Bornholm Disease

Alternative Name : Epidemic pleurodynia,Sylvest’s disease , epidemic benign dry pleurisy,Bamble disease, the devil’s grip, devil’s grippe, epidemic myalgia, epidemic pleurodynia, epidemic transient diaphragmatic spasm or The Grasp of the Phantom

Definition:
Bornholm disease is a temporary illness that is a result of virus infection. The disease features fever and intense abdominal and chest pains with headache. The chest pain is typically worsened by breathing or coughing. The illness usually lasts from 3 to 14 days.

click to see the pictures

click to see

The most common virus causing Bornholm disease is an enterovirus called Coxsackie B.

Group B coxsackieviruses are transmitted from person to person by fecal-oral contamination or direct mouth to mouth contact. Other people become infected with the virus if they touch contaminated items then put their fingers in their mouth before washing them properly. Contaminated items can include soiled diapers, shared toys and toilets.

Bornholm disease is also called epidemic myalgia and pleurodynia (because of inflammation of the lining tissue of the lungs).

Epidemic pleurodynia is contagious and occurs in clusters, meaning many people in an area get it around the same time. Up to 90% of epidemics occur in the summer and early fall. The illness most commonly strikes people younger than age 30, although older people also may be affected.

Coxsackie B virus is spread by contact and epidemics usually occur during warm weather in temperate regions and at any time in the tropics. As is typical with this virus family, it is shed in large amounts in the feces of infected persons. The disease can be spread by sharing drink containers, and has been contracted by laboratory personnel working with the virus

The disease is named after the Danish island where the first documented cases arose.

In 1872, Daae-Finsen reported an epidemic of “acute muscular rheumatism” occurring in a community called Bamble, giving rise to the name “Bamble disease” in Norway. Subsequent reports, published only in Norwegian, referred to the disease by this name. In 1933, Ejnar Sylvest gave a doctoral thesis describing a Danish outbreak of this disease on Bornholm Island entitled, “Bornholm disease-myalgia epidemica”, and this name has persisted

Symptoms:
The sudden onset of fever and pain occurs about four days after infection. Flu-like symptoms may be experienced during this incubation period.

There is pain in the chest or upper abdomen, usually on one side. It varies in intensity, but is often described as stabbing, or ‘grip-like’. The pain is spasmodic, lasting for 15 to 30 minutes at a time. Coughing, sneezing and sudden movements can make it worse.

The symptoms usually last about one to two days in children and about two to six days in adults. Sometimes, the pain and fever return after a day or two.

On rare occasions, there are several recurrences of pain and fever over a period of three weeks or more.

Your ads will be inserted here by

Easy Plugin for AdSense.

Please go to the plugin admin page to
Paste your ad code OR
Suppress this ad slot.

Complications are rare, but include inflammation of the testes (orchitis) or the heart (pericarditis, myocarditis), and meningitis.

Cause:
Inoculation of throat washings taken from people with Bornholm disease into the brains of newborn mice revealed that enteroviruses in the Coxsackie B virus group were likely to be the cause of Bornholm disease, and those findings were supported by subsequent studies of IgM antibody responses measured in serum from people with Bornholm disease. Other viruses in the enterovirus family, including echovirus and Coxsackie A virus, are infrequently associated with Bornholm disease.

click to see

Group B coxsackieviruses are transmitted from person to person by fecal-oral contamination or direct mouth to mouth contact. Other people become infected with the virus if they touch contaminated items then put their fingers in their mouth before washing them properly. Contaminated items can include soiled diapers, shared toys and toilets.

Diagnosis:
Diagnosis is commonly simplified in an epidemic, although different causes of acute chest and abdominal pain must be excepted. Your doctor may push on muscles in your chest to notice if the pressure actuate a spasm of pain. Often, your doctor can examine the difficulty without any specific tests, particularly if there is an outbreak of the disease in your area. The infection from time to time disperse to cause inflammation in other organs, including the pleura (membrane surrounding the lungs), lungs, heart, liver, brain and testes.

Treatment :
The illness lasts about a week and is rarely fatal. Treatment includes the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or the application of heat to the affected muscles. Relapses during the weeks following the initial episode are a characteristic feature of this disease.Painkillers and drugs can be used to reduce the fever.

The best treatment of Bornholm Disease is terminate bed rest, and fever and pain can be decreased by paracetamol for children or aspirin for adults. Recovery in uncomplicated cases is commonly finish within a week. Here is the list of several of the preclusion tips or tips for treating Bornholm Disease:

*People of any age may be involved although it frequently pretend people under the age of 30.
*Intravenous immune globulin may be utilised to treat newborns and those with a decreased immune system.

Prognosis:
Almost all generally healthy individuals recover completely from pleurodynia. However, about 5% of people develop acute viral meningitis as a complication of the coxsackievirus infection, and about 5% of adult males develop orchitis. Less common complications include hepatitis, pericarditis and myocarditis.

Prevention:
The viruses that cause epidemic pleurodynia can spread very easily among young children, who tend to put toys or fingers into their mouth. The disease is most likely to spread in day care centers. The best way to prevent infection is to wash hands thoroughly, especially before meals or after changing a diaper or using the bathroom. There is no vaccine to prevent pleurodynia.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/bornholmdisease1.shtml
http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtPrint/WSIHW000/9339/24698.html?hide=t&k=basePrint
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bornholm_disease

http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2914192/what_is_bornholm_disease.html

http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/Coxsackie-Virus-Infection.htm

http://www.health-issues.org/rare-diseases/bornholm-disease.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *