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Lactuca raddeana


Botanical Name: Lactuca raddeana
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Cichorioideae
Tribes: Cichorieae
Subtribes: Lactucinae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: Lactuca raddeana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Lactuca aogashimaensis Kitamura; Lactuca elata Hemsley, non Salisbury; Lactuca raddeana var. compacta Baranov & Skvortsov; Pterocypsera elata (Hemsley) C. Shih; Prenanthes hieracifolia H. Léveillé

Common names: (Japanese common name) yama-nigana [meaning: mountain bitter herb])

Habitat :Lactuca raddeana is native to E. Asia – China, Japan. It grows on mountains all over Japan.
Lactuca raddeana is an annual or perennial herb, growing to 0.6 m (2ft). Roots ramose. Stem solitary, erect, basal half ± densely hispid, apical half glabrous and branched. Lower and middle stem leaves with basal portion cuneate or winged petiole-like, 2–10 cm; apical portion ovate, elliptic, or triangular, 5–16 × 2–8.5 cm, undivided, pinnatipartite, or lyrately pinnatipartite, ± hispid, margin dentate and coarsely sinuate-dentate; lateral lobes 1–3 pairs, elliptic, apex acute; terminal lobe triangular, ovate-triangular, or subrhombic, apex acute. Upper stem leaves with basal portion shorter, winged, and petiole-like to cuneate, apical portion ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate. Synflorescence narrowly paniculate, with numerous capitula on wiry branches. Capitula with 8–11 florets. Involucre cylindric, 8–10 mm at anthesis, 9–11 × 4–5 mm in fruit. Phyllaries often pale purplish red; outer phyllaries triangular-ovate to lanceolate, largest ca. 5 × 1–2 mm, apex obtuse; inner phyllaries 5(or 6), apex obtuse. Florets bright yellow. Achene 3–4 mm; body reddish to dark brown, ellipsoid, compressed, broadly winged, 1.5–2 mm wide, with 3(–5) prominent ribs on either side, apically contracted into a concolorous or apically pale stout 0.2–0.4 mm beak. Pappus 6–7 mm, ± caducous. Fl. and fr. May–Oct. 2n = 18.


The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation: Prefers a light sandy loam.

Propagation : Seed – sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.

Edible Uses: Leaves – raw or cooked. Root.
Medicinal Uses :
Although we have seen no specific reports for this species, most if not all members of the genus have a milky sap that contains the substance ‘lactucarium‘ and can probably be used as the report below details. The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains ‘lactucarium’, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Vicia americana

Botanical Name: Vicia americana
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Vicia
Species:V. americana
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Lathyrus diffusus. Orobus diffusus

Common Names:American Vetch, Mat vetch, Purple vetch

Habitat : Vicia americana is native to N. America – Alaska to Ontario and New York, south to Virginia, Kentucky and Arizona.It grows on damp or gravelly slopes, thickets and meadows.
Vicia americana is a single-stemmed, climbing perennial forb that measurers up to 16 inches tall. It grows from both taproot and rhizome. The leaves are each made up of oblong leaflets and have tendrils for climbing. It bears showy pea-like flowers in shades of lavender and fuchsia. The fruit is a hairless pod about 3 centimeters long that contains usually two light brown peas.

The 8 to 16 leaflets are broadly elliptical to linear measuring 0.4 to 1.5 inches in length. The lower stipules are deeply lacerated, often appearing star-like (Isley 1998). The inflorescence is a raceme with up to 10 purple flowers approximately 0.5 to 1.5 inches long. Flowering occurs from May to August with the seeds maturing around one month after pollination (Voss, 1985; Wasser, 1982). The fruit is a 1 to 1.5 inch long pod bearing two to several pea-like seeds. There are approximately 33,000 seeds/lb (USDANRCS, 2015). American vetch has a moderate to deeply-branched taproot which reaches a maximum depth of 40 inches. The deep tap root allows for the plant to exhibit characteristics of severe drought tolerance.

It is in flower in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile. It can fix Nitrogen.
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in any well-drained soil in a sunny position if the soil is reliably moist throughout the growing season, otherwise it is best grown in semi-shade. A climbing plant, attaching itself to supports by means of tendrils. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation : Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow in situ in spring or autumn.
Edible Uses: Young shoots – cooked. The tender seeds are eaten by the N. American Indians. Both the mature seeds and the immature seedpods can be used. The pod is about 3cm long and contains 4 – 7 seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves have been rubbed in the hands and applied to spider bites. An infusion of the crushed leaves have been used as a bath for treating soreness[257]. An infusion of the plant has been used as an eyewash. An infusion of the leaves has been used by women as a love medicine.

Other Uses : The stout roots have been used for tying

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Betula papyrifera

Botanical Name: Betula papyrifera
Family: Betulaceae
Genus: Betula
Subgenus: Betula
Species: B. papyrifera
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fagales

Synonyms: Betula alba var. papyrifera, Betula lenta var. papyrifera

Common Names: Paper Birch, Mountain paper birch, Kenai birch, white birch and canoe birch

Habitat: Betula papyrifera is native to Northern N. America to Greenland. It grows in woods, usually on slopes, edges of ponds, streams and swamps etc. Found in a wide range of soil conditions, but the best specimens are found in well-drained sandy-loam soils.
Betula papyrifera is a medium-sized deciduous tree typically reaching 20 metres (66 ft) tall, and exceptionally to 130 feet (40 m) with a trunk up to 30 inches (0.76 m) diameter. Within forests it is often grows with a single trunk but when grown as a landscape tree it may develop multiple trunks or branch close to the ground.

Paper birch is a typically short lived species. It handles heat and humidity poorly and may only live 30 years in zones six and up, while trees in colder-climate regions can grow over 100 years. B. papyrifera will grow on many soil types, from steep rocky outcrops to flat muskegs of the boreal forest. Best growth occurs on deeper, well drained to dry soils depending on the location.

In older trees the bark is white, commonly brightly so, flaking in fine horizontal strips to reveal a pinkish or salmon colored inner bark. It is often with small black marks and scars. In individuals younger than five years, the bark appears a brown red color with white lenticels, making the tree much harder to distinguish from other birches. The bark is highly weather-resistant. The bark has a high oil content and this gives it its waterproof and weather resistant characteristics. Often, the wood of a downed paper birch will rot away leaving the hollow bark intact.

* The leaves are dark green and smooth on the upper surface, the lower surface is often pubescent on the veins. The leaves are alternately arranged on the stem, oval to triangular in shape, 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long and about 2/3 as wide. The leaf is rounded at the base and tapering to an acutely pointed tip. The leaves have a doubly serrate margin with relatively sharp teeth. Each leaf has a petiole ~2.5 cm (1 in) long which connects it to the stems.

* The fall color is a bright yellow color which contributes to the bright colors within the northern deciduous forest.
* The leaf buds are conical and small and green-colored with brown edges.
* The stems are a reddish brown color and may be somewhat hairy when young.

* The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins, the female flowers are greenish and 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) long growing from the tips of twigs. The male (staminate) flowers are 2–4 inches (5.1–10.2 cm) long and a brownish color. It flowers from mid-April to June depending on location.Paper birch is monoicous meaning that one plant has both male and female flowers.

* The fruit matures in the fall. The mature fruit is composed of numerous tiny winged seeds packed between the catkin bracts. They drop between September and spring. At 15 years of age the tree will start producing seeds but will be in peak seed production between 40–70 years. The seed production is irregular with a heavy seed crops being produced typically every other year and with at least some seeds being produced every year. In average seed years, 1 million seeds/acre are produced but in bumper years 35 million/acre may be produced. The seeds are light and blow in the wind to new areas, they may also blow along the surface of the snow.

* The roots are generally shallow and occupy the upper 24 inches (61 cm) of the soil and do not form taproots. High winds are more likely to break the trunk than to uproot the tree.


Succeeds in a well-drained loamy soil in a sunny position. Tolerates most soils including poor soils and heavy clays. Fairly wind tolerant. This species is very unhappy on our windy site in Cornwall. A fast-growing but short-lived species. It is often a pioneer species of areas ravaged by fire. The trunk and branches are easily killed by fire, though the tree usually regenerates from the roots. It hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. This species was an exceedingly important tree for the Indians – they utilized it for a very wide range of applications and it was a central item in their economy. A good plant to grow near the compost heap, aiding the fermentation process. Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and place the pot in a sunny position. Spring sown seed should be surface sown in a sunny position in a cold frame. If the germination is poor, raising the temperature by covering the seed with glass can help. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed, it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed, either as soon as it is ripe or in the early spring – do not cover the spring sown seed. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for 2 years before planting them out into their permanent positions in the winter.
Edible Uses:
Inner bark – raw or cooked. Best in the spring. The inner bark can also be dried and ground into a meal and used as a thickener in soups or be added to flour and used in making bread, biscuits etc. Inner bark is generally only seen as a famine food, used when other forms of starch are not available or are in short supply. Sap – raw or cooked. A sweet flavour. Harvested in early spring, before the leaves unfurl, by tapping the trunk. The flow is best on warm sunny days following a hard frost. The sap usually runs freely, but the sugar content is lower than in the sugar maples. A pleasant sweet drink, it can also be concentrated into a syrup or sugar by boiling off much of the water. The sap can also be fermented to make birch beer or vinegar. An old English recipe for the beer is as follows:- “To every Gallon of Birch-water put a quart of Honey, well stirr’d together; then boil it almost an hour with a few Cloves, and a little Limon-peel, keeping it well scumm’d. When it is sufficiently boil’d, and become cold, add to it three or four Spoonfuls of good Ale to make it work…and when the Test begins to settle, bottle it up . . . it is gentle, and very harmless in operation within the body, and exceedingly sharpens the Appetite, being drunk ante pastum.”[269]. Very young leaves, shoots and catkins – raw or cooked. A tea is made from the young leaves and also from the root bark.
Medicinal Uses:
Paper birch was often employed medicinally by many native North American Indian tribes who used it especially to treat skin problems. It is little used in modern herbalism. The bark is antirheumatic, astringent, lithontripic, salve and sedative. The dried and powdered bark has been used to treat nappy rash in babies and various other skin rashes. A poultice of the thin outer bark has been used as a bandage on burns. A decoction of the inner bark has been used as a wash on rashes and other skin sores. Taken internally, the decoction has been used to treat dysentery and various diseases of the blood. The bark has been used to make casts for broken limbs. A soft material such as a cloth is placed next to the skin over the broken bone. Birch bark is then tied over the cloth and is gently heated until it shrinks to fit the limb. A decoction of the wood has been used to induce sweating and to ensure an adequate supply of milk in a nursing mother. A decoction of both the wood and the bark has been used to treat female ailments. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Betula species for infections of the urinary tract, kidney and bladder stones, rheumatism.

Other Uses :
Dye; Fuel; Hair; Miscellany; Paper; Pioneer; Waterproofing; Wood.

The thin outer bark is used to make drinking vessels, canoe skins, roofing tiles, buckets etc. This material was very widely used by various native North American Indian tribes, it is waterproof, durable, tough and resinous. Only the thin outer bark is removed, this does not kill the tree. It is most easily removed in late spring to early summer. The outer bark has also been used as emergency sun-glasses in order to prevent snow-blindness. A strip of bark 4 – 5cm wide is placed over the eyes, the natural openings (lenticels) in the bark serving as apertures for the eyes. A brown to red dye can be made from the inner bark. A pioneer species, it rapidly invades deforested areas (such as after a forest fire or logging) and creates suitable conditions for other woodland trees to follow. Because it cannot grow or reproduce very successfully in the shade it is eventually out-competed by the other woodland trees. The tree has an extensive root system and can be planted to control banks from erosion. The bark is a good tinder. An infusion of the leaves is used as a hair shampoo, it is effective against dandruff. The thin outer bark can be used as a paper substitute. It is carefully peeled off the tree and used as it is. A fibre is obtained from the inner bark and another from the heartwood, these are used in making paper[189]. The heartwood fibre is 0.8 – 2.7mm long, that from the bark is probably longer. The branches of the tree can be harvested in spring or summer, the leaves and outer bark are removed, the branches are steamed and the fibres stripped off. Wood – strong, hard, light, very close grained, elastic, not durable. It weighs 37lb per cubic foot and is used for turnery, veneer, pulp etc. It is also used as a fuel. It splits easily and gives off considerable heat even when green, but tends to quickly coat chimneys with a layer of tar.
Known Hazards : The aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in birch tar are irritating to the skin. Do not use in patients with oedema or with poor kidney or heart functions.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Rhododendron kaempferi


Botanical Name :Rhododendron kaempferi
Family: Ericaceae
Tribe: Rhodoreae
Order: Ericalendron
Species: Rhododendron kaempferi Planch.
Genus: Rhodode

*Rhododendron obtusum var. kaempferi
*Rhododendron kaempferi f. latisepalum
*Rhododendron kaempferi var. lucidusculum
*Rhododendron scabrum var. kaempferi
*Rhododendron obtusum var. kaempferi f. purpuriflorum

Common Names: Kaempferi azaleas

Habitat :Rhododendron kaempferi is native to E. Asia – Japan. It grows on the open woods and scrub, sunny grassy hillsides and mountainsides to 1600 metres, all over Japan.

Rhododendron kaempferi is a woody, evergreen or deciduous shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 2.5 m (8ft).
Leaves are alternate dark green & redish during fall, simple, smooth- or toothed-margined; flowers in a terminal cluster, tubular, 5-parted, white to deep pink or yellow; fruit an elongated capsule; easier, less demanding than Kurume azaleas.


It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam. Succeeds in sun or shade, the warmer the climate the more shade a plant requires. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal. Plants are hardy to about -20°c, but are deciduous in cold climates. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. This species is closely related to R. indicum. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult.

Edible Uses:
Flowers – raw or cooked. Some caution is advised, see the notes on toxicity. Leaves – boiled. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.

Other Uses: …Plants can be grown as ground cover when spaced about 1 metre apart each way.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where many members have poisonous leaves. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Aciphylla squarrosa

Botanical Name : Aciphylla squarrosa
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Aciphylla
Order: Apiales

Common Name: Speargrass,Taramea, Spaniard
Aciphylla squarrosa is known as “kurikuri” by Maori.

Habitat :Aciphylla squarrosa is native to New Zealand. It is found from sea-level to montane areas in North and South Islands to latitude 41° 30′ south.

Aciphylla squarrosa is an evergreen Perennial growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 1.5 m (5ft). It is a large speargrass with stiff rigid leaves and a spiny flower stalk.It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to July.Flower colours are Green & Yellow. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile. The flower spikes occur in summer and grow up to 2m tall.

USDA hardiness zone : 4-8

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Requires a perfectly drained gritty soil in full sun. Easily grown in a moist but well-drained soil in full sun. Hardy to about -10°c according to one report whilst another says it is hardy to about -15°c. Dioecious but female plants have occasional male flowers. Male and female plants must normally be grown if seed is required. The flowers are sweetly scented.
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed should be sown in a greenhouse in late winter or early spring. Germination can be very slow. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter before planting them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Edible Uses: 
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.
Edible Uses: Gum; Gum.

Root – cooked. Aromatic. A very good taste. The resin is used as a chewing gum. Shoots and young stems. No further details.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.
Other Uses:.Gum; Gum…..The plant yields a semi-transparent resinous gum that is edible and also used in perfumery.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Elaeagnus multiflora ovata

Botanical Name : Elaeagnus multiflora ovata
E. multiflora

Synonyms : Elaeagnus longipes

Common Names : Goumi, Gumi, Natsugumi, or Cherry silverberry

Habitat : Elaeagnus multiflora ovata is native to E. Asia – China and Japan. It grows on the thickets and thin woods in hills and on lowland, at elevations of 600 – 1800 metres.

Elaeagnus multiflora ovata is a deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 2-8 m tall, with a trunk up to 30 cm diameter with dark brown bark.
The shoots are densely covered in minute red-brown scales. The leaves are ovate to elliptic, 3-10 cm long and 2-5 cm broad, green above, and silvery to orange-brown below with dense small scales.The flowers are solitary or in pairs in the leaf axils, fragrant, with a four-lobed pale yellowish-white corolla 1.5 cm long; flowering is in mid-spring and the seeds ripen in July.

The fruit is round to oval drupe 1 cm long, silvery-scaled orange, ripening red dotted with silver or brown, pendulous on a 2-3 cm peduncle. When ripe in mid- to late summer, the fruit is juicy and edible, with a sweet but astringent taste somewhat similar to that of rhubarb. The skin of the fruit is thin and fragile, making it difficult to transport, thus reducing its viability as a food crop.


It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.
Cultivation :
An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils that are well-drained. Prefers a soil that is only moderately fertile, succeeding in poor soils and in dry soils. Prefers a light sandy loam and a sunny position but succeeds in light shade. Very drought and wind resistant. Tolerates atmospheric pollution. Plants are hardy to about -20°c, but the roots are hardy to -30°c (although top growth will be killed at this temperature). Cultivated for its edible fruit in Japan, there are some named varieties. Plants can crop in 4 years from cuttings. They bear heavily in Britain. The fruit is well hidden in the shrub and is quite difficult to harvest without damaging the plant. This sub-species produces brown fruits on long stalks, would this be any easier to harvest? This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Birds love the fruits. There is some confusion over the correct name for this species. In the on-line version of the Flora of Japan it is referred to as Elaeagnus montana ovata. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%. The small flowers are deliciously scented, their aroma pervading the garden on calm days.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months[K]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help[98]. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, 10 – 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage. Layering in September/October. Takes 12 months.
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.

Fruit – raw or cooked. Pleasantly acid when ripe, they are usually made into pies, preserves etc. Quite fiddly and difficult to pick without breaking the young shoots, this sub-species carries the fruit on longer stalks than the species and might therefore be easier to pick. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit is about 10mm long and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.
Medicinal Uses:


The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
Other Uses: ……Hedge; Rootstock..….Plants can be grown as a hedge in exposed positions, tolerating maritime exposure. A hedge in a very exposed position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall was 3.5 metres tall in 1989[K]. Often used as a rootstock for evergreen species that are hard to grow from cuttings. It frequently sprouts from the base and can out-compete the scion.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Sinapis alba L.Image via Wikipedia

This sandwich spread will surprise you with its many uses.

Soothe an aching back

Take a bath in yellow mustard to relieve an aching back or arthritis pain. Simply pour a regular 6- to 8-ounce (175- to 240-milliliter) bottle of mustard into the hot water as the tub fills. Mix well and soak yourself for 15 minutes. If you don’t have time for a bath, you can rub some mustard directly on the affected areas. Use only mild yellow mustard and make sure to apply it to a small test area first. Undiluted mustard may irritate your skin.Relax stiff muscles

Next time you take a bath in Epsom salt, throw in a few tablespoons yellow mustard too. The mustard will enhance the soothing effects of the Epsom salt and also help to relax stiff, sore muscles.Relieve congestion

Relieve congestion with a mustard plaster just like Grandma used to make. Rub your chest with prepared mustard, soak a washcloth in hot water, wring it out, and place it over the mustard.Make a facial mask

Pat your face with mild yellow mustard for a bracing facial that will soothe and stimulate your skin. Try it on a small test area first to make sure it will not be irritating.Remove skunk smell from car

You didn’t see the skunk in the road until it was too late, and now your car exudes that foul aroma. Use mustard powder to get rid of those awful skunk odors. Pour 1 cup dry mustard into a bucket of warm water, mix well, and splash it on the tires, wheels, and underbody of the car. Your passengers will thank you.Remove odor from bottles

You’ve got some nice bottles you’d like to keep, but after washing them, they still smell like whatever came in them. Mustard is a sure way to kill the smell. After washing, just squirt a little mustard into the bottle, fill with warm water, and shake it up. Rinse well, and the smell will be gone.

.Taken From:Extraordinary Uses For Ordinary Things

Tips To Get Rid Of Cramps,Leg Pain & Over Exhaustion


We get cramps because the affected muscles suddenly become taut and strained, causing severe pain. This usually happens

because of over-exertion or dehydration. When there is a shortage of fluids in the body, there is a very high chance of our

body being short of useful electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and calcium. Electrolytes help our muscles to remain

supple, relaxed and function properly.

Here are a few simple steps to ease a cramp. First, try and relax the affected muscles. If necessary, apply ice on the

affected muscles to enable better blood circulation. Ice relieves pain and is anti-inflammatory. If a cold compress is

uncomfortable, try a hot compress instead. Next, stretch the muscles gently and gradually, but without overstretching.

Massage the area gently, ensuring that the movement is towards the heart.

For cramps in the calf muscles, stand about three feet away from the wall or a cupboard, with knees locked and heels firmly

on the floor. Lean towards the wall or cupboard, using your hands for support. You will feel the stretch in your calf

muscles, which you should hold for a while. Repeat this procedure a few times.

Keep an eye on your daily fluid and salt intake and do something to make the leg muscles work. Also, take the suggestion of a

doctor or a dietician on how to ensure a perfect electrolytic balance.


Our legs support the weight of our bodies for a significant period of time every day. In some situations, we have to spend a lot of time standing, which causes strain on our legs. Even professionally, quite a few job profiles require people to stand throughout the day. Anyway, first and foremost, check with your doctor to see whether you have developed varicose veins. Or

Try to explore alternative postures to standing while you are working. If this is not feasible, common sense will help you decide what to do in order to relieve the strain. Your legs need regular exercise and quality rest so that the muscles can work properly. Massage is an additional help, but the direction of massage should be towards the heart and with an attempt to squeeze the blood flow through the legs upwards. Evenings are better for massage, because the legs may be tired by then.

Among yogasanas, you must practice toe bending, ankle bending, and rotating ankle,
rotating both ankles, pada hastasana (toe touching after checking with your doctor) and pada sanchalanasana (yogic cycling) regularly will help improve the pranic energy circulation in the legs.

Whenever possible, lie down with both your legs up and the heels resting against a cupboard or wall. Make sure that the legs are at a 60-degree angle to your chest. This will help improve the flow of blood towards the heart from the legs. If you can get a greater angle, that’s even better.For more stamina.


Most students are victims of over exhaustion. . Asanas can certainly help especially surya namaskar and shavasana.

But yoga is not just about asanas but also an acquired skill that teaches you to live a full life. For this, you need to look after your body, your mind, your emotions and your lifestyle. All three of you seem eager to improve your memory, concentration and energy level. It is evident that studying and doing well in exams is your priority. But the real secret to a happy life is a balanced strategy. This strategy must include studies as well as leisure time. Only then can you handle the pressure with ease Living in harmony.
A perfect balance between work and play is the key to happiness.

Living In Cities

The cities we reside in have souls. Our cities consume, create, evolve, and breathe much in the same way Mother Nature does. Each city is unique, defined not only by the individuals who call it home but also by the energy it exudes. Some cities are suffused by an aura of unshakable calm while others seem continually frenetic, even during the early morning hours. Many inspire creativity within us or arouse our curiosity. A city’s energy is dependent on many factors, including the geography, the people, the industry, and the culture. Residing in a city full of warehouses and factories feels very different than one living in one populated by artists and museums. Some cities elevate the soul while others seem to squash it, and fate may lead us to either.

If the urban center you presently call home feels oppressive or robs you of your vitality, consider relocating to a locale that is more nurturing. You may find that leaving your city is an impossibility, however, if circumstances in your life compel you to remain or the universe has plans for you that involve your staying put. To cope with the stress of working and playing in an environment you have an aversion to, first ask yourself how the city you live in makes you feel. Then take steps to cleanse your home, your work spaces, and your life of the energy that is dragging you down. Try smudging your personal and professional spaces with sage or sweetgrass to dispel negativity. Keeping a quartz crystal on or near your person can ensure that there is always positive, loving energy nearby that you can draw from when you feel affected by your city. And you can do your part to promote widespread good energy by sending love and white light from your heart out into the city each morning and night.

As you become increasingly aware of the way your city makes you feel, you can refine your cleansing efforts to meet your individual needs. If you seek out others who feel driven to purify your city’s energy flow, your combined efforts can become a larger movement that promotes healing and goodwill. You may find that, after a time, you are gradually drawn to those aspects of your locale that energize you, helping you come back into balance.

Source:Daily Om

Mayonnaise Spreads More Than Sandwich

Here are 11 ways to use a spread that does more than make a good sandwich.

Condition your hair

Hold the mayo… and massage it into your hair and scalp just as you would any fine conditioner! Cover your head with a shower cap, wait several minutes, and shampoo. The mayonnaise will moisturize your hair and give it a lustrous sheen.Give yourself a facial

Why waste money on expensive creams when you can treat yourself to a soothing facial with whole-egg mayonnaise from your own refrigerator? Gently spread the mayonnaise over your face and leave it on for about 20 minutes. Then wipe it off and rinse with cool water. Your face will feel clean and smooth.Strengthen your fingernails

To add some oomph to your fingernails, just plunge them into a bowl of mayonnaise every so often. Keep them bathed in the mayo for about 5 minutes and then wash with warm water.Relieve sunburn pain

Did someone forget to put on sunscreen? To treat dry, sunburned skin, slather mayonnaise liberally over the affected area. The mayonnaise will relieve the pain and moisturize the skin.Remove dead skin

Soften and remove dead skin from elbows and feet. Rub mayonnaise over the dry, rough tissue, leave it on for 10 minutes, and wipe it away with a damp cloth.Safe way to kill head lice

Many dermatologists now recommend using mayonnaise to kill and remove head lice from kids instead of toxic prescription drugs and over-the-counter preparations. What’s more, lice are becoming more resistant to such chemical treatments. To treat head lice with mayonnaise, massage a liberal amount of mayonnaise into the hair and scalp before bedtime. Cover with a shower cap to maximize the effect. Shampoo in the morning and then use a fine-tooth comb to remove any remaining lice and nits. To completely eradicate the infestation, repeat the treatment in 7-10 days.Make plant leaves shiny

Professional florists use this trick to keep houseplant leaves shiny and clean. You can do the same thing at home. Just rub a little mayonnaise on the leaves with a paper towel, and they will stay bright and shiny for weeks and even months at a time.Remove crayon marks

Did the kids leave crayon marks on your wood furniture? Here’s a simple way to remove them that requires hardly any elbow grease: Simply rub some mayonnaise on the crayon marks and let it soak in for several minutes. Then wipe the surface clean with a damp cloth.Clean piano keys

If the keys to your piano are starting to yellow, just tickle the ivories with a little mayonnaise applied with a soft cloth. Wait a few minutes, wipe with a damp cloth, and buff. The piano keys will look like new.Remove bumper stickers

Time to get rid of that Nixon for President bumper sticker on your car? Instead of attacking it with a razor and risk scratching the bumper, rub some mayonnaise over the entire sticker. Let it sit for several minutes and wipe it off. The mayonnaise will dissolve the glue.Get tar off your car

To get road tar or pine sap off your car with ease, slather some mayonnaise over the affected area, let it sit for several minutes, and wipe it away with a clean, soft rag. Taken From:Extraordinary Uses For Ordinary Things