Romano-Ward syndrome is a condition that causes a disruption of the heart’s normal rhythm (arrhythmia). This disorder is a form of long QT syndrome, which is a heart condition that causes the heart (cardiac) muscle to take longer than usual to recharge between beats. The irregular heartbeats can lead to fainting (syncope) or cardiac arrest and sudden death.
Romano-Ward syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is the most common form of inherited long QT syndrome, affecting an estimated 1 in 5,000 people worldwide, although more people may be affected but never experience any signs or symptoms of the condition.
The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Romano-Ward syndrome includes the 9 symptoms listed below:
•Partial loss of consciousness
•Total loss of consciousness
•Long Q-T intervals
•Grand mal seizures
•Lowered blood potassium level
Mutations in the ANK2, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNH2, KCNQ1, and SCN5A genes cause Romano-Ward syndrome. The proteins made by most of these genes form channels that transport positively-charged ions, such as potassium and sodium, in and out of cells. In cardiac muscle, these ion channels play critical roles in maintaining the heart’s normal rhythm. Mutations in any of these genes alter the structure or function of channels, which changes the flow of ions between cells. A disruption in ion transport alters the way the heart beats, leading to the abnormal heart rhythm characteristic of Romano-Ward syndrome.
Unlike most genes related to Romano-Ward syndrome, the ANK2 gene does not produce an ion channel. The protein made by the ANK2 gene ensures that other proteins, particularly ion channels, are inserted into the cell membrane appropriately. A mutation in the ANK2 gene likely alters the flow of ions between cells in the heart, which disrupts the heart’s normal rhythm and results in the features of Romano-Ward syndrome.
This article incorporates public domain text from The U.S. National Library of Medicine
How do people inherit Romano-Ward syndrome?
This condition is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person inherits the mutation from one affected parent. A small percentage of cases result from new mutations in one of the genes described above. These cases occur in people with no history of Romano-Ward syndrome in their family.
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An imbalance between the right and left sides of the sympathetic nervous system may play a role in the etiology of this syndrome. The imbalance can be temporarily abolished with a left stellate ganglion block, which shorten the QT interval. If this is successful, surgical ganglionectomy can be performed as a permanent treatment
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose
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