Banana Peels are most Useful

This is probably one of the most common fruits that we don’t really relish it as much. But before throwing the banana peel into the bin, read this post to know its benefits. It will give you amazing results.

The flesh of the banana is rich in many nutrients and carbohydrates. It is high in vitamins B6, B12, magnesium and potassium. The sugar content is the highest when the banana peel turns black.

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The top benefits of banana peels:-

1.For Sparkling Teeth:

Rub the banana peel every day for a week on your teeth for about a minute. This actually results in teeth whitening, which can cost a lot of money otherwise.

2. Removes Warts:
The banana peel helps in removing warts and eliminates the occurrence of new ones. For this, simply rub the peel on the affected area or tie the peel overnight on it. This is one of the simplest ways to use a banana peel for the skin.

3. Eat Them:
Banana peels can also be eaten. You can find amazing Indian recipes that use banana peels. They are also used to tender chicken.

4. Cures Pimples:
Just massage banana peels on your face and body for 5 minutes every day to cure pimples. The results should be visible within a week. Keep applying the peels till the acne disappears.

CLICK TO SEE  HOW ACNE  IS TOTALLY CURED BY BANANA PEEL :
Treat Acne & Other Skin Conditions With Banana Peels

5. Reduces Wrinkles:
The banana peel helps to keep your skin hydrated. Add an egg yolk to a mashed banana peel. Apply this mixture on your face and leave it for 5 minutes. Wash off after 5minutes.

6. Pain Reliever:
Apply the banana peel directly on the painful area. Leave it for 30 minutes till the pain is gone. A mixture of vegetable oil and banana peel also helps in pain relief.

7. Heals Psoriasis:
Apply the peel on the psoriasis affected area. The banana peel has moisturizing properties and also reduces itchiness. It will quickly heal psoriasis and you can see noticeable results within no time.

8. Heals Bites By Bugs:
Massage the peel on the mosquito bites to get instant relief from the itching and pain.

9. Shoes, Leather, Silver Polish:
Rub a banana peel on shoes, leather, and silver articles to make them shine instantly.

10. UV Protection:
Banana peel helps in protecting the eyes from the harmful UV rays. Make sure you leave the peel under the sun before rubbing the banana peel on your eyes. It is also proven to reduce the risk of cataracts.

CLICK TO SEE  : 16 Ingenious Ways To Re-Use Banana Peels

Resources:
https://www.stylecraze.com/articles/amazing-benefits-of-banana-peels/#gref

Urticaria And Angioedema

Description
Other Name of Utricaria is Hives. It is a common disorder that often presents with angioedema (swelling that occurs beneath the skin). It is generally classified as acute, chronic or physical. Second-generation, non-sedating H1-receptor antihistamines represent the mainstay of therapy for both acute and chronic urticaria. Angioedema can occur in the absence of urticaria, with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced angioedema and idiopathic angioedema being the more common causes. Rarer causes are hereditary angioedema (HAE) or acquired angioedema (AAE). Although the angioedema associated with these disorders is often self-limited, laryngeal involvement can lead to fatal asphyxiation in some cases. The management of HAE and AAE involves both prophylactic strategies to prevent attacks of angioedema (i.e., trigger avoidance, attenuated androgens, tranexamic acid, and plasma-derived C1 inhibitor replacement therapy) as well as pharmacological interventions for the treatment of acute attacks (i.e., C1 inhibitor replacement therapy, ecallantide and icatibant). In this article, the authors review the causes, diagnosis and management of urticaria (with or without angioedema) as well as the work-up and management of isolated angioedema, which vary considerably from that of angioedema that occurs in the presence of urticaria.

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It is characterized by recurrent, pruritic (itchy), pink-to-red edematous (swollen) lesions that often have pale centers (wheals). The lesions can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter, and are often transient, lasting for less than 48 hours. Approximately 40% of patients with urticaria also experience angioedema (swelling that occurs beneath the skin)

Clasifications:

Chronic urticaria:

Chronic urticaria is more common in adults, and affects women more frequently than men. In general, chronic urticaria is classified as either chronic autoimmune urticaria or chronic idiopathic urticaria.

Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria do not have evidence of autoimmunity. In this form of urticaria, there appears to be persistent activation of mast cells, but the mechanism of mast cell triggering is unknown. Although rare, chronic urticaria may also be a manifestation of a systemic illness.

Acute urticaria:

The most common causes of acute urticaria (with or without angioedema) are medications, foods, viral infections, parasitic infections, insect venom, and contact allergens, particularly latex hypersensitivity. Medications known to commonly cause urticaria ± angioedema include antibiotics (particularly penicillins, and sulfonamides), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), opiates and narcotics. The predominant foods that cause urticaria are milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. In approximately 50% of patients with acute urticaria, the cause is unknown (idiopathic urticaria)

Physical urticaria:
Physical urticaria is triggered by a physical stimulus. The most common physical urticaria is dermatographism (also known a “skin writing”), in which lesions are created or “written” on the skin by stroking or scratching the skin.

Symptoms:
Urticaria:

The welts associated with Urticaria can be:

* Red or flesh-colored
* Intensely itchy
* Roughly oval or shaped like a worm
* Less than one inch to several inches across

Most hives go away within 24 hours. Chronic hives can last for months or years.
Angioedema

Angioedema is a reaction similar to hives that affects deeper layers of your skin. It most commonly appears around your eyes, cheeks or lips. Angioedema and hives can occur separately or at the same time.

Signs and symptoms of angioedema include:

* Large, thick, firm welts
* Swelling and redness
* Pain or warmth in the affected areas

Causes:

Urticaria and angioedema can be caused by:

* Foods. Many foods can trigger reactions in people with sensitivities. Shellfish, fish, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs and milk are frequent offenders.

* Medications. Almost any medication may cause hives or angioedema. Common culprits include penicillin, aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen (Aleve) and blood pressure medications.

* Common allergens. Other substances that can cause hives and angioedema include pollen, animal dander, latex and insect stings.

* Environmental factors. Examples include heat, cold, sunlight, water, pressure on the skin, emotional stress and exercise.

* Underlying medical conditions. Hives and angioedema also occasionally occur in response to blood transfusions, immune system disorders such as lupus, some types of cancer such as lymphoma, certain thyroid conditions, and infections with bacteria or viruses such as hepatitis, HIV, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus.

* Genetics. Hereditary angioedema is a rare inherited (genetic) form of the condition. It’s related to low levels or abnormal functioning of certain blood proteins that play a role in regulating how your immune system functions.

Risk factors:

Urticaria and angioedema are common. One may be at increased risk of hives and angioedema if he or she:

*Has had urticaria or angioedema before
*Has had other allergic reactions
*Has a disorder associated with hives and angioedema, such as lupus, lymphoma or thyroid disease
*Has a family history of hives, angioedema or hereditary angioedema

Complications:

Severe angioedema can be life-threatening if swelling causes your throat or tongue to block your airway.
Prevention

To lower your likelihood of experiencing hives or angioedema, take the following precautions:

Avoid known triggers. These can include foods, medications and situations, such as temperature extremes that have triggered hives or angioedema in the past.
Keep a diary. If you suspect food is causing the problem but aren’t sure which food is the trigger, keep a food and symptom diary.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.britishskinfoundation.org.uk/URTICARIAANDANGIOEDEMA.aspx
https://aacijournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1710-1492-7-S1-S9
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hives-and-angioedema/symptoms-causes/syc-20354908

Pemphigoid

Description:
Pemphigoid is a rare blistering disorder, which usually occurs in later life, the average age of onset being over 70 years.

The blisters come up on the skin and, less often, in the mouth too. This is in contrast to a related condition known as ‘mucous membrane pemphigoid’ in which the brunt of the trouble is borne by the moist surfaces of the body (the mucous membranes) such as the eyes, inside the nose and mouth, and the genitals. Yet another type of pemphigoid (pemphigoid gestationis) occurs during pregnancy. This leaflet will not discuss mucous membrane pemphigoid or pemphigoid gestationis further.

It is a group of rare autoimmune blistering skin diseases. As its name indicates, pemphigoid is similar in general appearance to pemphigus,  But, unlike pemphigus, pemphigoid does not feature acantholysis, a loss of connections between skin cells.

Pemphigoid is more common than pemphigus, and is slightly more common in women than in men. It is also more common in people over 60 years of age than it is in younger people.

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Types of pemphigoid:

All types of pemphigoid are caused by your immune system attacking healthy tissue. They appear as rashes and fluid-filled blisters. The types of pemphigoid differ in terms of where on the body the blistering occurs and when it occurs.

Bullous pemphigoid:

In cases of bullous pemphigoid — the most common of the three types — the skin blistering happens most commonly on the arms and legs where movement occurs. This includes the areas around the joints and on the lower abdomen.

Cicatricial pemphigoid:

Cicatricial pemphigoid, also called mucous membrane pemphigoid, refers to blisters that form on the mucous membranes. This includes the:

* mouth
* eyes
* nose
* throat
* genitals

The most common sites affected are the mouth and eyes. The rash and blistering may begin in one of these areas and spread to the others if left untreated. If it’s left untreated in the eyes, it may cause scarring, which in turn may lead to blindness.

Pemphigoid gestationis:

When blistering occurs during or shortly after pregnancy, it’s called pemphigoid gestationis. It was formerly called herpes gestationis, although it’s not related to the herpes virus.

The blistering typically develops during the second or third trimester, but may occur at any time during pregnancy, or up to six weeks after delivery. Blisters tend to form on the arms, legs, and abdomen.
a quarter of patients with pemphigoid have blisters or raw areas in the mouth.

Symptoms:
The most common symptom of pemphigoid is blistering that occurs on the arms, legs, abdomen, and mucous membranes. Hives and itching are also common. The blisters have certain characteristics, regardless of where on the body they form:

* a red rash develops before the blisters
* the blisters are large and filled with fluid that’s usually clear, but may contain some blood
* the blisters are thick and don’t rupture easily
* the skin around the blisters may appear normal, or slightly red or dark
* ruptured blisters are usually sensitive and painful

Itching is common. The raw areas left when the blisters break can be sore, both on the skin and in the mouth.

Causes:
Pemphigoid is an autoimmune disease. This means that your immune system mistakenly begins to attack your healthy tissues. In the case of pemphigoid, your immune system creates antibodies to attack the tissue just below your outer layer of skin. This causes the layers of skin to separate and results in painful blistering. It’s not fully understood why the immune system reacts this way in people living with pemphigoid.

In many cases, there’s no specific trigger for pemphigoid, either. In some instances, however, it may be caused by:

* certain medications
* radiation therapy
* ultraviolet light therapy

People with other autoimmune disorders are found to be at a higher risk for developing pemphigoid. It’s also more common in the elderly than in any other age group, and seems to occur slightly more in women than men.

Diagnosis:
Itching is common. The raw areas left when the blisters break can be sore, both on the skin and in the mouth.

What does pemphigoid look like?

  • A rash may be present for some weeks before any blisters come up. At that stage, the rash may look like an odd eczema or, more commonly, like the red weals of nettle rash (urticaria).*  When blisters do come up, they often do appear on red patches. Any part of the skin can be involved, but the most common sites for the blisters are the body folds and the skin on the abdomen. In severe cases, the blisters can occur all over the body.
  • The blisters have thick roofs, and can get quite large and tense before they burst. Most contain clear fluid but in a few this is bloodstained. When the blisters heal up, they do so without leaving scars.

* Roughly a quarter of patients with pemphigoid have blisters or raw areas in the mouth.

Usually the look of the rash is enough to make the diagnosis, but it is essential to get further proof.

* Examination of a biopsy taken from a small and early blister will show that it has come up just under the outermost layer of the skin (i.e. it is a ‘subepidermal’ blister).

* Special testing (immunofluorescence) of a sample of normal skin (i.e. taken from an area where there is no blister) will show up a layer of antibodies that also lies just under the outer layer of the skin.

* The same pemphigoid antibodies can be detected circulating in the blood.

Treatment:
No. Treatment helps a lot, but controls the condition rather than curing it completely. However, pemphigoid does often go away by itself after one to five years.

Corticosteroids, either in pill or topical form, will likely be the first treatment the doctor prescribes. These medications reduce inflammation and can help to heal the blisters and relieve itching. However, they can also cause significant side effects, especially from long-term use, so your doctor will taper you off of the corticosteroids after the blistering clears up.

Another treatment option is to take medication that suppresses the patient’s immune system, often in conjunction with the corticosteroids. Immunosuppressants help, but they may put him or her at risk for other infections. Certain antibiotics, such as tetracycline, may also be prescribed to reduce inflammation and infection.

Risk Factors:
People with other autoimmune disorders are found to be at a higher risk for developing pemphigoid. It’s also more common in the elderly than in any other age group, and seems to occur slightly more in women than men.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pemphigoid
http://www.britishskinfoundation.org.uk/Skinformation/PEMPHIGOID.aspx
https://www.healthline.com/health/bullous-pemphigoid

Hirsutism

Description:

Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin, chest, face or body. It may refer to a male pattern of hair growth that may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, especially if it develops well after puberty. Hirsutism can cause much psychological distress and social difficulty. Facial hirsutism often leads to the avoidance of social situations and to symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Hirsutism is usually the result of an underlying endocrine imbalance, which may be adrenal, ovarian, or central. It can be caused by increased levels of androgen hormones. The amount and location of the hair is measured by a Ferriman-Gallwey score. It is different than hypertrichosis, which is excessive hair growth anywhere on the body.

Treatments may include birth control pills that contain estrogen and progestin, antiandrogens, or insulin sensitizers.

Hirsutism affects between 5–15% of all women across all ethnic backgrounds. Depending on the definition and the underlying data, estimates indicate that approximately 40% of women have some degree of unwanted facial hair.

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Symptoms:
Hirsutism affects members of either sex, since rising androgen levels can cause excessive body hair, particularly in locations where women normally do not develop terminal hair during puberty (chest, abdomen, back, and face). The medical term for excessive hair growth that affects any gender is hypertrichosis.

Causes:
Hirsutism can be caused by either an increased level of androgens, the male hormones, or an oversensitivity of hair follicles to androgens. Male hormones such as testosterone stimulate hair growth, increase size and intensify the growth and pigmentation of hair. Other symptoms associated with a high level of male hormones include acne, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass. The condition is called hyperandrogenism.

Growing evidence implicates high circulating levels of insulin in women for the development of hirsutism. This theory is speculated to be consistent with the observation that obese (and thus presumably insulin resistant hyperinsulinemic) women are at high risk of becoming hirsute. Further, treatments that lower insulin levels will lead to a reduction in hirsutism.

It is speculated that insulin, at high enough concentration, stimulates the ovarian theca cells to produce androgens. There may also be an effect of high levels of insulin to activate insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor in those same cells. Again, the result is increased androgen production.

Signs that are suggestive of an androgen-secreting tumor in a patient with hirsutism is rapid onset, virilization and palpable abdominal mass.

The following are conditions and situations that have been associated with hyperandrogenism and hence hirsutism in women:

*Hyperinsulinemia (insulin excess) or hypoinsulinemia (insulin deficiency or resistance as in diabetes).
*Ovarian cysts such as in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause in women.
*Ovarian tumors such as granulosa tumors, thecomas, Sertoli–Leydig cell tumors (androblastomas), and gynandroblastomas, as well as ovarian cancer.
*Hyperthecosis.
*Pregnancy.
*Adrenal gland tumors, adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical carcinoma, as well as adrenal hyperplasia due to pituitary adenomas (as in Cushing’s syndrome).[10]
*hCG-secreting tumors
*Inborn errors of steroid metabolism such as in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, most commonly caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
*Acromegaly and gigantism (growth hormone and IGF-1 excess), usually due to pituitary tumors.
*Use of certain medications such as androgens/anabolic steroids, phenytoin, and minoxidil.

Causes of hirsutism not related to hyperandrogenism include:

*Porphyria cutanea tarda.
*Minoxidil

Risk factors:

Several factors can influence your likelihood of developing hirsutism, including:

* Family history. Several conditions that cause hirsutism, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome, run in families.
* Ancestry. Women of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and South Asian ancestry are more likely to develop hirsutism with no identifiable cause than are other women.
* Obesity. Being obese causes increased androgen production, which can worsen hirsutism.

Complications:

Hirsutism can be emotionally distressing. Some women feel self-conscious about having unwanted body hair. Some develop depression. Also, although hirsutism doesn’t cause physical complications, the underlying cause of a hormonal imbalance can.

If you have hirsutism and irregular periods, you might have polycystic ovary syndrome, which can inhibit fertility. Women who take certain medications to treat hirsutism should avoid pregnancy because of the risk of birth defects.
Prevention

Hirsutism generally isn’t preventable. But losing weight if you’re overweight might help reduce hirsutism, particularly if you have polycystic ovary syndrome.

Diagnosis:
A complete physical evaluation should be done prior to initiating more extensive studies, the examiner should differentiate between widespread body hair increase and male pattern virilization. One method of evaluating hirsutism is the Ferriman-Gallwey Score which gives a score based on the amount and location of hair growth on a woman. After the physical examination, laboratory studies and imaging studies can be done to rule out further causes.

Diagnosis of patients with even mild hirsutism should include assessment of ovulation and ovarian ultrasound, due to the high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as well as 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (because of the possibility of finding nonclassic 21-hydroxylase deficiency). Many women present with an elevated serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level. Levels greater than 700 ?g/dL are indicative of adrenal gland dysfunction, particularly congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. However, PCOS and idiopathic hirsutism make up 90% of cases.

Other blood value that may be evaluated in the workup of hirsutism include:

* androgens; androstenedione, testosterone
* thyroid function panel; thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4)
* prolactin

If no underlying cause can be identified, the condition is considered idiopathic.

Treatment:
Although a ‘cure’ is unlikely, local areas of excessive hair growth can often be cleared by electrolysis or laser therapy. The treatment of hirsutism with medication is usually less satisfactory as the problem often comes back when treatment stops.

Many women with unwanted hair seek methods of hair removal. However, the causes of the hair growth should be evaluated by a physician, who can conduct blood tests, pinpoint the specific origin of the abnormal hair growth, and advise on the treatment.
Medications

Medications consist mostly of antiandrogens, drugs that block the effects of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the body, and include:[10]

Spironolactone: An antimineralocorticoid with additional antiandrogenic activity at high dosages.

Cyproterone acetate: A dual antiandrogen and progestogen. In addition to single form, it is also available in some formulations of combined oral contraceptives at a low dosage (see below). It has a risk of liver damage.

Flutamide: A pure antiandrogen. It has been found to possess equivalent or greater effectiveness than spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, and finasteride in the treatment of hirsutism. However, it has a high risk of liver damage and hence is no longer recommended as a first- or second-line treatment. Flutamide is safe and effectiv.

Bicalutamide: A pure antiandrogen. It is effective similarly to flutamide but is much safer as well as better-tolerated.

Birth control pills that consist of an estrogen, usually ethinylestradiol, and a progestin are supported by the evidence. They are functional antiandrogens. In addition, certain birth control pills contain a progestin that also has antiandrogenic activity. Examples include birth control pills containing cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate, drospirenone, and dienogest.

Finasteride and dutasteride: 5?-Reductase inhibitors.[21] They inhibit the production of the potent androgen DHT. A meta-analysis showed inconsistent results of finasteride in the treatment of hirsutism.

GnRH analogues: Suppress androgen production by the gonads and reduce androgen concentrations to castrate levels.

Metformin: Antihyperglycemic drug used for diabetes mellitus and treatment of hirsutism associated with insulin resistance (e.g. polycystic ovary syndrome). Metformin appears ineffective in the treatment of hirsutism, although the evidence was of low quality.

Eflornithine: Blocks putrescine that is necessary for the growth of hair follicles

In cases of hyperandrogenism specifically due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia, administration of glucocorticoids will return androgen levels to normal.
Other methods

* Epilation
* Waxing
* Shaving
* Laser hair removal
* Electrology

Lifestyle change, including reducing excessive weight and addressing insulin resistance, may be beneficial. Insulin resistance can cause excessive testosterone levels in women, resulting in hirsutism. One study reported that women who stayed on a low calorie diet for at least six months lost weight and reduced insulin resistance. Their levels of Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, which reduced the amount of free testosterone in their blood. As expected, the women reported a reduction in the severity of their hirsutism and acne symptoms.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirsutism
http://www.britishskinfoundation.org.uk/SkinInformation/AtoZofSkindisease/Hirsutism.aspx
https://www.webmd.com/women/guide/hirsutism-hair-women#

Darier disease

Other Names: Darier disease, Darier–White disease, Dyskeratosis follicularis[1], and Keratosis follicularis

Description:
It is a rare inherited skin condition, in which the skin in certain areas develops large numbers of small brownish warty bumps.

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It is an autosomal dominant disorder discovered by French dermatologist Ferdinand-Jean Darier. Darier’s is characterized by dark crusty patches on the skin, sometimes containing pus. The crusty patches are also known as keratotic papules, keratosis follicularis, or dyskeratosis follicularis.

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Mild forms of the disease are the most common, consisting solely of skin rashes that flare up under certain conditions such as high humidity, high stress, or tight-fitting clothes. Short stature, when combined with poorly-formed fingernails that contain vertical striations, is diagnostic even for mild forms of DAR.

Darier’s disease affects both men and women and is not contagious. The disease often starts during or later than the teenage years, typically by the third decade. Short stature is common. The symptoms of the disease are thought to be caused by an abnormality in the desmosome-keratin filament complex leading to a breakdown in cell adhesion.

Worldwide prevalence is estimated as between 1: 30,000 and 1: 100,000. Case studies have shown estimated prevalence by country to be 3.8: 100,000 in Slovenia, 1: 36,000 in north-east England, 1: 30,000 in Scotland, and 1: 100,000 in Denmark.

Darier’s disease most commonly affects the chest, neck, back, ears, forehead, and groin, but may involve other body areas. The rash associated with DAR often has a distinct odor. Palms & soles may become thickened, and sufferers may present intraoral papules. Fingernails become fragile, which helps in diagnosis of the disease. The rash can be aggravated by heat, humidity, and exposure to sunlight. In some cases, sunlight makes it better, especially in the forehead.

A recent study examined neuropsychiatric conditions in a non-random sample of 100 British individuals assessed as having DAR. There were high lifetime rates for mood disorders (50%), including depression (30%), bipolar disorder (4%), suicidal thoughts (31%), and suicide attempts (13%), suggesting a possible common genetic link. Scattered case studies also suggest a possible but unconfirmed link to learning disorders.

Symptoms:
Itching is very common. The affected skin may smell unpleasant, particularly in moist areas. This is probably caused by increased numbers of ordinary skin bacteria growing in the affected skin. The appearance of the rash, and its smell, can be embarrassing.

A quarter of patients notice that the condition improves as they get older. Some people find that the sun causes their Darier’s disease to flare up. Some women notice that it worsens around the time of their periods.

Causes:
In the outer layer (epidermis) of normal skin, the skin cells are held together like bricks cemented in a wall. In Darier’s disease the sticky junctions that hold the skin cells together are not made properly, and the skin may become scaly or lumpy or even form blisters. It is not due to an allergy and it is not contagious (catching).

Diagnosis:
The diagnosis can often be made on the appearance of the rash and the fact that it runs in families. To confirm it, a small sample of skin (a biopsy) can be removed under a local anaesthetic and examined under the microscope in the laboratory.

Darier’s disease is sometimes mistaken for other skin conditions and is usually diagnosed by the appearance of the skin and the family history.

Patients present with the following signs:

1. Hyperkeratotic papules present over the seborrheic area of the body.

2. V-shaped nicking present at the tip of the nails.

3. Red and white longitudinal nail lines.

Treatment:
There is no cure of this disease, but there are many ways of helping it.

Treatment of choice for severe cases is oral retinoids. During flares, topical or oral antibiotics may be administered. Ciclosporin and prescription-only topical corticosteroids, e.g., betamethasone, have been used during acute flares. Some patients are able to prevent flares with use of topical sunscreens and oral vitamin C.[13]

For minor forms, no specific treatment is required, but avoidance of excessive heat, humidity, stress, and tight-fitting clothes is advised, as well as maintaining good hygiene. Topical creams (as above) are occasionally required to deal with flare-ups:

1.Benzoyl peroxide

2.Isotretinoin

3.Topical diclofenac sodium

Prognosis:
A 1992 study of 163 affected persons found that most patients had no other medical problems, and most manage to lead a relatively normal life.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darier%27s_disease
http://www.britishskinfoundation.org.uk/SkinInformation/AtoZofSkindisease/DariersDisease.aspx