Monthly Archives: December 2010

Siit (Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb.)

Botanical Name :Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb.
Family :Fabaceae / Leguminosae
Scientific names : Mesoneuron sumatranum (Roxb.) W. & A. ,Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb.,Mezoneuron rubrum Merr. ,Mezoneuron sulfureum.
Common names :Siit (Tag.) ,Cat’s claw (Engl.)

Habitat :Siit is found in thickets at low altitude in Palawan. It also occurs in the Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra, and Borneo.

Description:

This plant is a robust, prickly climber, 6 to 10 meters in length. The leaves are 30 centimeters or more in length, and compound. The pinnae are 6, about 10 centimeters long. The leaflets are firm, oblong or obovate-oblong, 5 to 8 centimeters in length, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters wide. The racemes are forked, as long as the leaves, hairy, and obtuse at the tip. The calyx is smooth and 1 to 1.3 centimeters long, with upper teeth minute, the lowest rather longer, and the tube splitting off the insertion of the glabrous filaments. The petals are a little exserted, reddish-yellow, much narrower than in Mezoneurum latisiliquum, permanently imbricated, and oblanceolate-spatulate. The pods are thin, about 15 centimeters long, 4 to 5.5 centimeters wide, and furnished with a moderately broad wing, and contain 4 to 5 seeds.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Constituents:
According to Burkill, the active substance is a saponin, which has a weak, destructive action if brought into contact with the blood. Boorsma reports that in the leaf and bark, a weak alkaloid is present, which in an experiment failed to kill a frog.


Medicinal Uses:

Parts Used :Leaves

Burkill and Haniff state that the Malays use it medicinally, giving decoctions of the leaves as a vermifuge, and for intestinal complaints such as diarrhea; also, they administer it after childbirth.

Folkloric
• The Malays use is medicinally.
Decoction of leaves used as a vermifuge, for intestinal complaints.
• Also used after childbirth.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/html/s/siit.htm

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Siit.html

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Zanthoxylum rhetsa

Botanical name : Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb) DC.
Family : Rutaceae
Scientific names :-
Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC.
Zanthoxylum oxyphyllum F.-Vill.
Zanthoxylum limonella Alston Kayatena (Tag.)
Fagara budrunga Roxb. Kaytana (Tag.)
Fagara rhetsa Roxb. Kayutana (Tag.)
Fagara piperita Blanco

Common names: Kasabang (Ilk.), Kasalang (Sbl.),Kayatena (Tag.),Indian Ivy Rue; Cape Yellowwood

Sanskrit  synonymes:
Lakhuvalkala, Bidalaghni, Asvaghra
Plant name in different languages :
English  : Indian prickly ash-tree
Hindi  : Badrang
Malayalam : Mullilam, Mulliyllam, Karimurikku, Kattumurikku

Habitat :Altitudinal range from sea level to 200 m. Grows in monsoon forest and drier, more seasonal rain forest. Also occurs in Asia and Malesia.
Throughout Western Ghats, growing wild in semi deciduous forests.

Description:
A moderate sized armed tree grows up to 35 meters in height. Leaves compound, imparipinnate and crowded at the end of branches. Leaflets ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous and scenty. Flowers yellowish green, small, in terminal panicles. Fruits small globose, fragrant berries contain single seed.

Click to see more pictures:

Stem
Corky bumps or squat, conical prickles usually present on the trunk. Dead bark layered, mustard yellow when cut. Blaze finely layered, darkens markedly on exposure.

Leaves
Leaflet blades about 4-9 x 2-3.5 cm, leaflet stalks about 2-3 mm long. Lateral leaflets unequal-sided, particularly towards the base. Oil dots sparsely scattered in the leaflet but always present at the base of each indentation on the margin of the leaflet blade. Midrib depressed on the upper surface. Lateral veins forming definite loops inside the blade margin. Leaf scars on the twigs show three definite bundles of vascular strands.

Flowers

Inflorescence about 8-14 cm long, shorter than the leaves. Sepals about 0.5-1 mm long. Petals 1-2 mm long. Staminal filaments about 2.5-3 mm long, inserted outside the disk, anthers about 1.5 mm long. Disk irregularly lobed, about 0.5 mm high. Ovary about 1 mm long, style eccentric.

Fruit
Fruits globose, about 6-7 mm diam., surface marked by numerous oil glands. Seeds +/- globular, about 6 mm diam.

Seedlings
Cotyledons orbicular to oblong, rather thick, about 5-6 x 5 mm, margins crenate or appearing crenate because of the marginal oil dots. At the tenth leaf stage: leaf compound, with about nine leaflets. Leaflet blades with about 3-6 teeth on each side. Each tooth with a large oil dot at the base of the sinus. Compound leaf rhachis grooved on the upper surface and armed with curved red spines about 1.5 mm long.

Constituents:-
*Fruit with peel yields volatile oil, 5.8 % with 90% terpenene (sabinene).
*Seeds contain 29.7 % volatile oil.

Properities:
*Fruit is considered stimulant, astringent, aromatic, digestive.
*Bark considered aromatic and aphrodisiac.

Medicinal Uses:-
Useful part : Bark, Leaves, Seeds.
Ayurvedic properities:
Rasa    : Tikta, Kashaya
Guna   : Lakhu, Rooksha
Virya   : Ushna

Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, asthma, bronchitis, cardiac ailments, stomatitis, pyorrhea, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, arthritis, boils, ulcers, poison, and traumatic eye injury.

Folkloric:
*Bark, pounded and mixed with oil, used externally as remedy for stomach pains.
*Decoction of bark taken internally for chest pains.
*Bark chewed and applied to snake bites.
*Fruit used for urinary complaints and dyspepsia caused by atrabilis (the melancholic “humor”). Also used in some forms of diarrhea.
*Bark is considered a bitter aromatic and aphrodisiac.
*Fruit, mixed with honey, taken for rheumatism.
*In Goa, root bark used as purgative for kidneys.
*Essential oil used for cholera.
*In India, traditionally used in diabetes and inflammation; as antispasmodic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory. Paste prepared by rubbing the hard spines on rock and water is applied to breasts to relieve pain and increase lactation in nursing mothers.

Studies
• Antiparasitism: Study investigated the efficacy of Z. rhetsa leaf extract against experimental Hymenolepsis diminuta infections in albino rats. The efficacy of the extract was moderate against immature and adult stages of parasite. Results suggest the leaves of ZR possess significant anticestodal property and supports its use in folk medicine.
• Bark Constituents: Study of bark spines yielded dodecanoic acid, 9,12,octadecanoic acid, oleic acid, octadecanoic acid, 2-hydoxyl-1,3-propanediyl ester, and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctylester – phytochemicals that showed various properties: antioxidant, antimicrobial, larvicidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://keys.trin.org.au:8080/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-8004-060d07080d04/media/Html/taxon/Zanthoxylum_rhetsa.htm

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Kayetana.html

http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/1192.html

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Floating Heart ( Limnanthemum cristatum)

Botanical Name : Limnanthemum cristatum (Roxb.) Griseb.
Family : Menyanthaceae
Scientific names : Limnanthemum cristatum (Roxb.)  ,Menyanthes cristata Roxb. .Menyanthes hydrophyllum Lour. ,Villarsia cristata Spreng.,Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.)Griseb.,Nymphoides hydrophyllum Lour.
Common names:Griseb. Lolokisen (Ilk.),Pusong-lutang (Tag.) , Shui pi lian (Chin.), Floating heart (Engl.) , Snow flake (Engl.)

Habitat : Pusong-lutang is found in shallow lakes, quiet streams, and sometimes rice paddies, at low and medium altitudes though on Mount Data it ascends to an altitude of 2,100 meters. It occurs in Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Rizal, Zambales, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon. It is also found in India to Southern China.

Description:
Annual, with large floating stem, rooting at the nodes. Leaves floating, lamina 2.5-7.5 (-10) cm long, 2-8 mm broad, orbicular, cordate at base, with conspicuous dense brown glands on the under surface, margin entire or wavy, petiole (C.5) 1-5 cm long, Pedicel 0.5-5 cm long. Calyx lobes 3-4 x c.2 mm, oblong, rounded. Corolla lobes oblong, acute, c.4 x 1.5-2 mm, white, with yellow base and longitudnal folds along the margin and centre. Stamens 2.75-3 mm long; anthers c. 1 mm long. Capsule ellipsoid, 5-6 mm long, 10-20 seeded. Seeds c. 1 mm long. tuberculate.

click to see the pictures.>……(01)……...(1)..……....(2)..…….………………

Cultivation:
Floating heart is water plant of the habit of the water lily. It is sometimes cultivated in ponds or as an aquarium plant.

Edible Uses: According to Burkill, in China it is edible.


Medicinal Uses:

Parts used:   Stalks, seeds and leaves
It is reported that in India, the stalks and leaves, pounded with oil, are applied to ulcers and insect bites; a decoction is used as a wash for parasitic skin complaints; and the seeds are eaten to destroy or prevent intestinal worms. Chopra says that they are used in fever and jaundice.

Folkloric
*In India, stalks and leaves are pounded with oil and applied to ulcers and insect bites. Also, used as a substitute for *Valeriana hardwickii in neurological disorders and colic.
*Decoction used as wash for parasitic skin complaints.
*Seeds eaten to destroy or prevent intestinal worms.
*Reported use for fever and jaundice.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Pusong-lutang.html

http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/p/pusong-lutang.pdf

http://www.hallimpark.co.kr/zb/zboard.php?id=plant_week_2005&page=2&sn1=&divpage=1&sn=off&ss=on&sc=on&select_arrange=hit&desc=desc&no=177

http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=210001332

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Crinum asiatica

Botanical Name : Crinum asiatica
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Tribe: Amaryllideae
Subtribe: Crininae
Genus: Crinum
Species: C. asiaticum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Common names : Giant Crinum Lily, Grand Crinum Lily, Grand Crinum Lily, Spider Lily,Kanwal, Nagdaun, Badakanvar, Chindar, Gadambhikanda, Nagadamani, Sudarshan, Poison bulb.


Habitat
:Crinum asiaticum is native to tropical southeastern Asia( China, Hong Kong, India, Ryukyu Islands and Mainland Japan). It is now a favorite landscape plant in Florida, the Gulf Coast, California and other warm climate areas.

Description:
This big crinum lily makes an imposing presence in the garden. The dark green strap-like leaves may be more than 3 ft (1 m) long and 4 in (10 cm) wide. These are held erect and arranged in a spiral rosette to form impressive clumps up to 5 ft (1.5 m) in height by 7 ft (2 m) in width. The leaves emerge from huge bulbs that may weigh 10-20 lbs (5-9 kg)! Flowers are shaped like tubes that flair open into a crown of narrow petals. The flowers are white and are arranged in clusters atop thick, succulent stems.
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Main features
: Grows up to 1.5m, in freshwater or brackish swamps.

Leaves: Long (2m) strap-like, fleshy.

Flowers: Clustered; white; fragrant.

Fruits: Globose; shiny white when ripe; seeds irregularly shape.

Cultivation:
Grand crinum lily is happy in just about any type of well drained soil.
Light: It prefers bright sunny situations but will grow in part shade.

Moisture: Provide average water. Crinum lilies do well in dry soils and are fairly drought tolerant.

Hardiness:USDA Zone 9 – 11. You can grow this crinum in Zone 8, but foliage is killed by freezing winter temperatures. I have several of these growing in Tallahassee; they suffer some degree of cold damage every year but quickly recover their attractiveness in the spring.

Propagation: To propagate crinums, dig up a clump and separate the small offset bulbs from the parent bulb. Plant these in pots or directly in the garden where they will quickly root to form new plants.Grand crinum lily is happy in just about any type of well drained soil.

Medicinal Uses:

Traditional medicinal uses:
It is used as a poultice for aches, sores and chaps. Crushed leaves are used to treat piles, mixed with honey and applied to wounds and abscesses.

Click to see :Tonsilitis Home Remedy Using Crinum

Other Usage:
Use the grand crinum to create a tropical mood near the pool or patio. Use like sculpture to create a focal point in the garden or in an expanse of lawn. This big lily looks great with palm trees and ornamental grasses. Their drought resistance make them useful in xeriscapes. It also does well in a container.

Known Hazards:All parts of crinum lily may cause severe discomfort if ingested, and the sap alone can cause skin irritation.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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Resources:

http://www.floridata.com/ref/c/crin_asi.cfm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crinum_asiaticum

http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/crinum_lily.htm

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Sow thistle

Botanical Name :Sonchus oleraceus Linn.
Family: Compositae
Synonyms :Hare’s Thistle. Hare’s Lettuce.
Scientific names :  Sonchus oleraceus Linn.,Hieracium oleracerum Linn. ,Lactuca oleracerea Linn.
Common names :Gagatang (Ig.),Common sowthistle (Engl.),Milkweed (Engl.) ,Milk thistle (Engl.) ,Smooth sow thistle (Engl.) ,Swinles (Engl.) ,Sow thistle (Engl.)

Habitat :Found in the Benguet subprovinces, Rizal and Laguna provinces in Luzon. In waster places, along trails, old gardens, on talus slopes at altitudes of 1,200 to 2,000 meters

Description:
Sow thistle is an herb, erect, annual, milky, hairy or slightly glandular, growing 40 to 80 cm high. Leaves are oblong to lanceolate, 10 to 20 cm long, coarsely and lyrately lobed; the lobes somewhat reflexed and toothed, the terminal ones large, the lateral pointing downwards, and those of the stem clasping at the base. Heads are peduncled, about 1 cm long. Bracts are smooth, thin and green. Flowers are numerous and yellow. Achenes are nearly 3 mm long, compressed, ribbed and rough.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It has hollow thick, branched stems full of milky juice, and thin, oblong leaves, more or less cut into (pinnatifid) with irregular, prickly teeth on the margins. The upper leaves are much simpler in form than the lower ones, clasping the stem at their bases.

CLICK & SEE

The flowers are a pale yellow, and when withered, the involucres close over them in a conical form. The seed vessels are crowned with a tuft of hairs, or pappus, like most of this large family of Compositae.

Edible Uses:
The young leaves are still in some parts of the Continent employed as an ingredient in salads It used in former times to be mingled with other pot herbs, and was occasionally employed in soups; the smoothest variety is said to be excellent boiled like spinach.

Constituents:
* Contains fixed oil with stearic and palmitic acids, ceryl-alcohol, invert sugar, choline, tartaric acid.
* Milky juice contains oxydase, coautchoue, mannite, l-inosite, etc.
* Phytochemicals of aqueous extracts yielded sugar reducers, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and coumarins.
* Study yielded four sesquiterpene glycosides – sonchusides A, B, C and D together with five known glycosides – glucozaluzanin C, macrocliniside A, crepidiaside A and picrisides A and C.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used: Stem, leaves, gum, juice.

Folkloric:-
* Brownish gum formed by the evaporation of the common sow thistle, when taken internally in a dose of two to four grains, acts as a “powerful hydragogue cathartic” with strong effects on the liver, duodenum and colon. Its effects resemble elaterium, producing large and watery discharges, thus an effective agent in ascites and hydrothorax. However, it may cause griping like senna and produce tenemus like aloes. To counteract that effect, the gum is administered with manna, aniseed, and carbonate of magnesia, or with stimulants and aromatics

* Infusion of leaves and roots used by the natives of Bengal as tonic and febrifuge.

*In Indochina, stems used as sedative and tonic.

*In Italy, used as a laxative and diuretic.

*Juice of the plant used for cleaning and healing ulcers.

*In Brazilian folk medicine, used as a general tonic.

Studies
• Antidepressant: Study of S oleraceus extracts in mice showed evidence of an antidepressant-like effect comparable to that of amitriptyline (10mg/K p.o.).

• Antinociceptive: Extracts of SO markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in mice, supporting previous claims of traditional use. At 300 mg/kg, it had a stronger antinociceptive effect than indomethacin (5 mg/kg) and morphine (10 mg/kg).

• Anxiolytic: Study of extract of aerial parts showed anxiolytic effects in mice similar to clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg).

• Phytochemicals / Low Toxicity: Study of aqueous extracts showed phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and coumarins. Toxicity test on Artemia salina indicated low toxicity.

• Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Study of SO extracts showed concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. The methanol extracts yielded the greatest the most phenolic and flavonoid contents. Cytotoxicity activity showed the ethanol extract had the best activity against the growth of stomach cancer cell.

• Anti-Quorum Sensing / Antimicrobial: A study of 14 ethanolic extracts of different parts of 8 plants for antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing activity showed Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis to have superior activity against Chromobacterium violaceum. Quorum sensing is involved in microbial pathogenesis, and its inhibition may be a way of controlling bacterial infections with the advantage of reducing risks of resistance development.

Other Uses:
Its chief use nowadays is as food for rabbits. There is no green food they devour more eagerly, and all keepers of rabbits in hutches should provide them with a plentiful supply. Pigs are also particularly fond of the succulent leaves and stems of the Sow-Thistle.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sowthi71.html

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Gagatang.html

http://www.plantsystematics.org/imgs/kcn2/r/Asteraceae_Sonchus_oleraceus_33896.html

Ranabili

Botanical Name : Cipadessa baccifera
Family: Meliaceae (Neem family)
Synonyms: Melia baccifera, Cipadessa fruticosa
Common name: Ranabili

Hindi : nalbila

Kannada :  cheduveera, chittunde, hanoyi, hanumana thoppalu, mandala kaayi, padavali, sidigolu, sitthunde gida, sidugoli, adusoge, hanumantatoppalu, adasaage, bettadabaevu, chaedu beera, chithunde, hanumantatap, mendala kaayi, minnamunni, narachalu gida

Malayalam :   pulippanchedi

Marathi : ranabili, gudmai

Oriya ; pittamari

Tamil : savattuchedi, pulippanchedi, pullipamcheddi, cannatturukka vempu, cevvattai1, pulippan#, pulippan@

Telugu : chedubira, chedu bira, chend bera, rana beri, turaka vepa, hanumantha-bira, chandbera, chanduvira, pottu vepa, purudona, purudonda, ranabilla, thabate, thavitegu

Habitat :Indomalaysia; in the Western_Ghats- throughout.This species is globaly distributed in Indo-Malesia. It is said to be cultivated in Hawaii and under glass in Europe. Within India, it has been recorded in Bihar, Orissa and in the eastern Himalayas up to 1500 m., Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is found in ravines, rock crevices and in thickets and forest edge habitats.

Description:
Ranabili is a shrub 1-4 m tall, with coarse bark. Young branches are grayish brown, ribbed, and covered with yellow velvety hairs and sparse grayish white lenticels. Leaves are compound, 8-30 cm long, with leaf-stalk and spine either hairless or yellow velvety. Leaflets are usually 9-13, opposite, ovate to ovoid-oblong, 3.5-10 × 1.5-5 cm. Flowers are born in clusters 8-15 cm long. Flowers are white, 3-4 mm in diameter. Flower stalks are 1-1.5 mm long. Sepal cup is short, yellow velvety outside. Sepals are broadly triangular. Petals are white or yellow, linear to oblong-elliptic, 2-3.5 mm, outside covered with sparse appressed velvety hairs. Stamens are shorter than petals, with hairy filaments. Fruit is purple to black when mature, round, 4-5 mm in diameter. Flowering: April-October.
click to see the pictures…

 

Medicinal uses: Juice of the root is given in cases of indigestion. It is also used in treating cough and cold. A paste of bark is pressed against the teeth for about 15 mins to relieve bleeding and swelling of gums.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Ranabili.html

http://envis.frlht.org.in/botanical_search.php?txtbtname=Cipadessa+baccifera&gesp=2522%7CCipadessa+baccifera+%28ROTH.%29+MIQ.

http://www.biotik.org/india/species/c/cipabacc/cipabacc_en.html

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Cleome gynandra

Botanical Name : Cleome gynandra
Family: Cleomaceae /Capparaceae (APG: Brassicaceae)
Genus: Cleome
Species: C. gynandra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales
Synonyms  : Cleome pentaphylla L. (1763), Gynandropsis pentaphylla (L.) DC. (1824), Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq. (1914).

Common Names : Cat whiskers,African cabbage,African cabbage, spider wisp (Eng.); oorpeultjie, snotterbelletjie (Afr.); Morotho (Northern Sotho); Muruthu (Venda)
Vernacular names :  Spiderplant, cat’s whiskers, spider flower, bastard mustard (En). Caya blanc, brède caya, mouzambé (Fr). Musambe (Po). Mgagani, mkabili, mkabilishemsi, mwangani mgange (Sw).

Habitat : The origin of Cleome gynandra is not known. There are claims that it has a southern Asian origin, but others suggest that it originates from Africa or Central America. Cleome gynandra occurs throughout the tropics and subtropics. In Africa, it is mainly found near human settlements, possibly escapes from earlier introductions. It occurs probably in all countries of tropical Africa,  has now  become widespread in many tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world.

Description:
Erect annual herb up to 150 cm tall, strongly branched, with long taproot and few secondary roots; stem densely glandular. Leaves alternate, palmately compound with (3–)5(–7) leaflets; stipules absent; petiole 2–10 cm long, glandular; leaflets almost sessile, obovate to elliptical or lanceolate, 2–10 cm × 1–4 cm, cuneate at base, rounded to obtuse, acute or acuminate at apex, margins finely toothed, sparsely to distinctly hairy. Inflorescence a terminal raceme up to 30 cm long, bracteate. Flowers bisexual, white or tinged with purple; pedicel 1.5–2.5 cm long; sepals 4, free, ovate to lanceolate, up to 8 mm long; petals 4, elliptical to obovate, up to 1.5 cm long, clawed; androgynophore 1–1.5 cm long; stamens 6, purple; ovary superior, stalked, 2-celled. Fruit a long, narrow, cylindrical capsule up to 12 cm × 1 cm, stalked and beaked, usually green or yellow, dehiscing from below with 2 valves, many-seeded. Seeds subglobose, 1–1.5 mm in diameter, grey to black, irregularly ribbed. Seedling with oblong cotyledons; first leaves 3-foliolate.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES
Edible Uses:

Fresh leaves are cooked and eaten as spinach or dried and stored for later use as a relish with porridge. They are rich in magnesium, iron and nicotinic acid.
The tender leaves, young shoots and occasionally flowers are eaten boiled as potherb, relish, stew or side dish. The leaves are utilized in fresh form or dried as powder. Sometimes the leaves are bitter and then cooked with milk and/or with other leafy vegetables such as cowpea leaves, amaranth, nightshades (Solanum spp.) and Cleome monophylla L. In other areas the leaves are boiled and the cooking water is discarded. In several countries, pounded groundnut paste (peanut butter) is added to improve the flavour. The leaves may be blanched, made into small balls and sun- or air-dried. This is a popular product in southern Africa, which finds a ready market when available during the rainy season. These balls or leaf powder can be stored up to a year and are soaked in water before being used in cooking. The seeds may be used as a substitute for mustard.

Nutrition analysis has found it to be high in certain nutrients including amino acids, vitamins and minerals as a result it forms an important part of diets in Southern Africa.

Chemical Constituents:

A study has shown that Cleome gynandra uses NAD-malic enzyme type C4 photosynthesis and has the characteristic traits associated with this including changes in “leaf biochemistry, cell biology and development”.  Cleome gynandra is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana (a C3 photosynthetic plant) in an evolutionary manner and therefore offers comparison with this well studied model plant.


Medicinal Uses:

In several communities, boiled spiderplant leaves are traditionally given to mothers before and after delivery of a child, and in other situations where blood has been lost, e.g. to warriors. Similarly, an infusion of the leaves is used to treat anaemia. The leaves and seeds are used medicinally as rubefacient and vesicant, and to treat rheumatism, externally as well as internally. An infusion of the roots is used as a medicine for chest pain, the leaves to treat diarrhoea. Spiderplant seeds thrown in water can kill fish, which then float to the surface. The glands on the stems and leaves have insect repellent properties; cabbage and related crops intercropped with spiderplant suffer less from diamond back moth larvae. Similarly, in French bean intercropped with spiderplant, the beans are less affected by flower thrips and are therefore of better quality for export.

Other Uses:
The seeds are used to feed birds. The seed contains an edible polyunsaturated oil, which is extracted by simple pressing and does not need refining. The seed cake can be used as animal food.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.prota4u.org/protav8.asp?h=M4&t=Cleome,gynandra&p=Cleome+gynandra

http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantcd/cleomegyn.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleome_gynandra

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Chukrasia tabularis

Botanical Name : Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss.
Family : Meliaceae
Synonyms :       Chukrasia velutina (M.Roem.) C.DC. (1878).Chikrassia tabularis A. Juss.
Vernacular names : Chickrassy, Chittagong wood, Burma almondwood, East Indian mahogany (En).
Common Names :-

(Bengali) : boga poma, chikrassi, pabba
(Burmese) : kinthatputgyi, tawyinma, yinma
(English) : Burma almond wood, chickrassy, chittagong wood
(Khmer)
: voryong
(Lao (Sino-Tibetan)) : nhom, nhom hin, nhom khao
(Malay) : cherana puteh, repoh, suntang puteh, surian batu
(Tamil) : agil, maleivembu
(Thai) : fakdap, siat-ka, siay-ka, yom-hin
(Trade name) : chickrassy
(Vietnamese) : l[as]t hoa


Habitat
: Chukrasia tabularis originates from tropical Asia (from India and Sri Lanka eastwards to Borneo and China). It has been planted in many countries outside tropical Asia, in Africa in Nigeria, Cameroon and northern South Africa, and elsewhere e.g. in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica and Australia.

Description:
Deciduous, medium-sized to large tree up to 30(–40) m tall; bole branchless for up to 20(–25) m, with a diameter of up to 120 cm, with convex buttresses up to 1.5 m high or without buttresses; bark surface rusty brown or deep brown, deeply fissured or cracked, with lenticels, inner bark reddish; crown spreading. Leaves alternate, up to 50 cm long, paripinnate with up to 24 leaflets in larger leaves; stipules absent; petiole 4–9 cm long; leaflets alternate, shortly stalked, ovate to oblong, asymmetric, 4–17.5 cm × 2–6.5 cm, apical ones largest, acute to acuminate at apex, entire, glabrous to pubescent, pinnately veined. Inflorescence an axillary panicle, often appearing terminal, up to 30 cm long. Flowers functionally unisexual, regular, 4–5-merous, sweetly scented; pedicel 2–4 mm long; calyx shallowly cup-shaped, c. 3 mm in diameter, with short lobes; petals free, narrowly oblong to spatulate, 1–1.5 cm long, contorted, cream-coloured to yellowish, often tinged pink; stamens 8–10, filaments united into a cylindrical tube, with the anthers attached to the margin; ovary superior, flask-shaped, pubescent, 3– 5-celled, style slender, stigma head-shaped. Fruit an ovoid or ellipsoid capsule (2.5–)3.5–5 cm long, woody, opening by 3–5 valves from the apex, valves splitting into 2 layers, many-seeded. Seeds c. 12 mm long, flat, with large terminal wing. Seedling with epigeal germination; cotyledons leafy; first 2 leaves opposite, subsequent ones arranged spirally, seedling leaves often imparipinnate and bipinnate with incised or lobed leaflets.

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Medicinal Uses:
A bark extract has powerful astringent properties and is used as a febrifuge and to treat diarrhoea.

The different parts of C. tabularis (leaves, bark, fruits) are having both ethnobotanical and medicinal significance along with biopesticidal activity. The biological activities of plant are due to the abundance of phenolic compounds including different terpenoids and limonoids. During recent years, bioactivities of extracts and pure compounds isolated from C. tabularis have been increasingly investigated. The dire need for such a review arises as the plant is included in the list of threatened species due to its high exploitation for timber utilization.

Other Uses
In tropical Asia, especially India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand and southern China, the wood is highly prized for high-grade cabinet work, decorative panelling, interior joinery such as doors, windows and light flooring, and for carving, toys and turnery. It is also used for light to medium-heavy construction work, e.g. for posts, beams, scantlings and planks, and for railway sleepers, ship and boat building, furniture, musical instruments, packing cases, sporting goods, lorry bodies, mallet heads, anvil blocks, brush wares, drawing equipment, rifle butts, veneer and pulp.In India Chukrasia tabularis is planted as a shade tree in coffee plantations, and in Vietnam and Malaysia as an ornamental tree.

Fuel: The wood can also be used as a fuel. Timber: Heartwood is pale reddish-brown, yellowish-red to red, darkening to dark yellowish-brown, reddish-brown to medium dark brown on exposure, sharply differentiated from the yellowish-white, pale yellowish-brown, pinkish-brown or greyish-brown sapwood; dark streaks may be rather prominent. The density is 625-800 kg/cubic m at 15% mc. The grain is interlocked and sometimes wavy, producing a rose figure; texture moderately fine but uneven. Freshly cut wood has a fragrant odour, but dried wood has no characteristic odour or taste. Planed surfaces have a high lustrous satiny sheen.  The wood peels well and gives exceedingly fine veneer. It is suitable for commercial and moisture proof plywood. Gum or resin: A yellow, transparent gum exudes from the trunk and is marketed in admixture with other gums. Tannin or dyestuff: The flowers contain a red and a yellow dye. The young leaves and bark contain 22% and 15% of tannin respectively.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://database.prota.org/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?ac=qbe_query&bu=http://database.prota.org/search.htm&tn=protab~1&qb0=and&qf0=Species+Code&qi0=Chukrasia+tabularis&rf=Webdisplay

http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts2009/Apr/Kaur%20and%20Arora.htm

http://floraofsingapore.wordpress.com/2010/04/19/chukrasia-tabularis/

http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=525

 

Clerodendrum serratum

Botanical name : Clerodendrum serratum (Linn.) Moon
Family : Verbenaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus:
Rotheca
Species: R. serrata
Sanskrit Synonyms
:Brahmanayashtika, Kharashakha, Padma, Kasajith, Barbura
Common Names : Baharangi, Kasaghni, Phajuka, Vatari, Beetle killer, Blue glory
Hindi :  Bharangi
Malayalam :  Cheruthekku
Sansk. : Angaravalli, Brahmanayashtika
Beng. : Bamun Hatee, Baman hatee, Bhuijam
Guj. : Bharangee
Kan. : Gantubarangee
Mar. : Bharangee, Bharang
Ori. : Chinds
Punj. : Bhadangee
Tam. : Cheruteku
Tel. : Ganttubrarangee
Urdu. : Bharangi, Baharangi

Habitat : Clerodendrum serratum is  native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, with most of the species occurring in tropical Africa and southern Asia, but with a few in the tropical Americas and northern Australasia, and a few extending north into the temperate zone in eastern Asia.


Description:

A slightly woody shrub with bluntly quadrangular stems and branches, leaves usually three at a node, sometimes opposite oblong or elliptic, serrate; flowers blue, many in long cylindrical thyrsus; fruits 4 lobed purple durpe, somewhat succulent with one pyrene in each lobe.

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Characteristics and Constituents : A sterolglucoside has been isolated. The root bark yields a glycosidic material, phenolic in nature. D-mannitol was isolated from the root bark with a yield of 10.9%. The powdered stem contains D-mannitol, ?-D glucoside of ?-sitosterol, ?-sitosterol and cetyl alcohol. From the bark the sapogenin mixture contains three major triterpenoid constituents-olconolic acid, queretaroic acid and serratagenic acid.

Medicinal Uses:
Ayurvedic Properities:-
Rasam    : Tikta, Katu
Gunam   : Lakhu, Rooksha
Viryam   : Ushna

Useful part
:    Root and Leaves.
Plant pacifies vitiated kapha, pitta, inflammations, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, helminthiasis, cough, asthma, bronchitis, hiccough, chronic skin diseses, leucoderma, leprosy and fevers. The leaves can be used or external application in headache.

A decoction of roots is used in asthma and bronchitis. The leaves are applied in the form of poultice in skin suppurations. The drug is used in fever. It is also used in sinusitis. It is recommended in inflammations of the eye.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/2458.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotheca_serrata

http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

http://www.logayurveda.com/index.php/prakriti/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=227:clerodendrum-serratum&catid=32:languages&Itemid=140

http://pharmaceuticals.indiabizclub.com/catalog/310644~clerodendrum+serratum+(linn.)+moon+(+barangi+)~mumbai

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Suck This ‘Magic Hormone’ into Your Body and Transform Your Health – Takes Just 20 Minutes

A recent study published in the journal Mechanisms of Aging and Development confirms the “anti-aging” effect of high-intensity training.

Telomere shortening occurs as you age, however the factors involved are not entirely understood as of yet. The study was conducted to determine whether age-associated telomere shortening is related to habitual endurance exercise and maximal aerobic capacity.

The results suggest there’s a direct association between reduced telomere shortening in your later years and high-intensity-type exercises.

The authors’ state:
“The results of the present study provide evidence that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is related to regular vigorous aerobic exercise and maximal aerobic exercise capacity with aging in healthy humans.

LTL is not influenced by aerobic exercise status among young subjects, presumably because TL is intact (i.e., already normal) in sedentary healthy young adults.

However, as LTL shortens with aging it appears that maintenance of aerobic fitness, produced by chronic strenuous exercise and reflected by higher VO2max, acts to preserve LTL.

… Our results indicate that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is preserved in healthy older adults who perform vigorous aerobic exercise and is positively related to maximal aerobic exercise capacity. This may represent a novel molecular mechanism underlying the “anti-aging” effects of maintaining high aerobic fitness.”

But that’s not all.
High-intensity interval-type training also boosts human growth hormone (HGH) production. A 2003 study published in the journal Sports Medicine found that “exercise intensity above lactate threshold and for a minimum of 10 minutes appears to elicit the greatest stimulus to the secretion of HGH.”

Resources:
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development February 2010;131(2):165-7

Sports Medicine 2003;33(8):599-613
Sports Medicine 2002;32(15):987-1004
Growth Hormone and IGF Research December 2008;18(6):455-71
Journal of Applied Physiology 2005; 98: 1985–1990
Journal of Applied Physiology 2005; 98:1983-1984

Posted by: Dr. Mercola. December 24 2010

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