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Cat fish

Binomical Name:  Siluriformes or Nematognathi

Kingdom:: Animalia

Phylum:    Chordata

Class:   Actinopterygii

Superorder:  Ostariophysi

Order:   Siluriformes

Habitat:

Extant catfish species live inland or in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at one time or another.  Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America, Asia and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe.  More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar, Australia, and New Guinea.

They are found in freshwater environments, though most inhabit shallow, running water.  Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean (live underground) with three families that are also troglobitic (inhabiting caves).  One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats.  Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, and a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water.

In the Southern United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of slang names, such as “mud cat”, “polliwogs”, or “chuckleheads”.  These nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname “chucklehead”, while in another state or region, that nickname refers to the blue catfish.

Description:

Catfishs  are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat’s whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest species, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels catfish of Eurasia and the piraíba of South America, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are also naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbels. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the skull and swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance; many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the smaller species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal,but others (many Auchenipteridae) are crepuscular or diurnal (most Loricariidae or Callichthyidae, for example).

Catfish have one of the greatest ranges in size within a single order of bony fish.   Many catfish have a maximum length of under 12 cm.  Some of the smallest species of Aspredinidae and Trichomycteridae reach sexual maturity at only 1 centimetre (0.39 in).

The wels catfishSilurus glanis, and the much smaller related Aristotle’s catfish are the only catfish indigenous to Europe: the former ranging throughout Europe, and the latter restricted to GreeceMythology and literature record wels catfish of astounding proportions, yet to be proven scientifically. The average size of the species is about 1.2–1.6 m (3.9–5.2 ft), and fish more than 2 metres (6.6 ft) are rare. However, they are known to exceed 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in length and 100 kilograms (220 lb) in weight. In July 2009, a catfish weighing 88 kilograms (194 lb) was caught in the River Ebro, Spain, by an 11-year-old British schoolgirl.

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In North America the largest Ictalurus furcatus (Blue catfish) caught in the Missouri River on 20 July 2010, weighed 59 kilograms (130 lb). The largest flathead catfishPylodictis olivaris, ever caught was in Independence, Kansas, weighing 56 kilograms (123 lb).

These records pale in comparison to a giant Mekong catfish caught in northern Thailand on 1 May 2005 and reported to the press almost 2 months later that weighed 293 kilograms (646 lb). This is the largest giant Mekong catfish caught since Thai officials started keeping records in 1981.[26] This species is not well studied since it lives in developing countries and it is quite possible it can grow even larger.[citation needed] Also in Asia, Jeremy Wade caught a 75.5 kilograms (166.4 lb) Goonch following three fatal attacks on humans in the Kali River on the IndiaNepal border. Wade was of the opinion that the offending fish must have been significantly larger than this to have taken an 18-year-old boy as well as a water buffalo.

Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum) can grow exceptionally large and are native to the Amazon basin. They can occasionally grow to 400 lbs, as evidenced by numerous catches.

In many catfish, the humeral process is a bony process extending backward from the pectoral girdle immediately above the base of the pectoral fin. It lies beneath the skin where its outline may be determined by dissecting the skin or probing with a needle.

The retina of catfish are composed of single cones and large rods. Many catfish have a tapetum lucidum which may help enhance photon capture and increase low-light sensitivity. Double cones, though present in most teleosts, are absent from catfish.

The anatomical organization of the testis in catfish is variable among the families of catfish, but the majority of them present fringed testis: Ictaluridae, Claridae, Auchenipteridae, Doradidae, Pimelodidae, and Pseudopimelodidae.   In the testes of some species of Siluriformes, organs and structures such as a spermatogenic cranial region and a secretory caudal region are observed, in addition to the presence of seminal vesicles in the caudal region.[30] The total number of fringes and their length are different in the caudal and cranial portions between species.   Fringes of the caudal region may present tubules, in which the lumen is filled by secretion and spermatozoa.  Spermatocysts are formed from cytoplasmic extensions of Sertoli cells; the release of spermatozoa is allowed by breaking of the cyst walls.[29]

The occurrence of seminal vesicles, in spite of their interspecific variability in size, gross morphology and function, has not been related to the mode of fertilization. They are typically paired, multi-chambered, and connected with the sperm duct, and have been reported to play a glandular and a storage function. Seminal vesicle secretion may include steroids and steroid glucuronides, with hormonal and pheromonal functions, but it appears to be primarily constituted of mucoproteins, acid mucopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.

Fish ovaries may be of two types: gymnovarian or cystovarian. In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then eliminated. In the second type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct.   Many catfish are cystovarian in type, including Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, P. fasciatum, Lophiosilurus alexandri, and Loricaria lentiginos

Edible Uses:

Cat fish as Food :

Catfish have widely been caught and farmed for food for hundreds of years in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. Judgments as to the quality and flavor vary, with some food critics considering catfish excellent to eat, while others dismiss them as watery and lacking in flavor.[42] Catfish is high in vitamin D.[43] Farm-raised catfish contains low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and a much higher proportion of omega-6 fatty acids.

In Central Europe, catfish were often viewed as a delicacy to be enjoyed on feast days and holidays. Migrants from Europe and Africa to the United States brought along this tradition, and in the Southern United States, catfish is an extremely popular food.

The most commonly eaten species in the United States are the channel catfish and the blue catfish, both of which are common in the wild and increasingly widely farmed. Farm-raised catfish became such a staple of the diet of the United States that on 25 June 1987, President Ronald Reagan established National Catfish Day to recognize “the value of farm-raised catfish.”

Catfish is eaten in a variety of ways. In Europe it is often cooked in similar ways to carp, but in the United States it is popularly crumbed with cornmeal and fried.

Catfish have widely been caught and farmed for food for hundreds of years in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. Judgments as to the quality and flavor vary, with some food critics considering catfish excellent to eat, while others dismiss them as watery and lacking in flavor. Catfish is high in vitamin D.   Farm-raised catfish contains low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and a much higher proportion of omega-6 fatty acids.

In Central Europe, catfish were often viewed as a delicacy to be enjoyed on feast days and holidays. Migrants from Europe and Africa to the United States brought along this tradition, and in the Southern United States, catfish is an extremely popular food.

The most commonly eaten species in the United States are the channel catfish and the blue catfish, both of which are common in the wild and increasingly widely farmed. Farm-raised catfish became such a staple of the diet of the United States that on 25 June 1987, President Ronald Reagan established National Catfish Day to recognize “the value of farm-raised catfish.”

Catfish is eaten in a variety of ways. In Europe it is often cooked in similar ways to carp, but in the United States it is popularly crumbed with cornmeal and fried.

Health Benefits of Catfish:

Many people enjoy the flavor of catfish, but it offers a variety of health benefits as well. Including the nutritious fish in your diet helps you meet your protein needs and boosts your intake of vitamins and healthy fats and fatty acids. Consider catfish regularly in your meal planning.

Low in Calories and Fat

A 3-oz. serving of catfish introduces 122 calories and 6.1 g of fat into your diet. The low amount of calories in this fish make it a popular choice for a healthy meal plan – women generally require approximately 300 to 500 calories per meal, and men need around 400 to 600 calories, so it fits in well and allows you to serve several healthy side dishes with it. The fat content is also relatively low, and little of it is saturated fat — 2 g. Avoid consuming more than 16 to 22 g of saturated fat per day; too much in your diet can trigger health problems.

Contains Healthy Fatty Acids

Eating catfish is a tasty way to boost your intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. One serving of this fish provides 220 mg of omega-3 fatty acids and 875 mg of omega-6. You will not find federal guidelines on the consumption of these fatty acids, although the American Heart Association suggests including fish in your diet several times each week to increase the amount of fatty acids you eat. Both of these nutrients play a part in heart and cognitive health.

Provides Complete Protein

The 15.6 g of protein in a serving of catfish provides you with all of the amino acids your body needs. This high-quality, complete protein helps your body build lean muscle mass, and it also helps improve the effectiveness of your immune function. You may also rely on protein to provide energy, especially if your body has used all of the carbohydrates you have eaten for fuel.

Source of Vitamin B-12

Consume a serving of catfish, and you take in 40 percent of the daily recommended intake of vitamin B-12. As a B vitamin, the vitamin B-12 in catfish is critical to aiding your body in the breakdown of the foods you eat into usable energy, but this vitamin has other functions as well. Without enough vitamin B-12 in your diet, your nerve function suffers, and you might become lethargic.

Low in Mercury

Almost all fish contains mercury, a contaminant that may impact your nervous system, but you may safely eat catfish unless the waters in which it is caught are particularly high in mercury. The Environmental Protection Agency lists catfish as one of the mostly commonly consumed, low-mercury fish. Despite this, limiting your consumption of fish to 12 oz. per week is recommended to decrease your exposure. This is especially important if you are pregnant, since high levels of mercury may harm your fetus.

Medicinal Uses:

Venomous Persian Gulf catfish excrete a gel-like slime that dramatically speeds the healing of cuts and might spur development of a new preparation to treat wounded humans, a UC Davis researcher believes.

Economic Importance:

Catfish are easy to farm in warm climates, leading to inexpensive and safe food at local grocers. About 60% of U.S. farm-raised catfish are grown within a 65-mile (100-km) radius of Belzoni, Mississippi.

Catfish raised in inland tanks or channels are considered safe for the environment, since their waste and disease should be contained and not spread to the wild.

In Asia, many catfish species are important as food. Several walking catfish (Clariidae) and shark catfish (Pangasiidae) species are heavily cultured in Africa and Asia. Exports of one particular shark catfish species from Vietnam, Pangasius bocourti, has met with pressures from the U.S. catfish industry. In 2003, The United States Congress passed a law preventing the imported fish from being labeled as catfish.[40] As a result, the Vietnamese exporters of this fish now label their products sold in the U.S. as “basa fish.” Trader Joe’s has labeled frozen fillets of Vietnamese Pangasius hypophthalmus as “striper.”

There is a large and growing ornamental fish trade, with hundreds of species of catfish, such as Corydoras and armored suckermouth catfish (often called plecos), being a popular component of many aquaria. Other catfish commonly found in the aquarium trade are banjo catfish, talking catfish, and long-whiskered catfish.

Known Hazards:
A sting from the striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus, may be fatal.
While the vast majority of catfish are harmless to humans, a few species are known to present some risk. Many catfish species have “stings” (actually non-venomous in most cases) embedded behind their fins; thus precautions must be taken when handling them.

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catfish

https://www.livestrong.com/article/445658-health-benefits-of-catfish/

http://articles.latimes.com/1988-01-18/local/me-24500_1_saltwater-catfish

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Dysphagia

Description:

Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing. or it takes more time and effort to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach. Dysphagia may also be associated with pain. In some cases, swallowing may be impossible . It may be a sensation that suggests difficulty in the passage of solids or liquids from the mouth to the stomach, a lack of pharyngeal sensation or various other inadequacies of the swallowing mechanism. Dysphagia is distinguished from other symptoms including odynophagia, which is defined as painful swallowing, and globus, which is the sensation of a lump in the throat. A person can have dysphagia without odynophagia (dysfunction without pain), odynophagia without dysphagia (pain without dysfunction) or both together. A psychogenic dysphagia is known as phagophobia.

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Occasional difficulty swallowing, which may occur when you eat too fast or don’t chew your food well enough, usually isn’t cause for concern. But persistent dysphagia may indicate a serious medical condition requiring treatment. Dysphagia can occur at any age, but it’s more common in older adults. The causes of swallowing problems vary, and treatment depends on the cause.

Sign & Symptoms:
Signs and symptoms associated with dysphagia may include:
* Having pain while swallowing (odynophagia)
* Being unable to swallow
* Having the sensation of food getting stuck in the throat or chest or behind breastbone (sternum)
* Drooling
* Being hoarse
* Bringing food back up (regurgitation)
* Having frequent heartburn
* Having food or stomach acid back up into the throat
* Unexpectedly losing weight
* Coughing or gagging when swallowing
* Having to cut food into smaller pieces or avoiding certain foods because of trouble swallowing

Causes:
Swallowing is complex, and a number of conditions can interfere with this process. Sometimes the cause of dysphagia can’t be identified. However, the causes of dysphagia generally falls into one of the following categories.
1.Esophageal dysphagia
Esophageal dysphagia refers to the sensation of food sticking or getting hung up in the base of our throat or in our chest after we started to swallow. Some of the causes of esophageal dysphagia include:
* Achalasia. When our lower esophageal muscle (sphincter) doesn’t relax properly to let food enter our stomach, it may cause us to bring food back up into our throat. Muscles in the wall of our esophagus may be weak as well, a condition that tends to worsen over time.
* Diffuse spasm. This condition produces multiple high-pressure, poorly coordinated contractions of our esophagus, usually after we swallow. Diffuse spasm affects the involuntary muscles in the walls of our lower esophagus.
* Esophageal stricture. A narrowed esophagus (stricture) can trap large pieces of food. Tumors or scar tissue, often caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can cause narrowing.
* Esophageal tumors. Difficulty swallowing tends to get progressively worse when esophageal tumors are present.
* Foreign bodies. Sometimes food or another object can partially block our throat or esophagus. Older adults with dentures and people who have difficulty chewing their food may be more likely to have a piece of food become lodged in the throat or esophagus.
* Esophageal ring. A thin area of narrowing in the lower esophagus can intermittently cause difficulty swallowing solid foods.
* GERD. Damage to esophageal tissues from stomach acid backing up into our esophagus can lead to spasm or scarring and narrowing of our lower esophagus.
* Eosinophilic esophagitis. This condition, which may be related to a food allergy, is caused by an overpopulation of cells called eosinophils in the esophagus.
* Scleroderma. Development of scar-like tissue, causing stiffening and hardening of tissues, can weaken our lower esophageal sphincter, allowing acid to back up into our esophagus and cause frequent heartburn.
* Radiation therapy. This cancer treatment can lead to inflammation and scarring of the esophagus.

2. Oropharyngeal dysphagia
* Certain conditions can weaken our throat muscles, making it difficult to move food from our mouth into our throat and esophagus when  we  start to swallow.  we may choke, gag or cough when  we  try to swallow or have the sensation of food or fluids going down  our windpipe (trachea) or up  our nose. This may lead to pneumonia.

Causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia include:
*Neurological disorders. Certain disorders — such as multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy and Parkinson’s disease — can cause dysphagia.
* Neurological damage. Sudden neurological damage, such as from a stroke or brain or spinal cord injury, can affect  our ability to swallow.
* Pharyngoesophageal diverticulum (Zenker’s diverticulum). A small pouch that forms and collects food particles in our throat, often just above  our esophagus, leads to difficulty swallowing, gurgling sounds, bad breath, and repeated throat clearing or coughing.
* Cancer. Certain cancers and some cancer treatments, such as radiation, can cause difficulty swallowing.

Risk Factors &  complications

* The following are risk factors for dysphagia

* Aging. Due to natural aging and normal wear and tear on the esophagus and a greater risk of certain conditions, such as stroke or Parkinson’s disease, older adults are at higher risk of swallowing difficulties. But, dysphagia isn’t considered a normal sign of aging.

* Certain health conditions. People with certain neurological or nervous system disorders are more likely to experience difficulty swallowing.

The Complecations can be as follows:

  • Malnutrition, weight loss and dehydration. Dysphagia can make it difficult to take in adequate nourishment and fluids.
  • Aspiration pneumonia. Food or liquid entering your airway when you try to swallow can cause aspiration pneumonia, because the food can introduce bacteria to the lungs.
  • Choking. When food becomes impacted, choking can occur. If food completely blocks the airway, and no one intervenes with a successful Heimlich maneuver, death can occur.

Diagnosis:

The gold-standard of diagnosing dysphagia is to perform an instrumental evaluation, as the area of interest is not visible to the eye, and the person may not accurately sense the dysphagia or localize where the problem is.

One of the gold-standards for diagnosing oropharyngeal dysphagia is the modified barium swallow study (MBSS), also known as the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS/fluoroscopy). This is a lateral and anterior-posterior (AP) view of a motion x-ray that provides objective information on the structure and physiology of the swallow. The oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of the swallow are analyzed. Oral phase components that are evaluated are: lip closure, bolus control, initiation of lingual movement, mastication, bolus transport, and oral residue after the swallow. Pharyngeal phase issues that are examined are: velopharyngeal closure, initiation of the pharyngeal swallow, laryngeal elevation, anterior hyoid movement, epiglottic inversion, laryngeal vestibule closure and reaction times, tongue base retraction, pharyngeal constriction or stripping wave, and pharyngeal residue after the swallow. The esophagus is analyzed for clearance versus retention of food, liquids and a barium pill. Any retention is monitored to see if it returns to the upper esophagus or back to the pharynx and airway. The clinician tests a variety of foods, liquids, and potentially a barium tablet. It is important to test a variety of viscosities and volumes. Typically the test involves a thin/regular liquid, a mildly thick/nectar thick liquid, a moderately thick/honey thick liquid, a pudding/puree, a cracker or cookie, a mixed consistency, and a barium pill taken with liquid or with a puree (depending on the person’s baseline method). The clinician determines if the swallow is safe (lack of aspiration) and efficient (lack of residue). The goal is to figure out why the person is having difficulty swallowing and to figure out what can be done to improve safety and efficiency. Sometimes regular liquids can easily cause aspiration, and the clinician can test various maneuvers, postures, and safe swallow strategies to prevent aspiration depending on that person’s specific anatomy and physiology. One method to potential improve the safety of the liquid bolus is to alter the consistency of bolus (i.e., thickening the liquid to mildly thick/nectar thick liquid, moderately thick/honey thick liquid, or extremely thick/pudding thick liquid). If there is a lot of residue after the swallow, there are also techniques that will be tested to reduce this. See treatment section below for more on compensatory strategies versus rehabilitation techniques for the swallow.

Another gold-standard for diagnosing dysphagia is the Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES). This involves similar testing of foods and liquids, along with implementation of strategies to find out why the dysphagia is occurring and what can be done about it. The duration of the examination is not limited by radiation exposure; therefore, the person could be watched in a more natural environment over the course of a meal. The endoscope is very thin and usually well tolerated even without numbing the nose.

A barium swallow study/esophagram/upper GI study can best evaluate the entire esophagus. The barium is given in large volumes to fully distend and evaluate the esophageal lumen. This study can also evaluate for reflux, unlike the VFSS. A Zenker’s diverticulum can be seen on the VFSS and on an esophagram. The, barium may fills the pouch and then overflow, with food/liquid returning to the pharynx with risk for aspiration after the swallow. Achalasia is best evaluated on the barium swallow/esophagram, and it shows “bird-beak” tapering of distal esophagus, this is also described as a “rat’s tail” appearance. In esophageal strictures, liquid barium may remain above the stricture and then gradually trickles down. Strictures can sometimes be seen on a VFSS if the clinician suspects stricture or esophageal dysmotility. The clinician can scan down the esophagus after giving solid foods like cookie or bread. It is helpful to scan the esophagus on the VFSS as this is the exam that can test a full array of solids. The barium swallow/esophagram typically only tests barium liquids and a barium tablet.

* Esophagoscopy and laryngoscopy can give direct view of lumens.

* Chest radiograph may show air-fluid level in mediastinumPott’s disease and calcified aneurysms of aorta can be easily diagnosed.

* Esophageal motility study is useful in cases of achalasia and diffuse esophageal spasms.

* Exfoliative cytology can be performed on esophageal lavage obtained by esophagoscopy. It can detect malignant cells in early stage.

* Ultrasonography and CT scan are not very useful in finding cause of dysphagia; but can detect masses in mediastinum and aortic aneurysms.

* FEES (Fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing), sometimes with sensory evaluation, is done usually by a Medical Speech Pathologist or Deglutologist. This procedure involves the patient eating different consistencies as above.

* Swallowing sounds and vibrations could be potentially used for dysphagia screening, but these approaches are in the early research stages.

Differential diagnosis:

All causes of dysphagia are considered as differential diagnoses. Some common ones are:

Esophageal dysphagia is almost always caused by disease in or adjacent to the esophagus but occasionally the lesion is in the pharynx or stomach. In many of the pathological conditions causing dysphagia, the lumen becomes progressively narrowed and indistensible. Initially only fibrous solids cause difficulty but later the problem can extend to all solids and later even to liquids. Patients with difficulty swallowing may benefit from thickened fluids if the person is more comfortable with those liquids, although, so far, there are no scientific study that proves that those thickened liquids are beneficial.

Dysphagia may manifest as the result of autonomic nervous system pathologies including stroke.  and ALS,   or due to rapid iatrogenic correction of an electrolyte imbalance.

Treatments:

There are many ways to treat dysphagia, such as swallowing therapy, dietary changes, feeding tubes, certain medications, and surgery. Treatment for dysphagia is managed by a group of specialists known as a multidisciplinary team. Members of the multidisciplinary team include: a speech language pathologist specializing in swallowing disorders (swallowing therapist), primary physician, gastroenterologist, nursing staff, respiratory therapist, dietitian, occupational therapist, physical therapist, pharmacist, and radiologist.  The role of the members of the multidisciplinary team will differ depending on the type of swallowing disorder present. For example, the swallowing therapist will be directly involved in the treatment of a patient with oropharyngeal dysphagia, while a gastroenterologist will be directly involved in the treatment of an esophageal disorder.

CLICK TO SEE AYURVEDIC TREATMENT OF DYSPHAGIA

CLICK TO SEE HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT OF DYSPHAGIA

CLICK TO SEE : Natural Remedies for Achalasia and Dysphagia

Prevention:

Although swallowing difficulties can’t be prevented, you can reduce your risk of occasional difficulty swallowing by eating slowly and chewing your food well. Early detection and effective treatment of GERD can lower your risk of developing dysphagia associated with an esophageal stricture.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

 

Resources:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dysphagia/symptoms-causes/syc-20372028

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysphagia

 

Cow Urine (Gomutra)

Description:
Gomutra  (cow urine) is  used for therapeutic purposes in traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, and also for purification in Vaastu Shastra. Gomutra is also an important component of the mixture called Panchagavya, also used in Ayurveda. Urine of a pregnant cow is considered special; it is claimed to contain special hormones and minerals.
Cow urine is also used in folk medicine in Myanmar and Nigeria.

Chemical Composition of Distilled Cow Urine:
_______________________________________
Nitrogen (N2, NH2): Removes blood abnormalities and toxins, Natural stimulant of urinary track, activates kidneys and it is diuretic.
Sulphur (S): Supports motion in large intestines. Cleanses blood.
Ammonia (NH3): Stabilize bile, mucus and air of body. Stabilizes blood formation.Copper (Cu): Controls built up of unwanted fats. Iron (Fe): Maintains balance and helps in production of red blood cells & hemoglobin. Stabilizes working power.
Urea CO(NH2): Affects urine formation and removal. Germicidal.
Uric Acid (C5H4N4O3): Removes heart swelling or inflammation. It is diuretic therefore destroys toxins.
Phosphate (P): Helps in removing stones from urinary track.
Sodium (Na): Purifies blood. Antacid.
Potassium (K): Cures hereditary rheumatism. Increases appetite. Removes muscular weakness and laziness.
Manganese (Mn): Germicidal, stops growth of germs, protects against decay due to gangrene.
Carbolic acid (HCOOH): Germicidal, stops growth of germs and decay due to gangrene.
Calcium (Ca): Blood purifier, bone strengthener, germicidal.
Salt (NaCl): Decreases acidic contents of blood, germicidal.
Vitamins A, B, C, D, E: Vitamin B is active ingredient for energetic life and saves from nervousness and thirst, strengthens bones and reproductive ingredient for energetic life and saves from nervousness and thirst, strengthens bones and reproductive power.
Other Minerals: Increase immunity.
Lactose (C6H12O6): Gives satisfaction., strengths heart, removes thirst and nervousness.
Enzymes: Make healthy digestive juices, increase immunity.
Water (H2O): It is a life giver. Maintains fluidity of blood, maintains body temperature.
Hipuric acid (CgNgNox): Removes toxins through urine.
Creatinin (C4HgN2O2): Germicide.
Aurum Hydroxide (AuOH): It is germicidal and increases immunity power. AuOH is highly antibiotic and anti-toxic.

Uses:
Ayurvedic Pharmacetical uses:
In Ayurveda it is believed that man suffers from diseases mainly because of imbalance occurs in the amount of whatever be the elements to be found in human body. Gomutra[cow-urine distillate], notably of Indian cow with raised hump known to be suryaketu nari[nerve], has all those elements which are found in the human body, and therefore it has the property of bringing the proper balance in them, and thus curing the diseases.

This consists of Aurium Hydroxide [AuOH], or Suvarna chhar according to Ayurveda, which is why it is highly antibiotic and antitoxin and, therefore, destroys most inveterate of viral infection. And, as also, it is very effective in the cure of Aids and Cancer. Notably, USA has even granted patent to the distillate of Indian cow urine [US Pat. No 6410059 and 6896907] as a medicine for cancer.  So also, the patients suffering from old and acute diabities and living on insulin, they can be cured by the consumption of gomutra because of enzymes to be found in it in ample quantity. Besides, being a source of digestion, these enzymes provide immunity to the body to the commonly infesting diseases.

Where owing to the vitamin B, Lactose [C6H12O6] and Potassium it contains, it increases vigor, vitality and reduces mental tension and, as also, brings calm of the mind; then, the elements like Ammonia, Nitrogen, sulphur, iron, sodium and calcium collectively purify the blood and stabilize the red corpuscles to be found in it; nourish the bones; maintains the working capacity of the body; protects the lungs from infections.

Yet this is not all. It acts as an anti-virus because of Mangenese and Carbolic acid, which cure body of wounds and protect it from deadly gangrene. And due to Nitrogen, Urea [CoNH2], Uric Acid and Phosphate it protects body from urinal ailments.

In Ayurveda, Gomutra is claimed to be helpful in the treatment of leprosy, abdominal colic pain,   bloating, and cancer. A mixture of gomutra, Triphala, and cow milk is used for the treatment of anaemia. It is also used in the treatment of fever by mixing it with black pepper, yoghurt, and ghee (ghrita). A mixture of gomutra, neem bark, vasaka bark, kurilo bark, kaner leaves is also used medicinally. A mixture of gomutra and dharuharidra is used for epilepsy.  A study from Mandsaur has claimed that it may also benefit cancer patients.
According to the head of the Ayurvedic institute Dhanwanthari Vaidyasala of Thodupuzha, Satish Namboodiri, it is also used for peptic ulcer, certain type of cancer, liver ailments, and asthma.

In 2002, a US patent was issued to a group of Indian scientists of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research for an antibiotic and cow urine distillate mixture which was claimed to be serving as a bioenhancer, enhancing anti-microbial activity of antibiotic and antifungal agents.
In 2010, the Go-vigyan Anusandhan Kendra in Deolapar funded by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute were granted a US patent for a gomutra-based drug which was claimed to prevent oxidative damage to DNA.
Cow urine is also used in Myanmar and Nigeria as a folk medicine. In Nigeria, a concoction of leaves of tobacco, garlic and lemon basil juice, rock salt and cow urine is used to treat convulsions in children. This has resulted in the death of several children from respiratory depression.

A recent movement advocates the regular drinking of gomutra for its alleged health benefits,  and it is marketed as a health drink. In 2009, Kanpur Gaushala Society in Kanpur released Goloka Pay, a cold drink containing 5% distilled cow urine, in two flavours, orange and lemon. It also contained herbs such as tulsi, shankhpushpi and brahmi.[19] Also in 2009, the Cow Protection Department of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in Haridwar announced plans to release a similar product as an alternative to cola drinks.
Cosmetic products like soaps and shampoos are also made from gomutra.

Other Uses:
In religious rituals:
In Hinduism, cow urine has a special significance as a medicinal drink.  Sprinkling of cow urine is said to have a spiritual cleansing effect as well.  Cattle were a basic economic unit in ancient India, and cows are holy in Hinduism and their slaughter is restricted.

As a Floor Cleaning Agent:
A floor-cleaning fluid called Gaunyle is marketed by an organisation called Holy Cow Foundation.  Maneka Gandhi, Women and Child Development Minister, has proposed that Gaunyle be used instead of Phenyl in government offices.   In May 2015, in India ,Rajendra Singh Rathore, Medical and Health Minister of Rajasthan, inaugurated a  US$600,000  cow-urine refinery in Jalore.  The refinery was set up by Parthvimeda Gau Pharma Pvt. Ltd. which produces a floor cleaner called Gocleaner.
In organic farming.

Jeevamrutha storage cans:
Gomutra is used as a manure for production of rice.  Jeevamrutha is a fertilizer made from a mixture of cow urine, cow dung, jaggery, pulse flour and rhizosphere soil.[28] A mixture of gomutra, custard apple leaves and neem leaves after boiling is said to serve as a biopesticide.
In 2012, the College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences in Wayanad district began selling packaged gomutra and Panchagavya. The products were primarily directed towards organic farming with claims that it would reduce usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Gomutra is supposed to increase plant resistance and Panchagavya is supposed to increase growth of soil bacteria and improve fertility. The head of the institute, Joseph Mathew, said that quality was assured by collecting the first urine of the day from the cows, but that it was not usable for medicinal purposes.

Scientific studies:
A 1975 study on mice found that Jersey cow urine causes death in high doses.  A similar 1976 study on dogs showed that repeated administration of Jersey cow urine concoction as used in Nigerian folk medicine, resulted in hypotension and tachypnea, and also death. A 2001 study found prions in detectable amounts in the urine of Jersey cows suffering from bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

Chemical Composition of Distilled Cow Urine:


http://www.thehansindia.com/posts/index/Life-Style/2015-05-08/Chemical-composition-of-gomutra-and-human-health/149628
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomutra

Child’s Brain Development

Be it reciting a jingle heard on the television, running after everything that catches their fancy or bewildering adults with their endless questions, toddlers give us a glimpse of their infectious energy every day. Their energy and curiosity often leave parents astounded. This fascination about the world around them stems from the fact that the brains of young children are more active than adult brains.
Knowing more about brain development can help us make sense of their behavior and provide the best conditions for their growth. Up to 6 years of age, the brain is constantly learning, developing and forming memories. In fact, the brain develops up to 90% of its capacity by age 6¹. With the number of active brain connections, a toddler processes more information than an adult brain.
Brain development in young children:
Overall, a toddler’s brain grows up to 25% of an adult brain size by age 3. We know that different areas of the brain serve different functions. Essential brain functions are active right from birth. After birth, sensory functions such as sight and smell are the first to develop followed by higher cognitive functions such as problem-solving. Language development occurs between the ages of two and four.

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There are several parts of the brain that see phenomenal growth during the first few years of life. Synapses are connections between two different nerve cells in the brain. The development of synapses is the fastest among young children. This allows them to learn more than adults in the same amount of time.
The visual cortex, located at the hind side of the brain, aids in visual perception and the growth of this part improves the brain capacity to sense depth and color. The growth of the cerebellum is linked to motor skills that allow a child to crawl and later start walking.
There are quite a few factors that create ideal conditions for brain development. Mentally stimulating activities help exercise the developing brain while adequate nutrition provides the nutrients for its development.

Resources: The Telegraph, Kolkata(India)

Bad effects of sugar

SUGAR -The bigger killer than infectious diseases; every year it claims 35 million lives worldwide:
it was believed that sugar is bad for health because it adds a whole lot of calories to the diet but no nutrition. Now, new research reveals that too much sugar in the blood – even if you are not a diabetic – can actually ravage your heart and liver, upset the hormonal system, raise the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and increase the chance of cancer.
The study, published in a recent issue of the journal, Nature, states that the annual worldwide death toll due to sugar overload is approximately 35 million – as much as the population of Morocco. In other words, sugar is a bigger killer than even infectious diseases. And here is a list of some of the food types in which it lurks.

Fat-free food
To keep increasing weight in check, some people get obsessed with removing all fat from the diet. They insist on having only food and drinks labelled low-fat.
But what exactly is low-fat food? Let’s begin with fat-free food or drinks such as double toned milk, low-fat ice cream or zero-calorie colas. These items are so bland that manufacturers add something, usually variants of sugar and preservatives, to make them palatable. As a result, you get rid of the fat but not the calories.
The thing to keep in mind is that not all fats are bad. Fats such as monounsaturated fatty acid (Mufa) – found in almonds, cashews, peanut butter and olive oil – or polyunsaturated fatty acid (Pufa) – walnuts, animal fats, safflower oil – are beneficial. They play a key role in nutritional balance and disease prevention. It is trans-fats – found in deep fried foods as well as commercial baked goods like biscuits – that are harmful.

Processed food:
Most processed food has a lot of added sugar. That includes breakfast cereals, bread, canned or packed fruit juice, beer, sauce, ketchup, cookies, candy, mayonnaise, salad dressings, soft drinks and so on. A 300ml bottle of soft drinks usually has eight teaspoonfuls of sugar while a single scoop of ice cream has five.
To put it in perspective, according to WHO, men must not have more than nine teaspoons of sugar a day, while six teaspoonfuls are enough for women. A US government guideline on nutrition says about 10-15 per cent of calories can be derived from sugary food but studies reveal that most of us get 25 per cent of calories from sugar.
Refined sugars
Sugar is added to food in many avatars – white, brown, high fructose corn syrup (present in most processed food) and agave nectar. Milk and fruits have the natural sugars lactose and fructose, respectively. These are less harmful.

“The protein in dairy products and the fibre in fruits help our body absorb the natural sugar slowly. Slowing down the digestion of sugar prevents an insulin spike and is less harmful to the liver,” says Dr Satinath Mukhopadhyay, head of Endocrinology at IPGMER, Calcutta.
Avoid processed food and limit the intake of sugar-rich food.

Sugar addiction:
According to a study at the University of Florida, sugary food can be as addictive as nicotine and cocaine. Whenever we see sugar, the brain gets a rush of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure. When we consume sugar, our natural opiods and beta-endorphins rush to the brain, a reaction similar to someone on nicotine, cocaine or heroin.
Experts contend that sugar addiction has become the biggest public health crisis in history. “Since sugar induces the same addictive pathways as narcotics, why should this not be taken seriously,” asks Dr Mukhopadhyay.

Sweeteners: good and bad
• Replace sugar with molasses, palm sugar or date palm juice, which provide Vitamin B, iron, calcium and potassium
• Fresh cane juice has vitamins B and C, iron and manganese; coconut sugar (dehydrated sap of the coconut palm) has antioxidants, calcium, zinc, iron and potassium. It doesn’t raise blood sugar and is good for diabetics
• If dessert is a must, have dates – rich in potassium, calcium and Vitamin B6 – raisins and other dry or fresh fruits
• While baking, use palm sugar. Add fresh or dry fruits to sweeten puddings
• Add honey to green tea and maple syrup to tea and coffee. While these sweeteners have calories, they also have antioxidants.
• Avoid sugar substitutes such as aspartame. If you are addicted to sweet tea, add a bit of sugar but never an artificial sweetener, which can give you migraine, eye problems, nausea and vomiting, insomnia, stomach problems, joint ache, depression and even brain cancer.

Resources: The Telegraph Calcutta (India)