Chrysanthenum indicum

Botanical Name : Chrysanthenum indicum Linn
Other scientific names:Chrysanthemum sinense   ,Matricaria chamomilla ,Pyrethrum sinense  ,Dendrathema indicum L.
Order: Asterales
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Chrysanthemum

Common names:Dolontas (Tag.), Manzanilla (Sp. Fil.),Mansanilya-a-babasit (Ilk.) , Roman camomile (Engl.),Garden camomile (Engl.), Yeh Chu-hua (Chin.),Chrysanthemum (Engl.),Mother’s daisy (Engl.),Whig plant (Engl.)

Local names: Dolontas (Tag.); mansanilla-a-babasit (Ilk.); mansanilla (Sp.); mansanilya (Tag.); false camomile, Indian chrysanthemum, winter aster (Engl.).

Habitat :It is a native of China and Japan, now cultivated in most warm countries.

Description:
This medicinal plant is an erect or ascending, perennial, aromatic, somewhat hairy herb 30 to 60 centimeters in height. The leaves are thin, pinnately lobed, ovate to oblong-ovate in outline, and 4 to 6 centimeters long. The lobes are 2 or 3 on each side, ovate or oblong-ovate, and sharply toothed. The flowering heads are yellow, peduncled, corymbosely panicled, and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. The involucre bracts are oblong or elliptic, equaling the acheness in size. The achenes are very small, cuneate-oblong, somewhat compressed and grooved.

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Willstatter and Bolton isolated from the flowers of the red variety a glucoside, chrysanthemum (C21H20O11), which is an isomer of asterin. In variety “Ruby King”, they isolated 7 per cent of the glucoside, monoglucoside of cyanidin. Wehmer records that the leaves and flowers of C. japonium Thum., which is a synonym of C. indicum, yield a volatile oil (Kiku oil), 0.16 per cent.

Constituents and properties
*Volatile oils (kiku oil), 0.16%; glucoside; chrysanthemin, 7%; anthocyanin.
*Essential oil contains chrysanthenone.
*Study yielded aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesman-type sesquiterpenes. (Source) :http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/199914/000019991499A0366859.php

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Edible Uses :- Edible: Seeds, flowers, leaves.

Medicinal Uses:-

Parts utilized
· Flowering heads. The active ingredient is chrysanthemin.
· Entire plant also used.
· Collect flowers from August to October.
· Collect young shoots or collect tender portions of the plant.
· Rinse, sun-dry.

Properties
Considered antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, bactericidal, febrifuge, vulnerary, depurative and tonic.
Glycoside chrysanthemin considered antibacterial.

Folkloric
· Preventive for cough, flu, epidemic meningitis.
· Whooping cough (use entire plant or flower)
· Gas pains: Warm oil, add and mix the flower heads, let stand for 30 mins and strain. Apply warm oily solution to abdomen.
· Eczema infections
· Hypertension (use flowers)
· Poisonous snake bites, sprains and bruises.
· Infections of the cervix (use flowers, process into emulsion and apply to afflicted region)
· Mammary carbuncle
· Insect repellent: Burn the flowers.
· Tea used as a wash for sore eyes, open sores, and wounds.
· Combined with bitter sweet as ointment, used for bruises, sprains, calluses.
· In China, used for migraines, hypertension, inflammation, respiratory problems.
Guerrero reports that an infusion of the flowering heads is used as a carminative.
According to Kirtikar and Basu the natives of the Deccen administer the plant in conjunction with black pepper in gonorrhea. The plant is also considered by the Hindus to be heating and aperient and useful in affection of the brain and in calculus, as well as an antidote to mental depression.
Crevost and Petelot report that in Indo-China the leaves are used as a depurant and are prescribed in migraine.

Hooper says that in China the flowering heads are made into tonic and sedative preparations. Infusions are frequently applied as a collyrium in eye affections. Caius states that in Malaya the flowers are used for sore eyes and for sore eyes and for inflammations of the abdomen in Indo-China. Safford and Caius state that the flowers, in the form of an infusion, are used by the natives of Guam as a remedy for intermittent fevers, and are valued by women as a remedy for hysteria and monthly irregularities.

Studies:-
· Antimicrobial: Study yielded three essential oils with major constituents of 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol and bornyl acetate. Results showed both essential oils from air-dried and processed flowers possessed significant antimicrobial effect. With higher camphor percentage, the oil of processed flowers greater bacteriostatic activity than air-dried ones.
• Antiinflammatory / Immunomodulatory: (1) Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the extracts from the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné: Study showed CI possesses antiinflammatory, humoral and cellular immunomodulatory and phagocytic activity probably from its flavonoid contents. (2) Study showed C indicum extract to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent in murine phorbol ester-induced dermatitis and suggests a potential for treatment of immune-related cutaneouse diseases.
• Sesquiterpenes: Japanese study yielded aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesman-type sesquiterpenes.
Anti-Cancer: (1) Study of C indicum extract showed a significant apoptotic effect through a mitochondrial pathway and arrested cell cycle by regulation of cell cycle-related proteins in MHCC97H cells lines without effect on normal cells. The cancer-specific selectivity suggests the plant extract could be a potential new treatment for human cancer. (2) Study documents anti-metastatic effect through a decrease of MMP expression, simultaneous increase of TIMP expression. Results suggest CI is a potential novel medicinal plant for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma or cancer invasion and metastasis. (3) Study performed in rats with human cells showed CI extract inhibited proliferation of human hepatocellular cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity.
• Flavonoids / Anti-Arthritis: Study showed the total flavonoids of C indicum, extracted from the dried buds could induce synoviocytes apoptosis and suppress proliferation of synoviocytes in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats.
• Flowers / Chemical Composition: Study of C. indicum flowers yielded 63 volatiles which included eucalyptol, a-pinene, a-neoclovene among others. Ten flavonoids were identified, including quercitrin, myricetin and luteolin-7-glucoside. It suggests C indicum flower is a good source of natural quercitrin and myricetin for the development of potential pharmaceuticals.
• Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity: Study has shown inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study suggest the anti-inflammatory properties of CIE might results from the inhibition of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, TNF-alpha and IL01beta, via suppression of MAPKs and NF-kappaB-dependent pathways.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://medicinalplants-india.blogspot.com/2010/11/chrysanthemum-indicum-linn-shevanti.html
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Manzanilla.html
http://bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/m/mansanilla.pdf
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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