Rhus x pulvinata

Botanical Name : Rhus x pulvinata
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Rhus
Species: R. typhina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Equisetopsida: C. Agardh
Subclass: Magnoliidae Novák ex Takht.
Superorder: Rosanae Takht.

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Synonyms: Rhus glabra ‘Laciniata’, Rhus glabrata ‘Laciniata’
Common names: Northern Hybrid Sumac, Sumac.

Habitat : Rhus x pulvinata is native to Eastern N. America.It is usually found in upland sites on rich soils, but it is also found in gravel and sandy nutrient-poor soils.
Description:
Rhus x pulvinata is a Suckering deciduous shrub or small, spreading tree, growing to 3 m (9ft) by 5 m (16ft).
Smooth shoots and large pinnate leaves with up to 13 oblong to lance-shaped, green leaflets which turn fiery orange and red-purple in autumn. Erect, dense, conical panicles of yellow-green flowers followed by bristly dark red fruit.

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It is is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is not self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a wide range of soils, from dry to moist, acidic or alkaline, including shallow chalk soils. Succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil in full sun[11, 200]. Tolerates poor sandy soils. A very hardy plant, when fully dormant it can tolerate temperatures down to at least -25°c. However, the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. A naturally occurring hybrid, R. glabra x R. typhina. A very ornamental and variable plant, there are some named varieties. The cultivar ‘Red Autumn Lace’ (often erroneously labelled as R. glabra ‘Laciniata’) is a female form that fruits freely. A good bee plant. Single-stem plants are short-lived in cultivation, but if the plants are coppiced regularly and allowed to form thickets, then they will live longer and also be more ornamental with larger leaves. Any coppicing is best carried out in early spring. Plants have brittle branches and these can be broken off in strong winds. Plants are also susceptible to coral spot fungus. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Many of the species in this genus are highly toxic and can also cause severe irritation to the skin of some people, whilst other species such as this one are not poisonous. It is relatively simple to distinguish which is which, the poisonous species have axillary panicles and smooth fruits whilst non-poisonous species have compound terminal panicles and fruits covered with acid crimson hairs. The toxic species are sometimes separated into their own genus, Toxicodendron, by some botanists. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in hot water (starting at a temperature of 80 – 90c and allowing it to cool) prior to sowing in order to leach out any germination inhibitors. This soak water can be drunk and has a delicious lemon-flavour. The stored seed also needs hot water treatment and can be sown in early spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. This is a hybrid species and will not breed true from seed. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings 4cm long taken in December and potted up vertically in a greenhouse. Good percentag. Suckers in late autumn to winter

Edible Uses:
The following reports refer to R. glabra, but they are almost certainly applicable to this species. Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is small with very little flesh, but it is produced in fairly large panicles and so is easily harvested. When soaked for 10 – 30 minutes in hot or cold water it makes a very refreshing lemonade-like drink (without any fizz of course). The mixture should not be boiled since this will release tannic acids and make the drink astringent. Root – peeled and eaten raw. This report should be treated with some caution due to possible toxicity. Young shoots – peeled and eaten raw. This report should be treated with some caution due to possible toxicity.
Medicinal Uses:
Antiseptic; Astringent; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Febrifuge; Refrigerant; Tonic.

The following reports refer to R. glabra, but they are almost certainly applicable to this species. Smooth sumach was employed medicinally by various native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. It is occasionally used in modern herbalism where it is valued for its astringent and antiseptic qualities. Some caution should be employed in the use of this species since it can possibly cause skin irritations. It is best only used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. A tea made from the bark or root bark is alterative, antiseptic, astringent, galactogogue, haemostatic, rubefacient and tonic. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, fevers, general debility, sore mouths, rectal bleeding, uterine prolapse etc. It is used as a gargle to treat sore throats and applied externally to treat excessive vaginal discharge, burns and skin eruptions. The powdered bark can be applied as a poultice to old ulcers, it is a good antiseptic. A tea made from the roots is appetizer, astringent, diuretic and emetic. An infusion is used in the treatment of colds, sore throats, painful urination, retention of urine and dysentery. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. An infusion of the green or dried branches has been used in the treatment of TB. A decoction of the branches, with the seed heads, has been used to treat itchy scalps and as a bathing water for frost-bitten limbs. The milky latex from the plant has been used as a salve on sores. A tea made from the leaves was used in the treatment of asthma, diarrhoea and stomatosis. A poultice of the leaves has been used to treat skin rashes. The leaves have been chewed to treat sore gums and they have been rubbed on the lips to treat sore lips. The berries are diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, purgative and refrigerant. They are used in the treatment of late-onset diabetes, stranguary bowel complaints, febrile diseases, dysmenorrhoea etc. They have been chewed as a remedy for bed-wetting. The blossoms have been chewed as a treatment for sore mouths. A decoction of the blossoms has been used as a mouthwash for teething children. An infusion of the blossoms has been used as an eye wash for sore eyes.

Other Uses:
Dye; Mordant; Oil; Shelterbelt; Soil Stabilization; Tannin; Wood.

The following reports refer to R. glabra, but they are almost certainly applicable to this species. The leaves are rich in tannin, containing about 10 – 25%. They can be collected as they fall in the autumn and used as a brown dye or as a mordant. The twigs and root are also rich in tannin. A black dye is obtained from the fruit. An orange or yellow dye is obtained from the root. An oil is extracted from the seeds. It attains a tallow-like consistency on standing and is used to make candles. These burn brilliantly, though they emit a pungent smoke. The plant has an extensive root system and is fairly wind tolerant, though branches can be broken off in very strong winds. It is planted for soil stabilization and as a shelter screen. Wood – soft, light, brittle.

Known Hazards: There are some suggestions that the sap of this species can cause a skin rash in susceptible people, but this has not been substantiated. See also notes in ‘Cultivation Details’
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rhus+x+pulvinata
http://www.deeproot.co.uk/pbo/plantdetail.php?plantname=Rhus+x+pulvinata+6I927Red+Autumn+Lace6I927
https://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/102502/Rhus-x-pulvinata-(Autumn-Lace-Group)-Red-Autumn-Lace/Details?returnurl=%2Fplants%2Fsearch-results%3Fs%3Ddesc(plant_merged)%26query%3DRhus%26form-mode%3Dfalse%26context%3Db%25253D0%252526hf%25253D10%252526l%25253Den%252526q%25253DRhus%252526s%25253Ddesc%25252528plant_merged%25252529%252526sl%25253Dplants%26page%3D5%26aliaspath%3D%252fplants%252fsearch-results

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