Caesalpinia sappan

Botanical name : Caesalpinia sappan Linn.
Family : Caesalpiniaceae
Sanskrit Synonyms :Kuchandana, Lohita, Patanga, Ranjana, Patranga
Common Names :Patanga, Raktamukta, Basiletta, Sappan wood, Sappanga
Local names: Hapang (Sbl.); sapang (Ilk., Bis., Tag.); sappan (Ilk., Tag.); sibukau (Tag., Sul., Bis.); sappan wood, bukum wood (Engl.).
Name in Other Languages :
English : Japan wood, Sappan wood, Brazil wood
Hindi : Patamg, Bakam
Malayalam : Chappgnga, Sappanga, Patumukam

Habitat :Sapang is found locally abundant throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes in dry thickets, parang, etc. It is perhaps an introduced plant in the Archipelago, and if so, is of prehistoric introduction. It occurs also in India to Malaya. In dry deciduous forests in India, also cultivated.

Description:
It is a small tree, 3 to 5 and sometimes 10 meters high, with scattered prickles. The leaves are compound, and up 50 centimeters long. The pinnae are about 20, opposite, and 10 to 20 centimeters long. The leaflets are 20 to 30, obliquely oblong to oblong-rhomboid. The flowers are yellow, on terminal panicles, and 2. To 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Fruits small woody pods, with 2-3 seeds. The pod is oblong to oblong-ovate, about 7 centimeters long, and 3.5 to 4 centimeters wide, hard, shinning, with a hard, recurved beak at the upper angle.Stem covered with woody thons.

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Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used :   Heartwood.
Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, skin diseases, diarrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, diabetes, and stomatitis.

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A decoction or infusion of the wood is reputed to be powerful emmenagogue and a strong astringent, and is medicinally recommended as a substitute for logwood. It also used in atomic diarrhea, dysentery, etc. The decoction is also administered in cases of haemorrhage, especially from the lungs. It is commonly given to women after confinement, chiefly as a tonic. The decoction is considered useful in some forms of skin diseases. It is also used as a diuretic. The roots, stems, and seeds are used as sedatives and vulnerary.


Ayurvedic properities

Rasa    : Tikta
Guna   : Guru, Rooksha
Virya   : Seeta
Vipaka : Madhura

Other Uses:
Sapang is chiefly used as a dyewood, being very popular in the Filipinos for coloring the native fabrics.

According to Dymock the coloring matter of sappan wood appears from Bolleys investigation to be identical with chevreul’s brazilin obtained from brazilwood. Dey states that it contains a principle resembling haematein. He quotes Dr. Warden, who states that the resinous extract of the sappan tree contains a crystalline principle which, fused with potash, yields resorcin. Nadkarni includes as the additional constituents, besides brazilin, Gallic and tannic acids. Studies made by Bacon confirmed the discovery that the coloring matter of sappan wood is brazilin. Burkill declares hat the leaves (19 percent), bark, and fruit walls (44 percent) contain tannin. Volatile oil, suggesting pepper, is present in the leaves. Wehmer records the following constituents of the volatile oil (0.16 to 0.25 percent) of the leaves: d-c-phellandrene, terpene, and methyl alcohol.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/576.html
http://bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/s/sapang.pdf
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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