Salvia plebeia

Botanical Name : Salvia plebeia R. Brown
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. plebeia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Scientific names :Salvia plebeia R. Brown ,Salvia brachiata Roxb. ,Salvia parviflora Roxb.
Common names:Mizo-kouiju (Japanese), Li zhi cao (Chin.),Sage weed (Engl.)

Habitat :Salvia plebeia is native to a wide region of Asia. It grows on hillsides, streamsides, and wet fields from sea level to 2,800 m (9,200 ft) As a weed in and about towns in various provinces at low altitudes.

Description:
Salvia plebeia is an annual, hairy herb. Stems are stout, erect, hoary, and 15 to 45 cms in height. Leaves are oblong ovate, 2.5 to 7.5 cms long, and narrowed and pointed at both ends. Spikes are panicled, often fastigiate. Flowers are hardly 6 mm long, lilac or nearly white, occurring in small, very numerous whorls in numerous, slender, panicled, glandular racemes. Calyx is stalked, bell-shaped, and 10 to 12 mm long; the upper calyx-lip is entire, and the lower one obtusely 2-toothed. Corolla-tube is very short, and the included upper lip is short, nearly straight, slightly flattened, and concave. Nutlets are very minute and ellipsoid.
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Constituents:
* Study yielded six compounds: hispidulin-glucoronide, hispidulin-7-O-D-glucoside, 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, ß-sitosterol, 2′-hydroxy-5′-methoxybiochanin A and coniferyl aldehyde.

*Study of whole plant yielded: ß-sitosterol, hispidulin, carnosol, rosmadial, ursolic acid, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid methyl ester and scopoletin.

Edible Uses:  Flowers and leaves used as condiment.

Properties:-
*Considered astringent, diuretic, vermifuge.
*Antihepatotoxic, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, analgesic.

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Medicinal Uses:

Parts used: Seeds, leaves.

Folkloric
*Seeds are used in gonorrhea and menorrhage.
*In Bombay, used to increase sexual powers.
*In China, used as anti-inflammatory and for treating urinary tract infections.

Studies :-
• Antioxidant: Study yielded six compounds. (See:Constituents) Compounds 3, 4 and 5 ( 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, ?-sitosterol, 2?-hydroxy-5?-methoxybiochanin A) showed strong antioxidant activities.
Pharmacologic Activities: Study on pharmacologic activities of Compound Salvia Plebeia Granules (CSPG) long used for treating UTIs showed a dose-related diuretic effect, antipyretic, antiblastic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Results support its folkloric use on treating urinary tract infections.
• Chemical Constituents: Study on whole plant of Salvia plebeia yielded nine compounds: ß-sitosterol, hispidulin, carnosol, rosmadial, ursolic acid, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid methyl ester and scopoletin. 8 and 9 were reported for Salvia genus for the first time and 3-7 from S. plebeia for the first time.
New Phenylfutanone Glucoside: Study yielded a new phenylbutanone glucoside, salviaplebeiaside, along with two known phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid methyl ester and luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside.
• Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of “Chhit-Chan-Than,” a Taiwan herbal remedy believed to have anti-inflammatory and detoxification activities, and used in the treatment of hepatitis. The crude extracts of the three herbal components – Salvia plebeia, O gratissimum and O basilicum – were studied. Results showed that S. plebeia was the most potent of the three crude extracts, protecting the liver against CCl4-intoxication and D-GaIN-induced hepatotoxicity.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/SageWeed.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_plebeia
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/520091/Salvia
http://www.asianflora.com/Lamiaceae/Salvia-plebeia.htm

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