Ferula persica

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Botanical Name: Ferula persica
Family: Apiaceae
Subfamily: Apioideae
Tribes: Scandiceae
Subtribes: Ferulinae
Genus: Ferula
Species: Ferula persica

Synonyms:Ferula puberula Boiss. & Buhse
Vernacular name: English –Ferula ,Sagapenum gum.

Habitat : Ferula persica is native to West Asia – Iran. It grows on dry slopes to 2000 meters.

Description:
Ferula persica is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is in flower from May to July. The leaves are tripinnate or even more finely divided, with a stout basal sheath clasping the stem.The flowers are hermaphrodite, yellow, produced in large umbels. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants have a long taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible.

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Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.

Edible Uses: Gum.

Medicinal Uses:
It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

Other Uses: The gum ‘Sagapenum’ is obtained from the plant (from the root?). It is used in the treatment of rheumatism and lumbago

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.gbpuat-cbsh.ac.in/departments/bi/database/phytodiabcare/phytodiab%20db/165.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25427054
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+persica

Ferula narthex

Botanical Name: Ferula narthex
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ferula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : Ferula jaeschkeana. Vatke

Comon Name: Ferula
Sanskrit Name: Jatucom or Sahasrabathi or Hingu
Vernacular Names:
English – Asafotida

Hindi – Hingu

Kannada – Ingu

MalayalamKayam , Perukayam

Gujurati – Bagharani

Tamil – Perukayam

Telugu – Inguva

Punjabi – Hing

Marathi – Hing

Persian – Angoj

Arabic – Hillatil

Burma Shinka Sindh Vagharni

French – Ferula Asafoetida

Germany – Stinkendes

Bengali – Hingu
Habitat: Ferula narthex is native to W. Asia – Afghanistan to Pakistan. It grows on grassy slopes at elevations around 3600 metres in Tibet.
Description:
Ferula narthex is a perennial herb growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in) with robust carrot-shaped roots. Leaves of two kinds; lower simple, 30-60 cm long, ovate; upper much divided into numerous segments. Young leaves densely hairy. Flowers small, yellow, in large terminal clusters. Fruit 8 mm long, about half as broad or broader.

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It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of Britain, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. The whole plant is very strong-smelling. Plants have a long taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.

Edible Uses: ….Leaves and young shoots are eaten. Used as a pot-herb. The gum obtained from the roots is used as a condiment.
Medicinal Uses:
The gum resin obtained from the root is anthelmintic, antispasmodic, expectorant and nervine. It is used in the treatment of asthma, whooping cough, flatulent colic, and in pneumonia and bronchitis in children. It is applied externally on stomach to stimulate the intestines, even its enema is recommended in intestinal flatulence.The leaves are carminative and diaphoretic. The plant has recently been investigated as a potential contraceptive.

Other Uses: …..The root is a source of the gum ‘asafoetida’, it is used as a condiment and as a medicine. It is obtained by incision of the roots.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferula
http://www.indianmedicinalplants.info/herbs/index.php/sanskrit-names-of-plants/49-2012-03-14-06-48-48/636-ferula-narthex

Hingu – Ferula narthex Boiss – Ayurvedic Herb


http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+narthex

Ferula moschata


Botanical Name:
Ferula moschata
Family:
Apiaceae
Subfamily:
Apioideae
Tribes:
Scandiceae
Subtribes:
Ferulinae
Genus:
Ferula
Species:
Ferula moschata

Synonyms : Ferula sumbul.

Common Names: Musk Root, Eurangium sumbul; Sumbulus moschatus, Ferula sumbul.

Vernacular Names:
English: Musk-root; Sumbul.
German: Echte; Persische Sambulwurzel.
Dutch: Muskuswortel.

Habitat :Ferula moschata is native to W. Asia – Turkestan to Tibet. It grows on mountains of Samarkand at heights of 900 to 1300 metres. Gravel slopes in bushes in Tibet.

Description:
Ferula moschata is a perennial herb, growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in). Stem slender, corymbose-branched, lower branches alternate, upper branches verticillate. Leaf blade broadly elliptic-triangular, ternate-2-pinnatisect; ultimate segments oblong or lanceolate, 20–35 × 10–15 mm, remote, rather thick, adaxially glabrous, abaxially pubescent, sometimes sparsely papillose along veins, distally lobed, lobules entire or toothed. Terminal umbel long-pedunculate, lateral umbels 1–2, solitary or opposite, slightly exceeding terminal; umbels 4–6 cm across; bracts absent; rays 6–12, subequal; bracteoles lanceolate; umbellules 9–12-flowered. Stylopodium low-conic, base dilated, margins undulate. Fruit ellipsoid, ca. 7 mm; vittae 1 in each furrow, 2 on commissure.

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It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -5°c. Plants have a long taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.

Edible Uses: Gum is edible.

Medicinal Uses:
The root and the rhizome are antispasmodic, nervine, stimulant and tonic. The medicinal action resembles that of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and the plant is used in the treatment of various hysterical conditions. It is also believed to have a specific action on the pelvic organs and is used in treating dysmenorrhoea and a wide range of other feminine disorders. The root is also a stimulant to mucous membranes and is used in treating chronic dysentery, diarrhoea, bronchitis and even pneumonia.

Other Uses : Gum……..A gum is extracted from the root. Used as a perfume and an incense, it is a musk substitute.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ferula_moschata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+moschata
http://www.qjure.com/remedy/ferula-moschata-0
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242321996

Ferula conocaula

Botanical Name : Ferula conocaula
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ferula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales
Habitat : Ferula conocaula is native to Central Asia. It grows on montane semi-deserts. Mountain valleys at elevations around 2800 metres in Tibet.
Description:
Ferula conocaula is a perennial monocarpic, strongly onion-scented plant. Stem solitary, very stout, up to 15 cm thick at base, tapering towards apex, hispid, paniculate-branched, branches thick, lower branches alternate, upper branches verticillate, purplish tinged with age. Basal leaves petiolate; blade triangular in outline, ternate-pinnatifid; ultimate segments lanceolate or lanceolate-elliptic, to 27 × 7 cm, finely crenate, adaxially glabrous, abaxially densely puberulous. Cauline leaves reduced with expanded sheaths, uppermost almost wholly sheathing. Terminal umbels often sessile or short-pedunculate, lateral umbels long-pedunculate, usually exceeding terminal; umbels 8–14 mm across; bracts absent; rays 12–50, subequal; bracteoles few, lanceolate, small, deciduous; umbellules ca. 15-flowered. Stylopodium low-conic, base dilated; styles elongate, recurved. Fruit ellipsoid, ca. 10 × 5 mm; vittae 1–2 in each furrow, 8–14 on commissure.

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It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in some parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in most soils. Prefers a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants have a long taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible. Monocarpic, the plant takes some years before it flowers and dies after flowering.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn[1]. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.
Medicinal Uses:
The gum resin, obtained from the roots, is anthelmintic, carminative, digestive and expectorant. It is used in the treatment of indigestion, dysentery, tumours, parasitic and anthelmintic infections. The essential oil in the resin can be expelled through the lungs and so is used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and whooping cough.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferula
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200015532
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+conocaula

Aconitum heterophyllum

Botanical Name : Aconitum heterophyllum
Family: Ranunculaceae
Tribe: Delphinieae
Genus: Aconitum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms:
Aruna, Ardra, Upavisa, Kasaya Krsna, Ghuna Vallabha, Candri, Pita Vallabha, Prati Visa, Bhangura, Madhya-deastha, Mahausadha, Madri, Mrdvi, Rakta, Visva, Visama, Visa,sisubhaisajya, Suka Kanda, Sukla Kanda, Srngika, Syama Kanda, sveta, Sveta Kanda, sveta vaca

Common Names:
Names in different languages:

Marathi……..Ati Vish
Persian………Vajjcturki
Punjabi……..Atis
Tamil…………Ati Vidayam
Telugu……….Ati Vasa
Bengali……..Ataich
English……….Indian Atees
Gujarati………Ativakhani Kali.
Hindi…………..Atis, Atvika
Kannada………Ati Visha
Malayalam…….Ati Vidayam

Habitat : Aconitum heterophyllum is native to E. Asia – W. Himalayas. Usually found on humus-rich soils in the alpine and subalpine zones, and in forests, 2300 – 2900 metres.
Description:
Aconitum heterophyllum is a perennial plant growing to 1.5 m (5ft). Roots, biennial, paired, tuberous; conical or cylindrical 4-10 cm long, 0.75-3 cm thick.Stem erect.Roots biennial, paired, tuberous; whitish or grey. Stem erect, simple or branched, from 15-20 cm high. glabrous below, finely crispo-pubescent in the upper part.

Leaves heteromorphous, glabrous: lowest on long petioles (13cm); blade orbicular- cordate or ovate-cordate in outline with a usually narrow sinus (1-1.5 cm deep); usually 5- lobed to the middle, amplexicaul.

Inflorescence slender raceme or a lax, leafy panicle, crispo-pubescent; Sepals bluish or violet (rarely whitish); navicular obliquely erect, shortly or obscurely beaked, 18-20 mm high, 8-9 mm wide. Carpels 5, elliptic-oblong. Follicles contagious, linear-oblong, straight, 16-18 mm long.

Seeds pyramidal, 3-4 mm long, blackish brown.

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It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands. The roots of this plant are extensively collected from the wild for medicinal use and the species is becoming much rarer in many areas of its range. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year

Edible Uses: Leaves and root – cooked. This report should be treated with great distrust due to the poisonous nature of the genus, but see the notes  below on known hazards.

Chemical Constituents:
Atidine , hetisine, heteratisine ,Diterpene alkaloids , heterophylline, heterophylline ,heterophyllidine heterophyllisine, hetidine, atidine & ,Atisenol, a new entatisene diterpenoid lactone from roots.

F-dishydrçatisine, hetidine, hetisinone, heteratisine, hetisine, benzylleteratisine, beta —sitosterol, carotene and 3— isoatisine from rhizomes.

Medicinal Uses:
Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antiperiodic; Aphrodisiac; Astringent; Cholagogue; Febrifuge; Tonic.

The dried root is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, febrifuge and tonic. It is used in India in the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and coughs. It is also used in Tibetan medicine, where it is said to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. It is used to treat poisoning from scorpion or snake bites, the fevers of contagious diseases and inflammation of the intestines. The root is best harvested in the autumn as soon as the plant dies down and is dried for later use. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

External uses:

The crushed eaves, mixed with saindhav are applied focally. The seeds crushed in honey are applied locally on throat, in tonsillitis. Nasal insufflations of roots is beneficial in headache (especially migraine).

Internal uses:

Respiratory system : The juice of roots along with milk is an expectorant Root powder is given orally in cervical lymphadenitis.

Digestive system : Seed and root are used in ascites. Seeds are laxative.

Urinary system : The seeds are diuretic, the root decoction reduces burning of urinary tract. It increases volume of urine,

Reproductive system : Root is used in sperrnatorrhoea. The decoction of roots is also used in burning of vagina.

Circulatory system : The juice of leaves along with juice of zingier reduce perspiration.

Known Hazards:  The whole plant is highly toxic – simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people. One report says that this plant does not contain the toxic alkaloid aconitine, and so is not poisonous. It does, however, still contain an intensely bitter alkaloid.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aconitum+heterophyllum
http://www.indianmedicinalplants.info/d2/Aconitum-heterophyllum(Ativisa%20).html

Senecio pseudoarnica

Botanical N ame: Senecio pseudoarnica
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Subtribe: Madiinae
Genus: Arnica
Division:  Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order:Asterales
Kind:Senecio
Kingdom:Plantae

Synonyms :Asteraceae Arnica maritima. Senecio pseudo-arnica

Common Name: Seaside Ragwort

Habitat: Senecio pseudoarnica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows on shingle by the sea.

Description:
Senecio pseudoarnica is a perennial herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure…...CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a sunny position in most well-drained moderately fertile soils. Prefers a sandy soil. Judging by its native habitat, this plant should tolerate maritime exposure. Hardy to about -15°c.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. Make sure the compost does not dry out. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in early summer if they have grown sufficiently. Otherwise, grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out the following year after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Root cuttings in early spring.

Edible Uses: The fleshy stems and young leaves – cooked. Only the young plant should be used and it should be cooked. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses: A poultice of the leaves has been used to drain cuts and boils.

Known Hazards: Although no mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus that contains a number of plants with a cumulative poisonous effect on the liver. Some caution is advised.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnica
http://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Senecio+pseudoarnica

Arnica diversifolia

Botanical Name : Arnica diversifolia
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Arnica
Species: A. ovata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Arnica diversifolia Greene
*Arnica latifolia var. viscidula

Common Names: Rayless arnica

Other Names: Sticky leaf arnica,Arnica ovata

Habitat ; Arnica diversifolia is native to western Canada (Yukon, Alberta, British Columbia), and the western United States (Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado). It grows on rocky places from moderate to high elevations in mountains

Description:
Arnica diversifolia is a perennial herb growing 6–24 inches. Erect. Stems 1 to several, unbranched, with sticky gland-bearing hairs. Leaves triangular, irregularly toothed; 3–4 pairs along stem, with largest pair 1–3 in. long and in the middle. Lower leaves on petioles; upper leaves sessile. Flower heads 1–5 in cluster, 8–13 ray flowers less than 1 in. long in head. Flower heads are yellow, with both ray florets and disc florets.
Flowering Time: All Summer

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Apomictic, insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

 Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of this country. This is a convenient name for a complex of apparent hybrids involving A. mollis or A. amplexicaulis with A. cordifolia or A. latifolia. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a moist, well-drained humus rich soil, preferably lime-free. Prefers a mixture of sand, loam and peat.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and make sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring

Medicinal Uses:
Antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory, vulnerary.

Other Uses : This plant is used as a hair conditioner. No further details are found.

Known Hazards: The whole plant is toxic and should only be used for external applications to unbroken skin[

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnica_ovata
http://www.pnwflowers.com/flower/arnica-diversifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arnica+diversifolia

Arnica cordifolia

Botanical Name: Arnica cordifolia
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Arnica
Species: A. cordifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Arnica cordifolia Hook. var. cordifolia
*Arnica cordifolia Hook. var. pumila (Rydb.) Maguire

Common Name: Heartleaf arnica

Habitat :Arnica cordifolia is native to western North America from Alaska to California to New Mexico, as far east as Ontario and Michigan. It is a plant of many habitat types, including coniferous forests and mountain meadows.
Description:
This is a rhizomatous perennial herb producing one or more erect stems reaching a maximum height near half a meter. It has two to four pairs of leaves on the stem, each on a long petiole. The leaves are heart-shaped to arrowhead-shaped and finely toothed along the edges. The inflorescence bears one or more daisylike flower heads lined with white-haired phyllaries and sometimes studded with resin glands. The center of each head contains golden yellow disc florets and a fringe of bright golden ray florets approaching 3 centimeters in maximum length. Blooms: April – July

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The fruit is a hairy achene up to a centimeter long, not counting its off-white pappus. Seeds are dispersed on the wind. An individual plant can live twelve years, surviving periodic wildfire by resprouting from its long, slender rhizome afterward.
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moist, well-drained humus rich soil, preferably lime-free. Prefers a mixture of sand, loam and peat.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and make sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring.
Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory and vulnerary. When applied intravenously or orally it causes a rise in body temperature. All parts of the plant may be used, but the flowers are used in preference to the root. They have a discutient property and a tincture is used as an external application to swellings, sprains, bruises and wounds. A salve applied to cuts helps to keep down infections.

Other Uses: This plant is used as a hair conditioner. No further details are available.

Known Hazards; The whole plant is toxic and should only be used for external applications to unbroken skin.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnica_cordifolia
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arnica+cordifolia
http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Arnica&Species=cordifolia

Arnica angustifolia alpina

Botanical Name : Arnica angustifolia alpina
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Genus: Arnica
Species: A. angustifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: A. alpina. (L.)Olin.

Common Name: Mountain Tobacco

Other Name: Narrowleaf Arnica

Habitat : Arnica angustifolia alpina is native to N. Europe. N. Asia and Northern N. America. It grows in pasture and open woodland on neutral to calcareous soils. Bare rocky alpine slopes and summits.

Description:
Arnica angustifolia alpina is a perennial herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in)

*Rootstock: Rootstock long. Forms stands.

*Stem: Stem quite delicate, densely haired especially at top, also with glandular hairs.

*Flower: Flowers 3.5–5 cm (1.4–2 in.) broad, single flower-like capitula surrounded by involucral bracts. Capitulum flowers yellow, ray-florets tongue-like; disc-florets tubular, small. Stamens 5. Gynoecium composed of 2 fused carpels. Involucral bracts in 2 rows, same length, lanceolate, base densely haired, with purple tips. Solitary capitulum terminating stem, often nodding, sometimes with additional 1–4 capitula in stem-leaf axils.

*Leaves: In basal rosette and on stem usually 1–2 pairs opposite, stalkless. Blade lanceolate–lanceolately ovate, long-tipped, with entire margins, almost parallel-veined, short-haired.

*Fruit: Ridged achene, tip with white unbranched hairs.

*Flowering time: July-August.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moist, well-drained humus rich soil, preferably lime-free. This species is more lime tolerant than other members of the genus[200]. Prefers a mixture of sand, loam and peat. Closely related to A. montana.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and make sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring

Medicinal Uses:
The whole flowering plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory and vulnerary. This species is closely related to A. montana and is included in that species by some botanists. The medicinal uses of that plant are as follows:- Arnica has a long history of herbal use, especially as an external treatment for bruises and sprains – it is an ingredient of a number of proprietary preparations[238]. Internally, it has been used in the treatment of heart complaints and as a booster for the immune system. Arnica increases local blood supply and accelerates healing, it is anti-inflammatory and increases the rate of absorption of internal bleeding. Generally the plant is nowadays only recommended for internal use as a homeopathic medicine, principally for treating shock, injury and pain. If used as a decoction or tincture it stimulates the circulation and is valuable in the treatment of angina and a weak or failing heart, but it can be toxic even at quite low doses and so is rarely used this way. The flowers are the part most commonly used, they are harvested when fully open and dried – the receptacles are sometimes removed since these are liable to be attacked by insects. The root is also used, it is harvested after the leaves have died down in the autumn and dried for later use. The whole plant is antiecchymotic, antiphlogistic, nervine, sternutatory, vulnerary. Although a very valuable remedy, it should be used with caution. It has been known to cause contact dermatitis when used externally and collapse when taken internally. Only take it internally under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The freshly crushed flowers cause sneezing if inhaled. The leaves have also been smoked as a tobacco, though it is unclear whether this was for medicinal reasons The whole plant, harvested when in flower, is used in homeopathic remedies. It is especially useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries, sores and bruises. The homeopathic dose has also been used effectively in the treatment of epilepsy and seasickness, and it might be of use as a hair growth stimulant.

Other Uses : This plant is used as a hair conditioner. No further details are  available.

Known Hazards: The whole plant is toxic and should only be used for external applications to unbroken skin.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnica_angustifolia
http://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/alpine-arnica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arnica+angustifolia+alpina

Mentha x villosa var. alopecuroides

Botanical name: Mentha x villosa var. alopecuroides
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Mentha
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms : Mentha x rotundifolia. (L.)Huds.

Common Name: Apple Mint

Other names: Bowles’s mint, Bowles’ mint
Habitat : Mentha x villosa var. alopecuroides is native to Central and southern Europe, including Britain, Mediterranean region, Azores. It grows on the roadsides and in ditches in the S. and W. of England. Probably a hybrid, M. spicata x M. suaveolens.

Description:
Mentha x villosa alopecuroides is a perennial herb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It produces small mauve flower spikes in summer.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils and situations so long as the soil is not too dry. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a slightly acid soil. A sunny position is best for the production of essential oils, but the plant also succeeds in partial shade. Apple mint is commonly grown in the herb garden. There is at least one named variety, ‘Bowles mint’ is said to be a superior form and it is the form usually cultivated commercially for mint sauce. Unlike most members of the genus, this species is resistant to the disease ‘rust’. Most mints have fairly aggressive spreading roots and, unless you have the space to let them roam, they need to be restrained by some means such as planting them in containers that are buried in the soil. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. The whole plant has a strong aroma of spearmint. The flowers are very attractive to bees and butterflies. A good companion for growing near cabbages and tomatoes, helping to keep them free of insect pests. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Mentha species are very prone to hybridisation and so the seed cannot be relied on to breed true. Even without hybridisation, seedlings will not be uniform and so the content of medicinal oils etc will vary. When growing plants with a particular aroma it is best to propagate them by division. Division can be easily carried out at almost any time of the year, though it is probably best done in the spring or autumn to allow the plant to establish more quickly. Virtually any part of the root is capable of growing into a new plant. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. However, for maximum increase it is possible to divide the roots up into sections no more than 3cm long and pot these up in light shade in a cold frame. They will quickly become established and can be planted out in the summer.
Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. A strong spearmint flavour, they are used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods, this is also the main species that is used to make mint sauce. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves.
Medicinal Uses :
Apple mint, like many other members of this genus, is often used as a domestic herbal remedy, being valued especially for its antiseptic properties and its beneficial effect on the digestion. Like other members of the genus, it is best not used by pregnant women because large doses can cause an abortion. A tea made from the leaves of most mint species has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive disorders and various minor ailments. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and can be dried for later use. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses.

Other Uses:
An essential oil is obtained from the whole plant. The plant repels insects and was formerly used as a strewing herb. Rats and mice intensely dislike the smell of mint. The plant was therefore used in homes as a strewing herb and has also been spread in granaries to keep the rodents off the grain.

Known Hazards: Although no records of toxicity have been seen for this species, large quantities of some members of this genus, especially when taken in the form of the extracted essential oil, can cause abortions so some caution is advised.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mentha+x+villosa+alopecuroides
http://www.hooksgreenherbs.com/mentha-suaveolens-bowles-applemint-buy-herb-plant-online/