Blepharochalasis

Definition:
Blepharochalasis is an inflammation of the eyelid that is characterized by exacerbations and remissions of eyelid edema, which results in a stretching and subsequent atrophy of the eyelid tissue resulting in redundant folds over the lid margins. It typically affects only the upper eyelids, and may be unilateral as well as bilateral.

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Subjective: Lax, wrinkled, and baggy eyelid skin

Blepharochalasis results from recurrent bouts of painless eyelid swelling, each lasting for several days. This is thought to be a form of localized angioedema, or rapid accumulation of fluid in the tissues. Recurrent episodes lead to thin and atrophic skin. Damage to the levator palpebrae superioris muscle causes ptosis, or drooping of the eyelid, when the muscle can no longer hold the eyelid up.

These episodes often result in eyelid skin redundancy. In 1817, Beer initially described the condition; however, in 1896, Fuchs first assigned the term blepharochalasis to this entity. The word blepharochalasis originates from the Greek blepharon (eyelid) and chalasis (a relaxing).

Various disease stages have been observed. In 1926, Benedict described a swelling stage and a subsequent stage characterized by thinning skin. Others have suggested an active, intumescent phase that precedes a quiescent, atrophic phase.

It is encountered more commonly in younger rather than older individuals.

Symptoms:
•Droopy eyelid
•Eyelid swelling
•Stretched eyelid
•Degeneration of the eyelid
•Thin eyelids

Causes:
Blepharochalasis is idiopathic in most cases, i.e., the cause is unknown. Systemic conditions linked to blepharochalasis are renal agenesis, vertebral abnormalities, and congenital heart disease.

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Complications:
Complications of blepharochalasis may include conjunctival hyperemia (excessive blood flow through the moist tissues of the orbit), chemosis, entropion, ectropion, and ptosis.

Diagnosis:
Blepharochalasis is often confused with dermatochalasis, which refers to the lax and redundant skin most commonly observed in the upper eyelids with aging. However, dermatochalasis is usually not associated with recurrent attacks of edema, “cigarette-paper” skin, and subcutaneous telangiectasia, as observed in blepharochalasis.

Treatment:-
Surgery:

A surgeon trained to do eyelid surgery, such as a plastic surgeon or ophthalmologist, is required to decide and perform the appropriate surgical procedure. Following procedures have been described for blepharochalasis:

*External levator aponeurosis tuck
*Blepharoplasty
*Lateral canthoplasty
*Dermis fat grafts

These are used to correct atrophic blepharochalasis after the syndrome has run its course.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blepharochalasis
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1214014-overview
http://www.nature.com/eye/journal/v18/n4/fig_tab/6700668f2.html

http://elementsofmorphology.nih.gov/index.cgi?tid=995a2398db7eefe2

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