Neolamarckia cadamba

Botanical Name : Neolamarckia cadamba
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Neolamarckia
Species: N. cadamba
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Sanskrit Synonyms: Kadamba, Kutsitanga

Common Names:Kadam,kadam ful (in Bengali),Kadam (in english),Kadamb(in hindi) and Katambu, Kadambu, Attu tekku  (in Malayalam)

Habitat : Neolamarckia cadamba is native to the following areas:
*Southern China

*Indian subcontinent: India (n. & w.); Bangladesh; Nepal; Sri Lanka

*Southeast     Asia: Cambodia; Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam, Indonesia; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; AustraliaNeolamarckia cadamba is  native to South and Southeast Asia.

Description:
Neolamarckia cadamba is an evergreen tropical tree, it can grow  up to 45 m (148 ft) in height. It is a large tree with a broad crown and straight cylindrical bole. It is quick growing, with broad spreading branches and grows rapidly in the first 6-8 years. The trunk has a diameter of 100-160 cm, but typically less than that. Leaves are 13–32 cm (5.1–13 in) long. Flowering usually begins when the tree is 4–5 years old. Kadam flowers are sweetly fragrant, red to orange in colour, occurring in dense, globular heads of approximately 5.5 cm (2.2 in) diameter. The fruit of N. cadamba occur in small, fleshy capsules packed closely together to form a fleshy yellow-orange infructescence containing approximately 8000 seeds. On maturing, the fruit splits apart, releasing the seeds, which are then dispersed by wind or rain.
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Some botanical features are detailed below:-
*Leaves glossy green, opposite, simple more or less sessile to petiolate, ovate to elliptical with dimensions of 15–50 cm (5.9–20 in) by 8–25 cm (3.1–9.8 in).

*Flowers inflorescence in clusters; terminal globose heads without bracteoles, subsessile fragrant, orange or yellow flowers; Flowers bisexual, 5-merous, calyx tube funnel-shaped, corolla gamopetalous saucer-shaped with a narrow tube, the narrow lobes imbricate in bud.

*Stamens 5, inserted on the corolla tube, filaments short, anthers basifixed. Ovary inferior, bi-locular, sometimes 4-locular in the upper part, style exserted and a spindle-shaped stigma.

*Fruitlets numerous with their upper parts containing 4 hollow or solid structures. Seed trigonal or irregularly shaped

Medicinal Uses:
Medicinal Properties of the Plant as per Ayurveda

Plant pacifies vitiated pitta, inflammation, urinary retention, fever, cough, diarrhea, menorrhagia, burning sensation, wounds, ulcer and general debility.

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Other Uses:
The caterpillars of the Commander (Limenitis procris), a brush-footed butterfly, utilize this species as a foodplant. The fruit and inflorescences are reportedly edible to humans. The fresh leaves are fed to cattle. The fragrant orange flowers attract pollinators. Its sapwood is white with a light yellow tinge becoming creamy yellow on exposure and is not clearly differentiated from the heartwood.

Neolamarckia cadamba is grown as an ornamental, and for low-grade timber and paper. The timber is used for plywood, light construction, pulp and paper, boxes and crates, dug-out canoes, and furniture components. Kadamba yields a pulp of satisfactory brightness and performance as a hand sheet. The wood can be easily impregnated with synthetic resins to increase its density and compressive strength. The wood has a density of 290–560 kg/cu m at 15% moisture content, a fine to medium texture; straight grain; low luster and has no characteristic odor or taste. It is easy to work with hand and machine tools, cuts cleanly, gives a very good surface and is easy to nail. The timber air dries rapidly with little or no degrade. Kadamba wood is very easy to preserve using either open tank or pressure-vacuum systems.

Kadamba is stated to be one of the most frequently planted trees in the tropics. A yellow dye is obtained from the root bark. Kadamba flowers are an important raw material in the production of ‘attar’, which is Indian perfume with sandalwood (Santalum spp.) base in which one of the essences is absorbed through hydro-distillation. The flowers exhibit slight anti-implantation activity in test animals. Kadamba extracts exhibit nematicidal effects on Meloidogyne incognita. The dried bark is used to relieve fever and as a tonic. An extract of the leaves serves as a mouth gargle.

The tree is grown along avenues, roadsides and villages for shade. Kadamba are suitable for reforestation programs. It sheds large amounts of leaf and non-leaf litter which on decomposition improves some physical and chemical properties of soil under its canopy. This reflects an increase in the level of soil organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, available plant nutrients and exchangeable bases.

The Grama Paddhati, a Kannada work dealing with the history of the Tulu Brahmins, narrates a story that after Parasurama created the Haiga and Tulu countries, Shiva and Parvati came to Sahyadri, and there a child was born to the divine couple. Since the birth took place under a Kadamba tree, the child was named Kadamba, and was placed in charge of the Sahyadri region. Mayursharma belonged to this family and he made Banavasi his capital. Kadamba tree is also mentioned in other mythical stories. It is considered the Tree of Buddhism, and was thought to reunite separated lovers.[5] Kadamba is mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana. In Northern India, it is associated with Krishna while in the south it is known as “Parvathi’s tree”. Radha and Krishna are supposed to have conducted their love play in the hospitable and sweet-scented shade of the Kadamba tree. In the Sangam period of Tamil Nadu, Murugan of the Tirupparankundram hill of Madurai was referred to as a centre of nature worship. He was in the form of a spear under a Kadamba tree. In another mythical story, it is stated that Dhruv, son of King Uttanapada and wife Suniti, set out with firm determination to please Vishnu. He arrived in Madhuban (Garden) and took a seat under a Kadamba tree on the bank of the river Yamuna. During the first month he ate roots and tubers. In the second month he ate dried leaves. During the third month he managed with Yamuna river water. During the fourth month he sustained himself on air. Then Dhruv even stopped breathing. Now, standing on one leg only, he was fully concentrating on Vishnu. In Jayadeva’s Gitagovindam, Song of Govinda, (a poetic work on Lord Krishna composed in 1200 AD by Jayadeva of Puri) stanza 1, says “He who is mixed up or mingled in the darkness at a peaceful Kadamba tree, pre-set by me,—deserve supreme love and affection of the Supreme and hence I reminisce about him.”

An episode from the life of Lord Krishna narrates of when he stole the garments of gopis when they were bathing in a pond near Vrindavan. Varuna, the sea-god, had forbidden nude bathing in rivers, ponds and other public places, but gopis often resorted to it. One day, to teach them a lesson, Krishna reached the bank of the pond where they were taking a bath and took away their garments and spread them on the branches of nearby Kadamba tree. He himself climbed the tree and hid there behind a branch. After the gopis had bathed, they looked for their garments but found them missing. Suddenly their attention was drawn to the nearby Kadamba tree by the stirring of its branches. When they looked up, they saw Krishna hiding there and their garments scattered all over the branches of the tree. Krishna insisted that they come out naked to receive their garments. This episode is portrayed in song, story, painting and artifacts, in the backdrop of the Kadamba tree.

The word Kadamba lends its name to the Kadamba Dynasty which ruled from Banavasi in what is now the state of Karnataka from 345 CE to 525 CE, as per Talagunda inscription of c.450 CE. The Kadamba tree was considered a holy tree by the Kadamba dynasty.

Religious significance:
Karam-Kadamba is a popular harvest festival, celebrated on the eleventh Moon day of the month Bhaadra. A twig of the tree is brought and worshipped in the courtyard of the house. Later in the day, young ears of grain are distributed among friends and relatives. This festive custom has been adopted by Tulu people. Onam (Kerala) and Huttari (Kodagu) are regional variants of this festival. Kadambotsava (“The festival of Kadamba”) is also the festival that is celebrated every year by the Government of Karnataka in honor of the Kadamba kingdom, the first ruling Kingdom of Karnataka, at Banavasi, as it was here that the Kadamba kings organised the spring festival every year.

The Kadamba tree is also associated with a tree deity called Kadambariyamman. The Kadamba tree, which is considered the ‘sthalavruksham’ (Tree of the place) of the city that is otherwise known as ‘Kadambavanam’ (Kadamba forest) and is present in Meenakshi Temple. A withered relic of the Kadamba tree is also preserved there.

It claimed that the 27 Stars (constellations) constituting 12 Houses (Rasis) and 9 Planets are specifically represented precisely by 27 trees —one for each star. The Kadamba tree is said to represent Shatabhisha (Western star name -? Aquarii).

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://enchantingkerala.org/ayurveda/ayurvedic-medicinal-plants/kadamb.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolamarckia_cadamba

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