Purple allamanda

Botanical Name :Cryptostegia grandiflora
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Cryptostegia
Order: Gentianales
Kingdom: Plantae
Species: C. grandiflora
Scientific Names : Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb.) R. Br. ,Nerium grandiflora Roxb.

Common Names :Indian rubber vine (Engl.),Purple allamanda (Engl.)

Habitat : Native to south-west Madagascar. It is also a significant weed in northern Australia, sometimes regarded in fact, as the worst weed in all of Australia. It has also been introduced to most other tropical and subtropical regions by man, because of its attractive flowers and the fact that its latex contains commercial quality rubber (hence the name). It is now naturalised in the Caribbean, East Africa, Mauritius, India, Southeast Asia, Latin America, the southern United States, Fiji and New Caledonia.It is Introduced in Philippines.Occasionally planted for ornamental purposes.Now, pantropic.

Description:
A rubber vine can grown up to 2 metres (m) tall as a shrub, but when it is supported on other vegetation as a vine, it can reach up to 30 metres in length. Rubber vine prefers areas where annual rainfall is between 400 and 1400 millimetres (mm), and is well adapted to a monsoonal climate. It can grow maximally on an annual rainfall of 1700 millimetres, but seeds that get an annual rainfall of 400 millimetres or less means rubber vine thrives on (in fact, requires) the extreme variability of rainfall and streamflow. This is a characteristic of central Queensland. The extreme variability (four times that of other countries to which it has been introduced) is almost certainly why rubber vine has become a major weed in Australia and not any other country in which it has been introduced.

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Vine to subshrub.  Stems with numerous, small lenticels.  Lamina elliptic to orbicular, up to 10 cm long and 6.3 wide, glabrous; 11-13 secondary veins per side of midrib; tip acute; base cuneate; petiole 7-20.8 mm long, 0.9-3 mm diameter.  Cyme of 1 or 2 fascicles.  Flowers 5-6 cm long, 5-8.8 cm diameter; pedicels 4.2-8.5 mm long, 3-6.2 mm diameter, glabrous.  Calyx lobes lanceolate-ovate, 11.9-18.7 mm long, 5.6-9.8 mm wide.  Corolla pale pink to white; tube 1.9-4.5 cm long, 11.2-17 mm diameter; lobes 21-43 mm long, 13-22.5 mm wide.  Corolline corona of 5 bilobed filaments in throat of tube; each lobe ca 10 mm long overall, bilobed portion ca 8 mm long.  Staminal column 2-3 mm long, 3-4 mm diameter; anthers 4-4.5 mm long, 3-3.5 mm wide.  Translators obtuse, ca 3 mm long and 1.5 mm wide.  Style-head conical, ca 3.5 mm long and 2.5 mm diameter.  Ovaries ca 4 mm long and 2 mm wide.  Follicles fusiform-ovoid, 10-15.4 cm long, 2.1-4 cm diameter; seeds 5.2-9.7 mm long, 1.6-2.8 mm wide; coma white, 18.9-38 mm long.” (Marohasy and Forster, 1991; pp. 574-575).

“Woody ornamental lactiferous climber with opposite simple oblong shortly acuminate short-petiolate leaves 4-10 cm long, 3-5 cm wide; cymes of about 6-12 large reddish-purple flowers (sometimes lighter pink-violet); calyx-lobes about 1.2 cm long; corolla about 5 cm long (in bud); follicles 7.5-8.5 cm long.  The flowers resemble those of the purple Allamanda (Allamanda violacea)” (Stone, 1970; p. 487).

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“Can be distinguished from C. madagascariensis by its stems with smaller, more numerous lenticels; leaf blades with 11-13 pairs of secondary veins; larger corollas (2-2.5 inches long); 2-lobed corona filaments; and larger fruit (4-6.25 inches long)”  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 142).

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used :Leaves
Folkloric
No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
In Madagascar, reportedly used for criminal purposes and against vermin.
Powdered leaves, mixed with water, when swallowed can cause persistent vomiting after half an hour; death in 15 hours.

Studies
• Antiviral: In a study of medicinal plants for its antiviral activity, Cryptostegia grandiflora showed partial activity at higher concentraions.
Cardiac glycosides: Study of the leaves of C. grandiflora yielded four news cardiac glycosides: crptostigmin I to IV together with two known cardenolides.
Antibacterial: Study of the different extracts of Cryptostegia grandiflora was done for antibacterial potential against Pseudomonas cepacia, B megatorim, S aureus, E coli B subtilis. Almost all extracts produced significant antibacterial activity against all the microorganisms, comparable to standard antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride. The petroleum ether extract showed maximum efficacy.
Latex Pro-Inflammatory Activity: Study investigating the pro-inflammatory activity of the latex of C grandifolia was investigated. Results showed the soluble proteins of the latex induced strong inflammatory activity, enlarged vascular permeability and increased myeloperoxidase acticvity locally in rats. It concludes that the latex of CG is a potent inflammatory fluid and implicates lactifer proteins in that activity.

Other Uses:Grown as a beautiful flower plant in house garden.

Known Hazards : Plant considered an irritant and poisonous.Leaves are toxic.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/12188/
http://www.stuartxchange.com/IndianRubberVine.html
http://www.hear.org/pier/species/cryptostegia_grandiflora.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptostegia_grandiflora

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