Crataegus arnoldiana

Botanical Name: Crataegus arnoldiana
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Series: Molle
Species:C. submollis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales
Habitat :Crataegus arnoldiana is native to North-eastern N. America – Massachusetts and Connecticut. It grows in the Wooded banks. Thickets on a dry bank.

Description:
Crataegus arnoldiana is a deciduous Tree growing to 7 m (23ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[200]. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position.   Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. This is a tree with an excellent potential as a fruit crop in Britain. The fruit is of very good quality and is freely borne, whilst the tree is of very easy cultivation and rarely troubled by pests or diseases.  A tree at the Hillier Arboretum in September 1993 was about 3 metres tall and 1.5 metres wide. The growth looked somewhat weak and the tree was leaning due to wind rock but it was carrying a heavy crop of fruit. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. A very ornamental plant, it is very closely related to C. mollis, and considered to be part of that species by many botanists. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted.

Propagation:
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. Sub-acid. A delicious flavour, it is sweet with a soft juicy flesh and makes an excellent dessert fruit. It can also be cooked and used in pies, preserves etc and can be dried for later use. The fruit ripens in early September in southern Britain. The fruit is about 2cm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:
Cardiotonic; Hypotensive.
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses: 
Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_submollis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+arnoldiana

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