Indian Spurge Tree

Botanical name: Euphorbia neriifolia
Family:Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily:Euphorbioideae
Tribe: Euphorbieae
Subtribe: Euphorbiinae
Genus: Euphorbia
Family:  Euphorbiaceae (castor family)
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Other scientific names :   Euphorbia ligularia Roxb.     ,Euphorbia pentagona ,Euphorbia trigona Merr.

Common Names : Bait (Tag.), Hedge euphorbia (Engl.,Blanco Karimbuaya (Ilk.), Common milk hedge (Engl.),Sorog-sorog (Tag.)  ,Indian spurgetree (Engl.), Oleander-leaved euporbia  (Engl.),  Soro-soro (Tag.),Sudusudu (Bis.), Oleander Spurge, {Thor, Patton ki send} (Hindi), Neya-dungra (Marathi), Yelekalli (Kannada)

Habitat : Indian Spurge Tree is cultivated in gardens, and is apparently nowhere spontaneous. It also occurs in India to Malaya, probably introduced in the latter region.

Description:
This is a shrubby, erect, branched, fleshy, cactuslike plant, 2 to 4 meters high, the trunk and older branches being grayish and cylindric; the medium branches being slightly twisted, stout, fleshy, and 4 or 5 angled or winged; the younger ones usually 3-winged, the wings lobulate, with a pair of stout, sharp, 2- to 4- millimeter-long spines rising from the thickened bases at each leaf or petiole-scar. The leaves arise from the sides of wings towards the end of the branches, are fleshy, oblong-obovate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, or in young plants somewhat longer, painted or blunt at the tip. The cymes are short, solitary in the sinuses, and usually of 3 involucres. The involucres are green or pale yellow and about 6 millimeters in diameter, with the lobes fimbriate.
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Constituents:
Studies have yielded euphorbon, resin, gun caoutchouc, malate of calcium, among others.
Phytochemical studies have yielded triterpenes like nerifolione, cycloartenol, euphol, euphorbiol, nerifoliene, taraxerol, b-amyrin among others.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used :Leaves, roots and latex.

Properties:

*Considered purgative, rubefacient, expectorant.
*Leaves considered diuretic.
*Latex considered purgative, diuretic, vermifuge and antiasthma.
*Studies have reported cytotoxic, antiarthritic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immunomodulatory properties.


Folkloric
:
*Roots have been used for snake bites.
*Fluid from roasted leaves used for earache.
*The milky juice used for asthma, cough, earahce. Also, used as an insecticide.
*Externally, applied to sores, cysts, warts, and calluses.
*Juice mixed with tumeric powder used for hemorrhoids.
*By mouth, it is a drastic purgative.
*For internal use: decoction or infusion of 10 grams for 1 liter of water, 2-3 cups daily.
*Juice of leaves used for spasmodic asthma.
*In India, used for bronchitis, tumors, leukoderma, piles, inflammation, fever, earaches, anemia and ulcers.
*In Malaya, used for earache.
*In French Guiana, leaves are heated, squeezed, and the salted sap used for wheezing in babies, colds and stomach upsets. Also used for infected nails, fevers, coughs and diabetes in NW Guyana. source
In Ayurveda, whole plant, leaf and roots used for abdominal complaints, bronchitis, tumors, splenic enlargement, coughs and colds.

Studies
• Anesthetic Activity: Both the alcoholic and aqueous extracts from the fresh stem of E nerifolia revealed significant anesthetic activity on intradermal wheal in guinea-pig and foot-withdrawal reflex in frog.
• Radioprotective / Cytotoxic: Study isolated Euphol from the triterpenoidal sapogenin fraction of E nerifolia leaf which exerted moderate antioxidant activity with highly significant reduction of gamma radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. It also showed cytotoxic activity on melanoma cell lines. Results provide scientific basis for claimed anticarcinogenic use.
Wound Healing: In a research for wound healing drugs, E nerifolia was one of the Ayurvedic medicinal plantsfrom Ayurvedic medicinal plants found to be effective in animal models.
• Triterpene: Study isolated a new triterpene from the leaves and stems of Euphorbia nerifolia – glut-5(10)-en-1-one.
• Antifungal: Study on the antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants against Fusarium oxysporum showed various extracts with inhibition of mycelial growth. However, the bark of E nerifolia exhibited absolute toxicity against the test fungus.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.stuartxchange.com/SoroSoro.html
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/s/soro-soro.pdf
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian%20Spurge%20Tree.html
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/90610/

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