Author Archives: Mukul

Proctitis

Description:
Proctitis is an inflammation of the anus and the lining of the rectum, affecting only the last 6 inches of the rectum. Proctitis may be acute or chronic. Anal sex, inflammatory bowel disease, or radiation therapy to your pelvic area or abdomen may cause proctitis. If not treated, proctitis may have complications.

Proctitis can cause rectal pain, diarrhea, bleeding and discharge, as well as the continuous feeling that you need to have a bowel movement. Proctitis symptoms can be short-lived, or they can become chronic.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Proctitis is common in people who have inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis).

Symptoms:
A common symptom is a continual urge to have a bowel movement—the rectum could feel full or have constipation. Another is tenderness and mild irritation in the rectum and anal region. A serious symptom is pus and blood in the discharge, accompanied by cramps and pain during the bowel movement. If there is severe bleeding, anemia can result, showing symptoms such as pale skin, irritability, weakness, dizziness, brittle nails, and shortness of breath.

Symptoms are ineffectual straining to empty the bowels, diarrhea, rectal bleeding and possible discharge, a feeling of not having adequately emptied the bowels, involuntary spasms and cramping during bowel movements, left-sided abdominal pain, passage of mucus through the rectum, and anorectal pain.

Causes:
Proctitis has many possible causes. It may occur idiopathically (idiopathic proctitis, that is, arising spontaneously or from an unknown cause). Other causes include damage by irradiation (for example in radiation therapy for cervical cancer and prostate cancer) or as a sexually transmitted infection, as in lymphogranuloma venereum and herpes proctitis. Studies suggest a celiac disease-associated “proctitis” can result from an intolerance to gluten.

A common cause is engaging in anal sex with partner(s) infected with sexual transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men. Shared enema usage has been shown to facilitate the spread of Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis.
Sexually transmitted infections are another frequent cause. Proctitis also can be a side effect of radiation therapy for certain cancers.

Diagnosis:
Doctors can diagnose proctitis by looking inside the rectum with a proctoscope or a sigmoidoscope. A biopsy is taken, in which the doctor scrapes a tiny piece of tissue from the rectum, and this tissue is then examined by microscopy. The physician may also take a stool sample to test for infections or bacteria. If the physician suspects that the patient has Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, colonoscopy or barium enema X-rays are used to examine areas of the intestine.

Risk factors:

Risk factors for proctitis  are:

* Unsafe sex. Practices that increase your risk of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) can increase your risk of proctitis. Your risk of contracting an STI increases if you have multiple sex partners, don’t use condoms and have sex with a partner who has an STI.

* Inflammatory bowel diseases. Having an inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis ) increases your risk of proctitis.

* Radiation therapy for cancer. Radiation therapy directed at or near your rectum (such as for rectal, ovarian or prostate cancer) increases your risk of proctitis.

Complications:

Proctitis that isn’t treated or that doesn’t respond to treatment may lead to complications, including:

* Anemia. Chronic bleeding from your rectum can cause anemia. With anemia, you don’t have enough red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your tissues. Anemia causes you to feel tired, and you may also experience dizziness, shortness of breath, headache, pale skin and irritability.

* Ulcers. Chronic inflammation in the rectum can lead to open sores (ulcers) on the inside lining of the rectum.

* Fistulas. Sometimes ulcers extend completely through the intestinal wall, creating a fistula, an abnormal connection that can occur between different parts of your intestine, between your intestine and skin, or between your intestine and other organs, such as the bladder and vagina.

Treatment:

Treatment of proctitis depends on its cause and the severity of your symptoms and often includes medicines. Some causes of proctitis, such as infection or rectal injury, can be prevented. Doctors treat complications of proctitis with medical procedures.

For example, the physician may prescribe antibiotics for proctitis caused by bacterial infection. If the proctitis is caused by Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, the physician may prescribe the drug 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5ASA) or corticosteroids applied directly to the area in enema or suppository form, or taken orally in pill form. Enema and suppository applications are usually more effective, but some patients may require a combination of oral and rectal applications.

Another treatment available is that of fiber supplements such as Metamucil or psyllium husk. Taken daily these may restore regularity and reduce pain associated with proctitis.

Prevention:

To reduce your risk of proctitis, take steps to protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The surest way to prevent an STI is to abstain from sex, especially anal sex. If you choose to have sex, reduce your risk of an STI by:

* Limiting your number of sex partners

* Using a latex condom during each sexual contact

*Not having sex with anyone who has any unusual sores or discharge in the genital area

If you’re diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection, stop having sex until after you’ve completed treatment. Ask your doctor when it’s safe to have sex again.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/proctitis
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/proctitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20376933
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proctitis

Advertisements

Ménétrier’s Disease

 

Other Name: Hypoproteinemic Hypertrophic Gastropathy

Description:
Ménétrier’s disease causes the ridges along the inside of the stomach wall—called rugae—to enlarge, forming giant folds in the stomach lining. The rugae enlarge because of an overgrowth of mucous cells in the stomach wall.

It is a rare, acquired, premalignant disease of the stomach characterized by massive gastric folds, excessive mucous production with resultant protein loss, and little or no acid production. The disorder is associated with excessive secretion of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-?)

In a normal stomach, mucous cells in the rugae release protein-containing mucus. The mucous cells in enlarged rugae release too much mucus, causing proteins to leak from the blood into the stomach. This shortage of protein in the blood is known as hypoproteinemia. Ménétrier’s disease also reduces the number of acid-producing cells in the stomach, which decreases stomach acid.

The average age of onset is 40 to 60 years, and men are affected more often than women. Adults with Ménétrier disease have a higher risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma.

CLICK TO SEE

Symptoms:
Individuals with the disease present with upper abdominal pain (epigastric), at times accompanied by nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, edema, weakness, and weight loss. A small amount of gastrointestinal bleeding may occur, which is typically due to superficial mucosal erosions; large volume bleeding is rare. 20% to 100% of patients, depending on time of presentation, develop a protein-losing gastropathy accompanied by low blood albumin and edema.

Symptoms and pathological features of Ménétrier disease in children are similar to those in adults, but disease in children is usually self-limited and often follows respiratory infection.

Causes:
Scientists are unsure about what causes Ménétrier’s disease; however, researchers think that most people acquire, rather than inherit, the disease. In extremely rare cases, siblings have developed Ménétrier’s disease as children, suggesting a genetic link.

Studies suggest that people with Ménétrier’s disease have stomachs that make abnormally high amounts of a protein called transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-?).

TGF-? binds to and activates a receptor called epidermal growth factor receptor. Growth factors are proteins in the body that tell cells what to do, such as grow larger, change shape, or divide to make more cells. Researchers have not yet found a cause for the overproduction of TGF-?.

Some studies have found cases of people with Ménétrier’s disease who also had Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. H. pylori is a bacterium that is a cause of peptic ulcers, or sores on the lining of the stomach or the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. In these cases, treatment for H. pylori reversed and improved the symptoms of Ménétrier’s disease.1

Researchers have linked some cases of Ménétrier’s disease in children to infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV is one of the herpes viruses. This group of viruses includes the herpes simplex viruses, which cause chickenpox, shingles, and infectious mononucleosis, also known as mono. Most healthy children and adults infected with CMV have no symptoms and may not even know they have an infection. However, in people with a weakened immune system, CMV can cause serious disease, such as retinitis, which can lead to blindness.

Researchers are not sure how H. pylori and CMV infections contribute to the development of Ménétrier’s disease.

Diagnosis:
The large folds of the stomach, as seen in Ménétrier disease, are easily detected by x-ray imaging following a barium meal or by endoscopic methods. Endoscopy with deep mucosal biopsy (and cytology) is required to establish the diagnosis and exclude other entities that may present similarly. A non-diagnostic biopsy may lead to a surgically obtained full-thickness biopsy to exclude malignancy. CMV and helicobacter pylori serology should be a part of the evaluation.

Twenty-four-hour pH monitoring reveals hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria, and a chromium-labelled albumin test reveals increased GI protein loss.[5] Serum gastrin levels will be within normal limits.

Other possible causes (eg differential diagnosis) of large folds within the stomach include: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, cancer, infection (cytomegalovirus/CMV, histoplasmosis, syphilis), and infiltrative disorders such as sarcoidosis.

Treatment:
Cetuximab is the first-line therapy for Ménétrier disease. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and has been shown to be effective in treating Ménétrier disease.

Several medications have been used in the treatment of the condition, with variable efficacy. Such medications include: anticholinergic agents, prostaglandins, proton pump inhibitors, prednisone, and H2 receptor antagonists. Anticholinergics decrease protein loss. A high-protein diet should be recommended to replace protein loss in patients with low levels of albumin in the blood (hypoalbuminemia). Any ulcers discovered during the evaluation should be treated in standard fashion.

Severe disease with persistent and substantial protein loss despite cetuximab may require total removal of the stomach. Subtotal gastrectomy is performed by some; it may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality secondary to the difficulty in obtaining a patent and long-lasting anastomosis between normal and hyperplastic tissue. In adults, there is no FDA approved treatment other than gastrectomy and a high-protein diet. Cetuximab is approved for compassionate use in the treatment of the disease.

Pediatric cases are normally treated for symptoms with the disease clearing up in weeks to months.

Intravenous Protein and Blood Transfusions:
A health care provider may recommend an IV treatment of protein and a blood transfusion to a person who is malnourished or anemic because of Ménétrier’s disease. In most cases of children with Ménétrier’s disease who also have had CMV infection, treatment with protein and a blood transfusion led to a full recovery.

Surgery:
If a person has severe Ménétrier’s disease with significant protein loss, a surgeon may need to remove part or all of the stomach in a surgery called gastrectomy.

Surgeons perform gastrectomy in a hospital. The patient will require general anesthesia. Some surgeons perform a gastrectomy through laparoscopic surgery rather than through a wide incision in the abdomen. In laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon uses several smaller incisions and feeds special surgical tools through the incisions to remove the diseased part of the stomach. After gastrectomy, the surgeon may reconstruct the changed portions of the GI tract so that it may continue to function. Usually the surgeon attaches the small intestine to any remaining portion of the stomach or to the esophagus if he or she removed the entire stomach.

Eating, Diet, and Nutrition:
Researchers have not found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a role in causing or preventing Ménétrier’s disease. In some cases, a health care provider may prescribe a high-protein diet to offset the loss of protein due to Ménétrier’s disease. Some people with severe malnutrition may require IV nutrition, which is called total parenteral nutrition (TPN). TPN is a method of providing an IV liquid food mixture through a special tube in the chest.

YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A9n%C3%A9trier%27s_disease
https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/menetriers-disease

Fecal Incontinence


Other Names:Bowel Control Problems, Bowel Incontinence

Description:
Fecal Incontience is the inability to control bowel movements. It’s a common problem, especially among older adults.

CLICK & SEE

Accidental bowel leakage is usually not a serious medical problem. But it can seriously interfere with daily life. People with bowel incontinence may avoid social activities for fear of embarrassment.

Symptoms:
The symptoms of fecal incontinence include a strong urge for a bowel movement and not being able to control it, and passing solid or liquid stool without knowing it.

Causes:
Fecal incontinence has many causes, including digestive tract disorders and chronic diseases. The most common cause is damage to the muscles around the anus (anal sphincters). Vaginal childbirth can damage the anal sphincters or their nerves. That’s why women are affected by accidental bowel leakage about twice as often as men.

Anal surgery can also damage the anal sphincters or nerves, leading to bowel incontinence.

There are many other potential causes of bowel incontinence, including:

*Diarrhea (often due to an infection or irritable bowel syndrome)

*Impacted stool (due to severe constipation, often in older adults)

*Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis)

*Nerve damage (due to diabetes, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or other conditions)

*Radiation damage to the rectum (such as after treatment for prostate cancer)

*Cognitive (thinking) impairment (such as after a stroke or advanced Alzheimer’s disease)

More than one cause for fecal incontinence is frequently present. It’s also not unusual for bowel incontinence to occur without a clear cause.

Diagnosis:
Discussing fecal incontinence may be embarrassing, but it can provide clues for a doctor to help make the diagnosis. During a physical examination, a doctor may check the strength of the anal sphincter muscle using a gloved finger inserted into the rectum.

Doctors use your medical history, a physical exam, and tests to diagnose fecal incontinence and its causes. Your doctor will ask specific questions about your symptoms. Play an active role in your diagnosis by talking openly and honestly with your doctor.

Other tests may be helpful in identifying the cause of bowel incontinence, such as:

Stool testing. If diarrhea is present, stool testing may identify an infection or other cause.

Anorectal manometry: A pressure monitor is inserted into the anus and rectum. This allows measurement of the strength of the sphincter muscles.

Endosonography: An ultrasound probe is inserted into the anus. This produces images that can help identify problems in the anal and rectal walls.

Nerve tests: These tests measure the responsiveness of the nerves controlling the sphincter muscles. They can detect nerve damage that can cause bowel incontinence.

MRI defecography: Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis can be performed, potentially while a person moves her bowels on a special commode. This can provide information about the muscles and supporting structures in the anus, rectum, and pelvis.

Complications:
Complications of fecal incontinence may include:

Emotional distress: The loss of dignity associated with losing control over one’s bodily functions can lead to embarrassment, shame, frustration, anger and depression. It’s common for people with fecal incontinence to try to hide the problem or to avoid social engagements.

Skin irritation: The skin around the anus is delicate and sensitive. Repeated contact with stool can lead to pain and itching, and potentially to sores (ulcers) that require medical treatment.

Treatment:
Many effective treatments can help people with bowel incontinence. These include:

*Medicine

*Surgery

*Minimally invasive procedures

Talking to your doctor is the first step toward freedom from fecal incontinence.

Dietary changes:
What you eat and drink affects the consistency of your stools. If constipation is causing fecal incontinence, your doctor may recommend drinking plenty of fluids and eating fiber-rich foods. If diarrhea is contributing to the problem, high-fiber foods can also add bulk to your stools and make them less watery.

Exercise and other therapies:
If muscle damage is causing fecal incontinence, your doctor may recommend a program of exercise and other therapies to restore muscle strength. These treatments can improve anal sphincter control and the awareness of the urge to defecate. Options include:

Biofeedback: Specially trained physical therapists teach simple exercises that can increase anal muscle strength. People learn how to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, sense when stool is ready to be released and contract the muscles if having a bowel movement at a certain time is inconvenient. Sometimes the training is done with the help of anal manometry and a rectal balloon.

Bowel training: Your doctor may recommend making a conscious effort to have a bowel movement at a specific time of day: for example, after eating. Establishing when you need to use the toilet can help you gain greater control.

Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS): The sacral nerves run from your spinal cord to muscles in your pelvis. These nerves regulate the sensation and strength of your rectal and anal sphincter muscles. Implanting a device that sends small electrical impulses continuously to the nerves can strengthen muscles in the bowel. This treatment is usually done only after other treatments are tried.

Posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS/TENS): This minimally invasive treatment may be helpful for some people with fecal incontinence, but more studies are needed.

Vaginal balloon (Eclipse System): This is a pump-type device inserted in the vagina. The inflated balloon results in pressure on the rectal area, leading to a decrease in the number of episodes of fecal incontinence. Results for women have been promising, but more data are needed.

Doing regularly Yoga & Meditation under a trained person totally cures the  fecal incontinence.

Prevention:
Depending on the cause, it may be possible to prevent fecal incontinence. These actions may help:

*Reduce constipation:  Increase your exercise, eat more high-fiber foods and drink plenty of fluids.

*Control diarrhea:  Treating or eliminating the cause of the diarrhea, such as an intestinal infection, may help you avoid fecal incontinence.

*Avoid straining: Straining during bowel movements can eventually weaken anal sphincter muscles or damage nerves, possibly leading to fecal incontinence.

CLICK TO SEE FOR DIFFERENT ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT 

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/bowel-incontinence#2
https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/bowel-control-problems-fecal-incontinence
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fecal-incontinence/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351403

Blueberry

 

Botanical Name: Vaccinium corymbosum
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales

Common Name:Blueberry

Habitat: Blueberries are native to North America. The highbush blueberry varieties were introduced into Europe during the 1930s.

They are now grown commercially in the Southern Hemisphere, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, South Africa, New Zealand, and Australia .

Description:
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries. They are usually prostrate shrubs that can vary in size from 10 centimeters (3.9 in) to 4 meters (13 ft) in height. In commercial production of blueberries, the species with small, pea–size berries growing on low–level bushes are known as “lowbush blueberries” (synonymous with “wild”), while the species with larger berries growing on taller cultivated bushes are known as “highbush blueberries”.

CLICK & SEE TH THE PICTURES

The leaves can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, and 1–8 cm (0.39–3.15 in) long and 0.5–3.5 cm (0.20–1.38 in) broad. The flowers are bell-shaped, white, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish. The fruit is a berry 5–16 millimeters (0.20–0.63 in) in diameter with a flared crown at the end; they are pale greenish at first, then reddish-purple, and finally dark purple when ripe. They are covered in a protective coating of powdery epicuticular wax, colloquially known as the “bloom”. They have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes typically bear fruit in the middle of the growing season: fruiting times are affected by local conditions such as altitude and latitude, so the peak of the crop, in the northern hemisphere, can vary from May to August.

Uses:
Blueberries are sold fresh or are processed as individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries. These may then be used in a variety of consumer goods, such as jellies, jams, blueberry pies, muffins, snack foods, or as an additive to breakfast cereals.

Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, sugar, water, and fruit pectin. Blueberry sauce is a sweet sauce prepared using blueberries as a primary ingredient.

Blueberry wine is made from the flesh and skin of the berry, which is fermented and then matured; usually the lowbush variety is used.

Nutrients:
Blueberries consist of 14% carbohydrates, 0.7% protein, 0.3% fat and 84% water (table). They contain only negligible amounts of micronutrients, with moderate levels (relative to respective Daily Values) (DV) of the essential dietary mineral manganese, vitamin C, vitamin K and dietary fiber (table).[36] Generally, nutrient contents of blueberries are a low percentage of the DV (table). One serving provides a relatively low caloric value of 57 kcal per 100 g serving and glycemic load score of 6 out of 100 per day.

Phytochemicals and research:
Blueberries contain anthocyanins, other polyphenols and various phytochemicals under preliminary research for their potential role in the human body. Most polyphenol studies have been conducted using the highbush cultivar of blueberries (V. corymbosum), while content of polyphenols and anthocyanins in lowbush (wild) blueberries (V. angustifolium) exceeds values found in highbush cultivars.

Medicinal Uses:
Blueberry is used for preventing cancer, cataracts and glaucoma and for treating ulcers, urinary tract infections (UTIs), multiple sclerosis (MS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), colic, fever, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids. Blueberry is also used for improving circulation and memory, and as a laxative.

As early as 1927 studies were being published on the health benefits of Blueberry Leaf for controling blood sugar, but the benefit of antioxidants wasn’t commonly known or hadn’t really made it to being a household word until the scientists Ehlenfeldt and Prior published their findings in 2001 on the ORAC, phenolic and anthocyanin concentrations in fruit and leaf tissues of the highbush blueberry. Kind’a heavy readin’ for a simple country girl, but what they basically found was that the leaf was 31 times higher in anthocyanin antioxidants than the fruit. Jest sayin’.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blueberry
http://wildaboutberries.com/blueberry-leaf_302.html
http://www.google.com/search?q=medicinal+uses+of+blueberry&client=safari&rls=en&oq=medicinal+uses+of+blueberry&gs_l=heirloom-serp.12..0i30l2.1160377.1167178.0.1171399.14.14.0.0.0.0.385.3236.0j4j7j2.13.0….0…1ac.1.34.heirloom-serp..1.13.3232.If9rvRfxIfU

Barleria pronitis

Botanical Name:Barleria pronitis
Family: Acanthaceae
Genus: Barleria
Species:B. prionitis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Name: Porcupine flower

Sanskrit Name: Kuranta; Marathi Name: Vjradanti, Tamil Name: Tagalog: kukong manok

Bengali Name: Kantajanti/ Peetjhanti

Habitat: Porcupine flower is found in Tropical Africa and Asia.It is grown on the roadsid
e hedges, found as an escape.

Description:
Porcupine flower is an erect, prickly shrub, usually single-stemmed, growing to about 1.5 m tall. Spines are about 1.2 cm long. Leaves are up to 5-9 x 2.5-4 cm, elliptic, pointed, with a fine point, base wedge-shaped, sparsely puberulus, fringed with hairs on the margins, gland dotted beneath, leaf-stalk up to 2 cm. Orange-yellow flowers are borne in cymes in leaf-axils; bracts 2, 1.5 cm, oblong with a fine point at the tip. Outer sepals are 1.3 x 0.4 cm, inner 1.1 x 0.2 cm, fine-tipped, hairy. Flower tube is 2.5 cm, petals 2 cm obovate, filaments 1.3 cm, staminodes 2, remaining at the base of the flower tube. Ovary is 2.5 mm, style 2.5 cm.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Medicinal uses:
Unverified information Porcupine Flower has numerous medicinal properties including treating fever, respiratory diseases, toothache, joint pains and a variety of other ailments; and it has several cosmetic uses. A mouthwash made from root tissue is used to relieve toothache and treat bleeding gums. The whole plant, leaves, and roots are used for a variety of purposes in traditional Indian medicine. For example, the leaves are used to promote healing of wounds and to relieve joint pains and toothache. Because of its antiseptic properties, extracts of the plant are incorporated into herbal cosmetics and hair products to promote skin and scalp health.

The whole plant decoction is used to
cure dropsy, paste with karanja oil (Pongamia pinnata Vent.) used to cure swellings of legs. Roots used as tonic, diuretic, febrifuge and expectorant, used to
treat pimples, swellings of joints. Leaves and leaf juice given to cure catarrhal fever of childr
en, eye diseases,
and juice applied to treat cracking soles of feet, juice and black peeper powder applied to treat paralysis,
infusion used in cough and toothache. Dried bark is used as powder to the children to treat whooping cough.

Propagation:
By immediate placement of seed/tuberous roots.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barleria_prionitis
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Porcupine%20Flower.html
http://www.ijesi.org/papers/Vol(6)6/E0606012850.pdf