Aureolaria pedicularia

Botanical Name : Aureolaria pedicularia
Family : Scrophulariaceae – Figwort family
Genus : Aureolaria Raf. – false foxglove
Species: Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. – fernleaf yellow false foxglove
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision:  Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass : Asteridae
Order : Scrophulariales

Common Names :Feverweed ,Fern-Leaf False Foxglove

Habitat: Aureolaria pedicularia is occasional in sandy areas of NE Illinois and rare to absent elsewhere in the state . Habitats include sandy upland forests, sandy upland savannas, sandy thickets, and stabilized sand dunes near Lake Michigan. In all of these habitats, Oak trees are typically present, particularly Quercus velutina (Black Oak).

Description:
Aureolaria pedicularia is an annual or biennial flowering plant that initially forms a rosette of basal leaves, followed by a much-branched flowering plant that is about 1-4′ tall. The basal leaves and opposite leaves of the flowering plant are similar to each other, except that the former are longer in length and less deltoid in outline. The stems are light green to pale purplish green, terete, and moderately to densely covered with spreading glandular hairs. The opposite leaves are up to 3″ long and 2″ across; they are medium green to purplish green, lanceolate to ovate-deltoid in outline, and bipinnatifid with 3-7 pairs of primary lobes. Usually, the opposite leaves are short-hairy, especially on their lower surfaces. They are mostly sessile, although lower leaves have short petioles. The outer stems terminate in small clusters of 1-3 flowers. Individual flowers are 1¼–1½” long; each flower has a trumpet-shaped yellow corolla, a short green calyx with 5 teeth, 4 stamens, and a single slender style. The calyx is covered with glandular hairs and its teeth are pinnatifid. Along the outer rim of the corolla, there are 5 rounded lobes; they are widely spreading. Within the corolla, there are 1-3 thick lines of reddish brown streaks or dots. The pedicels of the flowers are ½–2″ long and glandular hairy. The blooming period occurs from late summer to early fall and lasts about a month. On an individual plant, several flowers can be in bloom at the same time. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is replaced by an ovoid seed capsule about ½” long that has a slender beak at its apex. Each capsule contains many seeds. The root system consists of a taproot and small feeder roots; the latter parasitize the roots of Oak trees for water and nutrients. This wildflower reproduces by reseeding itself…

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The flowers are cross-pollinated primarily by bumblebees, which suck nectar and collect pollen. Other possible floral visitors include other long-tongued bees and the Ruby-Throated Hummingbird. The flea beetles Capraita circumdata and Kuschelina horni feed on Aureolaria spp. (False Foxgloves). The caterpillars of a Noctuid Moth, Rhodoecia aurantiago, bores into the seed capsules of these species, and the aphid Aphis gerardiae has been observed to suck juices from Fern-Leaf False Foxglove specifically.

Cultivation: The preference is partial to full sun, mesic to dry conditions, and sandy soil. It is desirable that a host plant (e.g., an Oak) be present in the vicinity.

Medicinal Uses:
It has been used in herbal remedies for its diaphoretic and sedative properties.  Used principally in febrile and inflammatory diseases; a warm infusion produces a free and copious perspiration in a short time. Dose of the infusion, from 1 to 3 fluid ounces.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AUPE2
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/savanna/plants/fernleaf_foxglove.htm
http://www.duke.edu/~jspippen/plants/aureolaria.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

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