without difficulty. Germinates in 1 – 3 months at 10°c. Plant out into their permanent positions whilst young. Basal cuttings in spring. Division in spring – very difficult because the plant dislikes root disturbance.

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Chemical Components:- Saponin (1). Triterpenes (2)

Edible Uses:-
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.

Root – cooked. The root is thick and carrot shaped. Leaves – cooked.

Medicinal Actions & Uses :
Antifungal; Cardiotonic; Expectorant.

The root is antifungal, carditonic and expectorant. It is used I Korea to treat bronchial catarrh and coughs, especially where there is excess phlegm. The rot has been shown to contain saponins and triterpenes which are responsible for its expectorant action.

Tradional Uses: Sputum, cough,bronchial catarrh

Disclaimer: The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Adenophora+triphylla
http://www.anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?prodid=1323
http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/files/pub/97/11.pdf
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adenophora_triphylla_var_japonica3.jpg
http://gayasan.go.kr/eng/diary/diary.jsp?mnu_uid=0&lan_code=eng&flw_uid=667&gotopage=1&cmd=view

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