Mallotus philippensis

Botanical Name :Mallotus philippensis
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Acalyphoideae
Tribe: Acalypheae
Genus: Mallotus
Species: M. philippensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Other scientific names :Croton philippinense,Echinus philippinensis Rottlera manilensis,Rottlera philippinensis

Common Names:Apuyot (Sul.),Pikal (Sbl.), Buas (Ilk.), Rohini, Darandang (Tag.), Sala (Tag., Bis.), Kamala (Engl.)  Tafu (Ibn.)
Kamela (Engl.), Tagusala (P. Bis) ,Panagisen (Ibn.)  Tutula (Tagb.) ,Panagisian (Ibn., Klg., Neg.)  Rottlera (Engl.) ,Pañgaplasin (Ilk.),Indian Kamila,Banato

Habitat ;
It occurs in India, China (South), Malesia to Australia, Melanesia, Japan (Ryukyu), Thailand, Indochina, Laos (Khammouan).
. The southern most limit of natural distribution is Mount Keira, south of Sydney. The species name refers to the type specimen being collected in the Philippines, where it is known as Banato.

Description:
A tree growing to a height of 4 to 10 meters, with the branchlets, young leaves and inflorescence covered with brown hairs. Leaves are alternate, oblong-ovate, with a pointed tip and rounded base, 7 to 16 cm long, with toothed or entire margins. Upper surface of the leaf what two smooth glands; the lower surface, glaucous and hairy with numerous, scattered crimson glands. Male flowers are numerous, 3 mm in diameter, axillary, solitary or fasicled spikes, 5 to 8 cm long. Female flowers are in solitary racemes. Fruit is spherical, 6 to 8 mm in diameters, densely covered with red or crimson powder, with three cells, each containing a dark grey, rounded seed that is flattened on one side.

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Chemical Constituents and properties:
Considered antibacterial, anticancer, antihelminthic, antifertility, antispasmodic, astringent, contracepticeptive, laxative, vermifuge, and purgative and vulnerary.

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Extract of kamala from the glands and hairs yielded a resin, a wax, and the crystalline compound rottlerin.
Kamala also contains a minute amount of essential oil, which when gently warmed emits a peculiar odor.

The principle constituent, rottlerin, is from the kamala resin.
Rottlerin (reddish-yellow resin), 47-80%; fixed oil, 5.83-24%; citric acid; mallotoxin; kamalin.
The seed contains a fixed oil, camul oil and a bitter glucoside.
According to Ayurveda, leaves are bitters, cooling and appetizer.
Fruit is anthelminthic, vulnerary, detergent, maturant, carminative

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used and preparation: Leaves, bark and seeds.
Folkloric
Fungal skin infections: Pound leaves or seeds and apply on affected areas.
The red glands of the fruit is antiherpetic and antihelminthic.
Poulticed leaves and bark used for skin diseases – ringworm and scabies; poulticed seeds used for wound healing.
Powder taken with milk for tapeworms, repeated as necessary.
In india, used for bronchitis, abdominal diseases, spleen enlargement.
Elsewhere, used for constipation, anorexia, cancers, dermatosis, cramps, dysmenorrhea.

Studies
• Antifilarial Activity: The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Mallotus philippensis was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle preparation of Setaria cervic and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro.
Antimicrobial: In an ethnopharmacological screening in Nepal, the bark from Mallotus philippensis was found to be active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
* Anti-allergic: Two new phloroglucinol derivatives were isolated from the fruits of Mallotus philippensis. They inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells suggesting the new phloroglucinol derivaties have anti-allergic effects.
• Antibacterial / Phytochemical: (1) Study showed excellent inhibition with chloroform and methanol extracts of the stem barkn testing with E coli, K pneumonia, P aeruginosa, S typhi and B subtilis, (2) Mallotus philippinensis was one of plants in a study of 61 Indian medicinal plants that exhibited antimicrobial properties, supporting its folkloric use as antimicrobial treatment for some diseases.
• Antifertility: Study showed when females treated with Kamala seed extract were mated with non-treated males, rate of infertile mating increased in a dose-dependent manner with reduced pregnancy rate and number of implantation sites. Data indicate, Kamala reduced levels of FSH and LH and affected various reproductive parameters of female rats.

Other Uses:
Kamala, the powder obtained from the glands and hairs, besides its medicinal properties, is valued as a dye.
Dye is used for coloring silk and wool.
The oil derived from the seeds is used in paints and varnishes, as hair-fixer, and ointment additive.
Antioxidant for ghee and vegetable oils.
Wood pulp used for making writing and printing paper.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Banato.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mallotus_philippensis
http://www.biotik.org/laos/species/m/malph/malph_en.html
http://www.indi-journal.info/archives/2748

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