Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Botanical Name : Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Species:H. rosa-sinensis
Kingdom:Plantae

Synonyms Hibiscus boryanus. Hibiscus festalis. Hibiscus storckii

Common Names: Chinese Hibiscus, Shoeblackplant, Hawaiian Hibiscus, Tropical Hibiscus, China Rose, Rose-of-China
Indian Vernacular Names:
Marathi – Jakhand
Bangla – Jaba
Tamil – sembaruthi
Hindi – Jabakusum, Gurhul, Jaba
Malayalam – cemparatti
Oriya – Mandara
Sinhala – Wada Mala / Sapaththu mala
Telugu – Mamdaram
Indonesian – Kembang Sepatu
Filipino – Gumamela
Myanmar – Khaung-Yann
Punjabi – Salu

Habitat : Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is native to South East Asia. It can grow anywhere in worm climate.

Description:
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a bushy, evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2.5–5 m (8–16 ft) tall and 1.5–3 m (5–10 ft) wide, with glossy leaves and solitary, brilliant red flowers in summer and autumn. The 5-petaled flowers are 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with prominent orange-tipped red anthers.

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The root is a branched tap root. The stem is erect, green, cylindrical and branched. The leaf is simple, with alternate phyllotaxy and is petiolate. The leaf shape is ovate, the tip is acute and margin is serrated. Venation is unicostate reticulate. (Venation is branched or divergent.) Free lateral stipules are present.

The flower is complete (bisexual), actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous, and solitary. It can bloom all year round.Bloom Color: Orange, Pink, Red, Salmon, White, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early spring, Late summer, Late spring, Mid summer, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Vase.
Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained humus rich fertile soil in a warm, sheltered position in full sun. A very ornamental plant, it is not very frost-tolerant and needs to be grown in essentially frost-free areas. It might succeed outdoors in the very mildest areas of the country if given a very sheltered warm position. Alternatively, it might be possible to grow the plant as a tender annual by starting it off early in a warm greenhouse. If well-grown it can flower and set seed in its first year. This species grows very well in a frost-free conservatory in Northern Europe so long as it is in a sunny position and free from draughts. Plants will often lose most of their leaves in cool winters, though they will normally regenerate quickly as the warmer weather returns. The flowers of Chinese hibiscus are very important in Hindu devotional ceremonies, being sacred to the Elephant God, Ganesh. Individual flowers are short-lived, in many modern cultivars the flowers wither after 24 hours though in many of the older cultivars they can last for 48 hours. There are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value. Special Features:Attracts birds, Not North American native, Attracts butterflies, Blooms are very showy.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a warm greenhouse. Germination is usually fairly rapid. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If growing them as annuals, plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and protect them with a frame or cloche until they are growing away well. If hoping to grow them as perennials, then it is better to grow them on in the greenhouse for their first year and to plant them out in early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Overwinter them in a warm greenhouse and plant out after the last expected frosts.

Edible Uses:
The flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are edible and are used in salads in the Pacific Islands. Young leaves are sometimes used as a spinach substitute. A nutritional analysis is available. Flowers – raw or cooked. They can also be made into a kind of pickle or used as a purple dye for colouring foods such as preserved fruits and cooked vegetables. A nutritional analysis is available. Root – it is edible but very fibrousy. Mucilaginous, without very much flavour. In several countries the flowers are dried to use in a beverage, usually tea.

Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Flowers (Fresh weight)

•0 Calories per 100g
•Water : 89.8%
•Protein: 0.06g; Fat: 0.4g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 1.56g; Ash: 0g;
•Minerals – Calcium: 4mg; Phosphorus: 27mg; Iron: 1.7mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
•Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.03mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.05mg; Niacin: 0.6mg; B6: 0mg; C: 4.2mg;

Medicinal Uses:
Chinese hibiscus is a sweet, astringent, cooling herb that checks bleeding, soothes irritated tissues and relaxes spasms. The flowers are aphrodisiac, demulcent, emmenagogue, emollient and refrigerant. They are used internally in the treatment of excessive and painful menstruation, cystitis, venereal diseases, feverish illnesses, bronchial catarrh, coughs and to promote hair growth. An infusion of the flowers is given as a cooling drink to ill people. The leaves are anodyne, aperient, emollient and laxative. A decoction is used as a lotion in the treatment of fevers. The leaves and flowers are beaten into a paste and poulticed onto cancerous swellings and mumps. The flowers are used in the treatment of carbuncles, mumps, fever and sores. The root is a good source of mucilage and is used as a substitute for marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis) in the treatment of coughs and colds. A paste made from the root is used in the treament of venereal diseases. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is considered to have a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology. It may have some potential in cosmetic skin care; for example, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
Other Uses:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Hedge, Standard, Seashore, Specimen.

The flower is additionally used in hair care as a preparation. It is also used to shine shoes in certain parts of India. It can also be used as a pH indicator. When used, the flower turns acidic solutions to a dark pink or magenta color and basic solutions to green. It is also used for the worship of Devi, and the red variety is especially prominent, having an important part in tantra. In Indonesia, these flowers are called “kembang sepatu”, which literally means “shoe flower”

The juice from the petals is used in China as shoe-blacking and mascara. A dye is made from the petals. A good quality fibre is obtained from the stems. In warm sub-tropical areas the fibres can be up to 3 metres long, but in Britain they are likely to be much shorter. The fibre is used for coarse fabrics, nets and paper. Plants are often used for hedges and screens, though since they are not very cold hardy they are not suitable for this use in Britain.

National symbol:
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia, called Bunga Raya in Malay. Introduced into the Malay Peninsula in the 12th century, it was nominated as the national flower in the year 1958 by the Ministry of Agriculture amongst a few other flowers, namely ylang ylang, jasmine, lotus, rose, magnolia, and medlar. On 28 July 1960, it was declared by the government of Malaysia that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis would be the national flower.

The word bunga in Malay means “flower”, while raya in Malay means “celebratory” or “grand”. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is literally known as the “celebratory flower” in Malay. The red of the petals symbolizes the courage, life, and rapid growth of the Malaysian, and the five petals represent the five Rukun Negara of Malaysia. The flower can be found imprinted on the notes and coins of the Malaysian ringgit.

Cultural references:
In March 1987 DPR Korea issued a postage stamp depicting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.
On 7th October 2012, Sri Lanka too, issued a stamp set of four and one of it carried a Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower.

Known Hazards : Do not use during pregnancy or if planning children.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus_rosa-sinensis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hibiscus+rosa-sinensis

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