Daphene Genkwa

Botanical Name :Daphene Genkwa
Family: Thymelaeaceae
Genus: Daphne
Kingdom: Plantae
Order
: Malvales
Species: D. genkwa

Synonyms :  D. fortunei. Lindl.
Common Name :Lilac Daphne
Chinese Name :  Yuán hua
Habitat :
E. Asia – N. and C. China, Korea. Found in Landscape as cultivated ornamental shrub.Margins of paddy fields, hillsides and valleys. Grassy hills and plains, limestone cliffs, on boulders, on conglomerate and in piles of stones removed from fields

Description:
Deciduous shrub with slender, erect branches; leaves opposite, simple; flowers 2-7 per cluster, slightly fragrant, lilac, rose-purple, or white, flowering before the leaves form; fruit a drupe.
It is  open growing shrub with green silky leaves to 3″.  Produces beautiful long wands of lilac flowers in mid to late spring before leafing out.  Thrives with ample summer sun and heat.  3’ X 3’.  Deciduous.

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Hardiness Zones: 5 to 7
Habit: Deciduous
Growth Rate: Slow to moderate
Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade; moist, well-drained soil; needs excellent drainage
Height: 3 to 4 feet
Width: 2 to 3 feet
Texture: Medium
Form: Slender, erect stems; sparsely branched
Flower/Fruit: Clusters of lilac flowers in early summer
Foliage: Mostly opposite leaves but some are alternate; 1 to 2.5″ long; dull green.

Cultivation :
There is some disagreement over whether this species needs an acid or alkaline soil. According to some reports it requires a lime-free porous soil and semi-shade whilst another report says that it is probably best in a deep rubbly well-drained soil in a warm corner and kept well watered in a dry growing season. Yet another report says that it grows best in a neutral to alkaline soil in sun or semi-shade. A good sandy loam suits most members of this genus. Plants are hardy to about -20°c, but they are short-lived and difficult to grow in cultivation in Britain. This might be because our summers are not warm enough for the plants to develop properly, they seem to be fully hardy after hot summers. It is tricky to get this plant to flower because the buds are formed in the autumn on wood of that year’s growth and they may not survive our variable winters. Produces suckers when growing in its native habitat. Plants are best grown on their own roots, grafted plants tend to be unsatisfactory. Plants are resentful of root disturbance and should be planted into their permanent positions as soon as possible.


Propagation  :

Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe with the pot sealed in a polythene bag to hold in the moisture. Remove this bag as soon as germination takes place. The seed usually germinates better if it is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it dries on the plant) and sown immediately. Germination should normally take place by spring, though it sometimes takes a further year. Stored seed is more problematic. It should be warm stratified for 8 – 12 weeks at 20°c followed by 12 – 14 weeks at 3°c. Germination may still take another 12 months or more at 15°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Grow the plants on in the greenhouse for their first winter and then plant out in spring after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, December in a greenhouse.

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Medicinal Uses:
Abortifacient;  Anticoagulant;  Antiseptic;  Antitussive;  Antiviral;  Diuretic;  Purgative;  Stomachic;  Vesicant.

This plant has a history of herbal use going back over 3,500 years. It is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. The flower buds are a bitter acrid herb that is used to control coughs. The buds are anticoagulant, antiseptic, antitussive, antiviral, diuretic, purgative and stomachic. They are used internally in the treatment of bronchitis, constipation, oedema and skin diseases. The buds are also used as an abortifacient. They are applied externally in the treatment of frostbite. The buds are harvested and dried in the spring and are used after they have been stored for several years. The root is abortifacient, anticoagulant, diuretic, purgative and vesicant.
This shrub is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Daphne genkwa (Thymelaeaceae) has been used as a folk medicine in China. Investigation of  the effects of D. genkwa and Jyu-So-To on various pharmacologic models in mice including the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt focus formation assay, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity assay, and two ty pes of mouse ear swelling model. Administration of 236.3 ppm of Jyu-So-To in drinking water significantly suppressed AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt focus formation (p < 0.05), with an inhibitory ratio of 46.7%. The effects of several extracts with organic solvents of D. genkwa on murine epidermal ODC activity were examined. In particular, the inhibitory ratio of the n-hexane extract was 30.8%. In the 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema model in mice, the methanol extract resulted in 56.3% inhibition compared with the control. On the other hand, there are two peaks of responses at 1 h (immediate-phase reaction; IPR) and 24 h (late-phase reaction) in biphasic cutaneous reactions, which are enhanced in the dinitrofluorobenzene model (DNFB). The water extract of D. genkwa clearly inhibited the IPR ear swelling. These results suggest that D. genkwa and Jyu-So-To should be a promising source of antitumor, antiinflammatory, and antiallergy agents.

Click to see :A new flavanol from Daphne genkwa :

Known Hazards : All parts are poisonous.HIGHLY TOXIC, MAY BE FATAL IF EATEN!

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.tinytreasuresnursery.com/Plant%20Pages/Daphne%20genkwa.htm
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/shrubs/daphne_genkwa.html
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Daphnge.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daphne_genkwa
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Daphne%20genkwa
http://grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin=ibids_references&therow=752049

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