Prunus cerasus

Botanical Name : Prunus cerasus
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Cerasus
Species: P. cerasus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Cerasus communis. Cerasus vulgaris.

Common Names: Sour cherry, Tart cherry, or Dwarf cherry

Habitat :Prunus cerasus is native to S.E. Europe to W. Asia. Naturalized in Britain.
This plant is widely cultivated as a fruit tree, although it has had no trouble becoming established in the wild in diverse parts of the northwest and west of the Iberian Peninsula: Galicia, northern Portugal, Los Arribes del Duero and the western part of the Sistema Central range (Sierra de Gata, Peña de Francia, Sierra de Béjar and Gredos), as well as the north of the Palencia province. It grows in hedges in S. England.
Description:
Prunus cerasus is a deciduous Tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is very similar in appearance to the cherry tree (Prunus avium L.), with which it is often confused. The leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate (this character is best observed in the middle of the branches, because at the ends they are very close together), and serrated. They are 3-9 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, and finish in a point. They have a 1-3 cm long stalk that often lacks glands. The white flowers develop in very showy clusters. The fruits are sour cherries. This species can be differentiated from the wild cherry by its smaller form and leaves, which have a shiny upper side and a stalk that often lacks glands.

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It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation:
Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil. Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present. Prefers an acid soil according to another report. Succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in a sunny position. Plants are succeeding in a fairly exposed maritime position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. Long cultivated for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties. See separate entries for the various sub-species. It is also a parent, with P. avium, of many cultivars of sweet cherries. Many cultivars will succeed on a north or east facing wall. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants produce suckers freely. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[200]. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame.  Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring. Division of suckers during the dormant season. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Oil; Oil; Seed.

Fruit – raw or cooked. Pleasantly acid, the fruit can be eaten out of hand, used in pies, preserves etc or dried for later use. The fruit is about 18mm in diameter and contains one large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes below on toxicity. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. When refined it is used as a salad oil. The leaves are used as a tea substitute. A gum obtained from the trunk is used for chewing.

Dried sour cherries are used in cooking including soups, pork dishes, cakes, tarts, and pies.
Sour cherries or sour cherry syrup are used in liqueurs and drinks. In Turkey, Greece and Cyprus, sour cherries are especially prized for making spoon sweets by slowly boiling pitted sour cherries and sugar; the syrup thereof is used for vi?ne ?urubu or vyssináda, a beverage made by diluting the syrup with ice-cold water. A particular use of sour cherries is in the production of kriek lambic, a cherry-flavored variety of a naturally fermented beer made in Belgium.
Medicinal Uses:

Astringent; Bitter; Febrifuge; Nervine; Salve.

The bark is astringent, bitter and febrifuge. An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of fevers, coughs and colds. The root bark has been used as a wash for old sores and ulcers. The seed is nervine. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.

Medicinally, sour cherries may be useful in alleviating sleep problems due to its high melatonin content, a compound critical in regulating the sleep-wake cycle in humans. As noted above, research in progress exists that is exploring whether sour cherries have a significant benefit in several medical applications (anti-inflammation, and anti-microbial effects) that is much greater than that of the species in general.
Other Uses:
Adhesive; Dye; Gum; Gum; Hedge; Hedge; Oil; Oil; Wood.

An edible drying oil obtained from the seed is also used in cosmetics. The gum obtained from the stem is also used as an adhesive. Plants can be grown as a hedge, succeeding in fairly exposed positions. A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit.
Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_cerasus
http://www.arbolapp.es/en/species/info/prunus-cerasus/
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+cerasus

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