Alnus tenuifolia

Botanical Name : Alnus tenuifolia
Family: Betulaceae
Genus: Alnus
Subgenus: Alnus
Species: A. incana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fagales

Synonyms: A. incana tenuifolia. (Nutt.)Breitung.
Common Names: Mountain Alder, Thinleaf alder, Alnus incana, Grey alder or Speckled alder

Habitat: Alnus tenuifolia is native to Western N. America – Alaska to California and New Mexico. It grows on moist soils by swamps, streams, ponds and lakes in foothills to well up in the mountains.

Description:
Alnus tenuifolia is a deciduous tree 15–20 m (49–66 ft) tall with smooth grey bark even in old age, its life span being a maximum of 60 to 100 years. The leaves are matte green, ovoid, 5–11 cm (2.0–4.3 in) long and 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) broad. The flowers are catkins, appearing early in spring before the leaves emerge, the male catkins pendulous and 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long, the female catkins 1.5 cm (0.6 in) long and one cm broad when mature in late autumn. The seeds are small, 1–2 mm (0.04–0.08 in) long, and light brown with a narrow encircling wing. The grey alder has a shallow root system, and is marked not only by vigorous production of stump suckers, but also by root suckers, especially in the northern parts of its range. The wood resembles that of the black alder, but is somewhat paler and of little economic value.

It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Bloom Color: Purple, Red. Main Bloom Time: Early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Oval, Pyramidal. It can fix Nitrogen…..CLICK &  SEE THE  PICTURES

Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a heavy soil and a damp situation. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates very infertile sites. A fast-growing but short-lived tree. There is some confusion over the correct name of this tree with one authority citing the European species A. incana as the correct name. Another report says that this species is closely related to A. incana, but distinct. Some modern works treat it as a subspecies (Alnus incana tenuifolia). This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil micro-organisms, these form nodules on the roots of the plants and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Special Features:Not North American native, Wetlands plant, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

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Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe and only just covered. Spring sown seed should also germinate successfully so long as it is not covered. The seed should germinate in the spring as the weather warms up. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. If growth is sufficient, it is possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer, otherwise keep them in pots outdoors and plant them out in the spring. If you have sufficient quantity of seed, it can be sown thinly in an outdoor seed bed in the spring. The seedlings can either be planted out into their permanent positions in the autumn/winter, or they can be allowed to grow on in the seed bed for a further season before planting them. Cuttings of mature wood, taken as soon as the leaves fall in autumn, outdoors in sandy soil.

Edible Uses:
Catkins – raw or cooked. A bitter taste.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is astringent, emetic, haemostatic, stomachic and tonic. The bark also contains salicin, which probably decomposes into salicylic acid (closely related to aspirin) in the human body. This is used as an anodyne and febrifuge. The outer bark is astringent and is applied as a poultice to bleeding wounds, it also reduces swellings.

Other Uses:
Pioneer; Soil stabilization; Tannin; Wood.

This is an excellent pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands on disused farmland, difficult sites etc. Its fast rate of growth means that it quickly provides sheltered conditions to allow more permanent woodland trees to become established. In addition, bacteria on the roots fix atmospheric nitrogen – whilst this enables the tree to grow well in quite poor soils it also makes some of this nitrogen available to other plants growing nearby. Alder trees also have a heavy leaf canopy and when the leaves fall in the autumn they help to build up the humus content of the soil. Alder seedlings do not compete well in shady woodland conditions and so this species gradually dies out as the other trees become established. The tree has an extensive root system and can be planted to control banks from erosion. The bark and the strobils are a source of tannin. A dark dye is obtained from the bark. The colour can range from orange through red to brown. Wood – soft, straight-grained, very durable in water. It is of no commercial value, though it is used locally as a fuel.

Landscape Uses: Erosion control.
Known Hazards: The freshly harvested inner bark is emetic but is alright once it has been dried.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alnus_incana
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Alnus+tenuifolia

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