Trachyspermum roxburghianum(Bengali Radhuni)

Trachyspermum ammi (Daucus anisodorus, IS) US6...

Trachyspermum ammi (Daucus anisodorus, IS) US623737 (Photo credit: filibot.web)

Botanical Name :Trachyspermum roxburghianum
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)
Genus: Trachyspermum
Species: T. roxburghianum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Apiales

Synonyms: Pimpinella lateriflora, Pimpinella dalzellii, Carum roxburghianum

Common Name :Wild Celery • Hindi:  Ajmod • Tamil: Asamtavomam • Malayalam: Ayamodakam • Telugu: Ajumoda, Vamu • Kannada: Ajamodhavoma • Bengali: Randhuni, Shah jira • Urdu: Ajmod • Sanskrit: Ajamoda

Habitat : Native habitat of celery extends from Sweden to Egypt, Algeria and Ethiopia and in Asia, India and China. It is an annual in the planes, whereas, biennial in cold climate and on hills.

Description:
Trachyspermum roxburghianum is an erect, branched annual herb, 0.5-3 ft tall. Stems are longitudinally triped. Leaves are double-compound, ultimate segements all linear. Flowers occur in compound umbels. They have rounded white or pink petals. Fruits are ovoid, ultimately shining, yellow. Stem much branched, striate, subglabrous. Leaves alternate, pinnately compound; blade ternately pinnate or 1-2 pinnate, leaflets pinnatifid to pinnatipartite, gradually becoming nearly filiform upward. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, compound umbel; peduncle up to 8 cm long; involucral bracts 2-5, linear-lanceolate; primary rays 2-9, up to 4 cm long; secondary rays (pedicels) 5-15, up to 7 mm long. Calyx teeth 5, small or obscure. Petals 5, obcordate with broadly inflexed obtuse apices. Pistil with compressed, glandular hairy ovary. Fruit laterally compressed, ovoid to sublobose schizocarp, easily splitting into 2, one-seeded mericarps; mericarp with 5 prominent longitudinal ribs.

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It is a very Trachyspermum roxburghianum is a strong spice, with a characteristic smell similar to parsley. A couple of pinches can easily overpower a curry. In Bengali cuisine the seeds are used whole, quickly fried in very hot oil until they crackle. Flowering: December-February.

The small dried fruits, mistakenly referred to as seeds, are similar in appearance to those of ajwain, celery, and caraway. Because of their similarity in both appearance and flavor, it is often confused or substituted with celery seed.

Edible Uses:
It is a very strong spice, with a characteristic smell similar to parsley and a taste similar to celery. A couple of pinches can easily overpower a curry. In Bengali cuisine the seeds are used whole, quickly fried in very hot oil until they crackle. They are part of a local panch phoron (Bengali five spice) mixture, where they replace the more commonly used mustard seed; the other ingredients are cumin seed, fenugreek seed, fennel seed, and kalonji (often wrongly called “wild onion seed,” and known locally (though erroneously) as “black cumin seed” Nigella sativa. In other places, a common use is in pickles or spice mixtures.

Young plants are harvested and consumed fresh as side dish or added to soup. Dried whole plant with inflorescence is used aas spice to flavor curries. Highly antimutagenic (Nakahara, 2002).

Chemcial Constituents:
Seeds – Essential oil 1.8 – 2 %, ( d -limonene, a-terpene, dipentene, d-linallol, terpineol, dl-piperitone, thymoquinol, thymol and a ketonic acid, 0.09 % ) C.A. 1943, 1009  Ind.J.Pharm . 1953, 15, 298, (4 ) . Fruits – Bergapten and Carvacrol.

Medicinal Properties:
Anti-diarrhoeal
Fruit -50 % alcoholic extract in broth culture at 125 mcg / ml . is active Vs E.histolytica  . Seeds exhibited activity against E.histolytica .Ind . J . Exptl . Biol . 1968, 6, 232

Medicinal Uses:
The fresh leaves are used as an herb in Thailand and it is used medicinally in Myanmar.

Anti-tumor
Fresh leaf – Methanol extract at 200 mg / ml . showed strong activity Vs CVells Raji . EBVactivation induced by HPA ( 40 ng / ml . )

Anti-oxidant
oil produced marked diuretic effect in rabbits . Ind.J . Med . Res . 1954.

CNS
Fruit – 50 % alcoholic extract given I / P in mice at 500 mg / kg . showed neuroleptic activity  . Seeds induced hyperactivity of CNS in mice . Ind . J . Exptl . Biol . 1968, 6, 232

Diuretic
oil produced marked diuretic effect in rabbits . Ind.J . Med . Res . 1954,

Cardiovascular
Fruits left after extraction of essential oil showed marked cardiotonic activity . . Ind.J . Med . Res . 1954, 42, 389  . Etherextract showed antiasggregating effect against platelet aggregation bt arachidonic acid .pro0bably due to effect on throboxane production Prostaglandin LeukotEssen.fatty acids, 1988 .

Hypotensive
Essential oil and crystalline substance loweredblood pressure in dogs and ratsdue to direct action on blood vessels . Ind.J . Med .  1954, 42, 389.

Spasmolytic
Seeds – Ketonic compound showed antispasmodic actvity particularly on smooth muscle of rabbit gut ., Ind.J.Pharm .1953, Ind.J . Med .1954.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radhuni

http://www.ayurnepal.com/en/trachyspermum-roxburghianum.html

http://herbsgujarat.tripod.com/images/trachyspermum.gif

http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Wild%20Celery.html

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