Putat

Botanical Name :Barringtonia racemosa (Linn.) Blume
Family : Lecythidaceae

Other Scientific Names: :,Barringtonia racemosa (Linn.) Roxb ,Barringtonia stravadium Blanco ,Eugenia racemosa Linn.  ,Menichea rosata Sonn. Potat (Tag.) ,Butonica rosata Miers

Common Names:Blume Kasouai (Mbo.),Kutkut-timbalon (Sul.),Nuling (C. Bis.),Paling (Ibn.), Putat (Tag., Bik., S. L. Bis.) ,Tuba-tuba (C. Bis.) ,Freshwater mangrove (Engl.),Fish-killer tree (Engl.) ,Fish-poison wood (Engl.),Yu rui (Chin.)

Habitat :Putat is found throughout the Philippines in most or all islands and provinces, occurring in thicknets and damp places along the seashore, streams, etc., at low altitudes, and is often common.Occasionally planted as a roadside ornament for its drooping inflorescences of white and pink flowers.It is also reported to occur in India to Malaya and Polynesia.


Description:

This useful plant is a smooth, small tree reaching a height of 10 meters. The branches, and are subsessile, oblong-obovate, 10 to 30 centimeters long, pointed at the both ends, and toothed in the margins. The flowers are white or pink, are borne in terminal racemes or on drooping racemes from axils of fallen leaves, and 20 to 60 centimeters in length. The calyx encloses the bud, later splitting irregularly into 2 or 3 ovate, concave segments. The petals are oblong-ovate to lanceolate, 2 to 2.5 centimeters long, and slightly united at the base. The stamens are very numerous and 3 to 4 centimeters long. The fruit is ovoid to oblong-ovoid, 5 to 6 centimeters long, somewhat 4-angled, and crowded by the persistent calyx. The leathery pericarp of the fruit is green or purplish in color.
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Putat is occasionally planted on the roadsides for ornament. The drooping, long inflorescences with white and pink flowers are attractive. The bark is used as a fish poison. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper quote Ainsile, who states that in Java and in Ternate the seeds are used for intoxicating fish. Hefter reports that the oil from the seeds is used as an illuminant.

Constituents:
*Study of ethyl acetate extract of stem bark isolated five compounds: 3,3′-dimethoxy ellagic acid, dihydromyticetin, gallic acid, bartogenic acid and stigmasterol.
*Ethanolic extract of roots yielded two novel neo-clerodane-type diterpenoids – nasimalun A and nasimalun B.

Properties:
*Bark is antirheumatic.
*Roots are considered deobstruent and cooling.
*Seeds are aromatic.

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Medicinal Uses:

Parts used :Bark, leaves, fruit, seeds.

Folkloric:
*Decoction of bark used as antirheumatic.
*Poultices of leaves used for skin itches, chicken pox, alone or with bark or root.
*Fruit used for asthma, coughs and diarrhea.
*Pulverized fruit used as snuff for hemicrania; combined with other remedies, applied for skin affections.
*Seeds, given with milk, used for colic; also used for parturition.
*Powdered fruit, used as snuff to clear the nostrils; also applied externally, in combination with other remedies, for throat and skin eruptions.
*In Kerala, India, seeds traditionally used to treat cancer-type diseases.
*In Malaysia, used as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer.
Others

Studies
• Antinociceptive / Toxicological Studies: Study of aqueous bark extract showed antinociceptive activity without producing unwarranted side effects and toxicity. The effect was mediated mainly via opioid mechanisms, probably through phenolic and steroidal constituents in the extract.
Anti-Tumor / Non-Toxic: Study of methanolic seed extract on mice challenged with Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascitic cells showed remarkable dose-dependent anti-DLA activity in mice in an efficacy better than standard drug, vincristine. The extract seemed devoid of acute and short-term toxicity.
• Molluscicidal / Cercaricidal / Mosquito Larvicidal / Antiplasmodial: Study of aqueous extracts of fruit and seed approximately equipotent molluscicidal, cercaricidal, larvicidal and antiplasmodial properties in experimental models used. Biological effects were attributed to the triterpenoid saponins, esp barringtogenol and barringtogenic acid in the fruit and seed of the plant.
• Anti-Arthritic: Study of validates the ethnomedicinal use of fruits of BR in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions and establishes its potent anti-arthritic.
• Antifungal: Study of extracts of B racemosa leaves and bark yielded two different phenolic acids (gallic and ferrulic) and four flavonoids (naringin, rutin, luteolin and kaempferol). Results showed antifungal activity against Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp. and T koningii. Results provide scientifica basis for use of the plants extracts for future development of antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.
Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Lycopene: Study showed the crude extracts to be strong inhibitors of NO. Phytochemical analysis showed B racemosa to be an important source of lycopene, long recognized as an important antioxidant, in vivo and in vitro. The study concludes with a correlation between the antioxidant activity and lycopene content of B racemosa.
• Antioxidant: Study of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of all aerial parts exhibited very strong antioxidant properties when compared to BHT, ascorbic acid, and a-tocopherol in free radical scavenging and reducing power assays.

Other  Uses:
Fish poison: Bark is used as a fish poison. Seeds are used for intoxicating fish.
Illuminant: Oil from the seed used as illuminant.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Putat.html
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/html/p/putat.htm

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