Calceolaria thyrsiflora

Botanical Name: Calceolaria thyrsiflora
Family: Calceolariaceae/Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Calceolaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Common name: Slipper Flower, Capachito
Habitat: Calceolaria thyrsiflora is native to South AmericaChile. It is grown in Cultivated Beds.

Description:
Calceolaria thyrsiflora is a perennial, very frost-hardy dwarf shrub growing to 0.7 m (2ft 4in). It has high in the Andes produces hundreds of bright golden-yellow flowers over a long period in spring. It thrives in full sun, and also needs very little water and thrives even in the poorest soil provided it has good drainage. It makes a lovely addition to any rock garden, or in a border that require little watering, or even in a container or pot.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
It requires abundant moisture in the summer and a dry winter. Plants can be grown outdoors in the very mildest areas of the country.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Division in spring.

Medicinal Uses: Used in the treatment of sore throats, gums, lips and tongue.

Other Uses: Very  good  pot growing flower. When it  blooms in the flower garden  it looks  beautiful.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calceolaria
http://www.plant-world-seeds.com/store/view_seed_item/5226
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Calceolaria+thyrsiflora

Truths about protecting our eyes

Fact: Eye exercises will not improve or preserve vision or reduce the need for glasses. Your vision depends on many factors, including the shape of your eyeball and the health of the eye tissues, neither of which can be significantly altered with eye exercises.
As the eyes age, problems with vision become more common. Learn how to recognize the risk factors and symptoms of specific eye diseases cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy — and what steps one can take to prevent or treat them before your vision deteriorates.

Myth: Reading in dim light will worsen our vision.

Fact: Dim lighting will not damage our eyesight. However, it will tire our eyes out more quickly. The best way to position a reading light is to have it shine directly onto the page, not over the shoulder. A desk lamp with an opaque shade pointing directly at the reading material is ideal.

Myth: Carrots are the best food for the eyes.

Fact: Carrots, which contain vitamin A, are indeed good for the eyes. But fresh fruits and dark green leafy vegetables, which contain more antioxidant vitamins such as C and E, are even better. Antioxidants may even help protect the eyes against cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Just don’t expect them to prevent or correct basic vision problems such as nearsightedness or farsightedness.

Myth: It’s best not to wear glasses or contact lenses all the time. Taking a break from them allows our eyes to rest.

Fact: If we need glasses or contacts for distance vision or reading, we should use them. Not wearing glasses will strain our eyes and tire them out instead of resting them. However, it will not worsen our vision or lead to eye disease.

Myth: Staring at a computer screen all day is bad for the eyes.

Fact: Using a computer does not damage our eyes. However, staring at a computer screen all day can contribute to eyestrain or tired eyes. People who stare at a computer screen for long periods tend not to blink as often as usual, which can cause the eyes to feel dry and uncomfortable. To help prevent eyestrain, we should adjust the lighting so it doesn’t create a glare or harsh reflection on the screen, it is advised to rest the eyes briefly every 20 minutes, and make a conscious effort to blink regularly so that our eyes stay well lubricated.

It can be a frightening moment. When the doctor diagnoses an eye disease such as glaucoma, cataract, or AMD, we immediately worry about losing our sight or becoming seriously vision-impaired.

It’s important to know what to do not only when disease strikes, but what to do before and after. We should know the warning signs and how a diagnosis is made. And the best treatment options for that.

The good news is, with the proper treatment decisions, those eye diseases can be addressed and controlled and their potential to compromise our sight can be halted.

Our eyes do change as we get older. That’s a truth we can do little about. It’s the consequences we can change.
We we should learn all the facts about treating adult eye diseases.

Resources:
Harvard Health Publication
Harvard Medical School

Calceolaria arachnoidea

Botanical Name: Calceolaria arachnoidea
Family: Calceolariaceae
Genus: Calceolaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Habitat : Calceolaria arachnoidea is native to South AmericaChile. It is grown in Cultivated Beds.

Description:
Calceolaria arachnoidea is a perennial plant growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is in flower from Aug to October.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
It requires abundant moisture in the summer and a dry winter. Plants can be grown outdoors in the very mildest areas of the country.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Division in spring.

Medicinal Uses: Astrigent

Other Uses: Red die is made from the flowers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calceolaria
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Calceolaria+arachnoidea

Antirrhinum majus

Botanical Name : Antirrhinum majus
Family: Plantaginaceae /Veronicaceae
Genus: Antirrhinum
Species: A. majus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names: Common snapdragon; often – especially in horticulture – simply Snapdragon

Habitat : Antirrhinum majus is native to Europe. Naturalized in Britain. It grows on old walls, rocks and dry places.

Description:
Antirrhinum majus is an herbaceous perennial plant, growing to 0.5–1 m tall, rarely up to 2 m at a medium rate. The leaves are spirally arranged, broadly lanceolate, 1–7 cm long and 2-2.5 cm broad. It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October.

The flowers are produced on a tall spike, each flower is 3.5-4.5 cm long, zygomorphic, with two ‘lips’ closing the corolla tube; wild plants have pink to purple flowers, often with yellow lips. The fruit is an ovoid capsule 10–14 mm diameter, containing numerous small seeds. The plants are pollinated by bumblebees, and the flowers close over the insects when they enter and deposit pollen on their bodies.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, self.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Massing, Specimen, Woodland garden. Prefers a light well drained loam and a sunny position. Plants are tolerant of clay and lime soils, and also grow well on old walls. Plants are often grown as an annual since they usually degenerate in their second year. They often self sow when well-sited. There are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value. Special Features:Not North American native, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers, Fragrant flowers.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow March in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 10 – 21 days at 18°c. Cool nights assist germination. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. The seed can also be sown in situ in July/August and will produce larger and more floriferous plants the following summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood in September in a cold frame.
Edible Uses: Oil.

An oil that is little inferior to olive oil is said to be obtained from the seeds. The report also says that the plant has been cultivated in Russia for this purpose. The seeds are very small and I wonder about the authenticity of this report.
Medicinal Uses:

Antiphlogistic; Bitter; Resolvent; Stimulant.

The leaves and flowers are antiphlogistic, bitter, resolvent and stimulant[7, 115]. They have been employed in poultices on tumours and ulcers[4]. It is effective in the treatment of all kinds of inflammation and is also used on haemorrhoids[7]. The plant is harvested in the summer when in flower and is dried for later use.
Other Uses:
Dye; Oil.

A green dye is obtained from the flowers, it does not require a mordant. Dark green and gold can also be obtained if a mordant is used.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antirrhinum_majus
http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Antirrhinum+majus

Quercus garryana

 

Botanical Name: Quercus garryana
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Section: Quercus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fagales

Common Names: Garry oak, Oregon white oak or Oregon oak

Habitat : Quercus garryana is native to Western N. America – British Columbia to California. It grows on dry prairies and foothills to rocky bluffs.
Description:
Quercus garryana is a deciduous drought-tolerant tree, typically of medium height, growing slowly to around 20 m (occasionally as high as 30 m) or as a shrub to 3 to 5 metres (9.8 to 16.4 ft) tall. It has the characteristic oval profile of other oaks when solitary, but is also known to grow in groves close enough together that crowns may form a canopy. The leaves are deciduous, 5–15 cm long and 2–8 cm broad, with 3-7 deep lobes on each side. The flowers are catkins, the fruit a small acorn 2–3 cm (rarely 4 cm) long and 1.5–2 cm broad, with shallow, scaly cups.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

The Oregon white oak is commonly found in the Willamette Valley hosting the mistletoe Phoradendron flavescens. It is also commonly found hosting galls created by wasps in the family Cynipidae. ‘Oak apples’, green or yellow ball of up to 5 cm in size, are the most spectacular. They are attached to the undersides of leaves. One common species responsible for these galls is Cynips maculipennis. Other species create galls on stems and leaves. Shapes vary from spheres to mushroom-shaped to pencil-shaped.
There are three varieties:
*Quercus garryana var. garryana – tree to 20 (30) m. British Columbia south along the Cascades to the California Coast Ranges.
*Quercus garryana var. breweri – shrub to 5 m; leaves velvety underneath. Siskiyou Mountains.
*Quercus garryana var. semota – shrub to 5 m; leaves not velvety underneath. Sierra Nevada
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Aggressive surface roots possible, Specimen, Street tree. Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side. Lime tolerant. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted. Prefers warmer summers than are usually experienced in Britain, trees often grow poorly in this country and fail to properly ripen their wood resulting in frost damage overwinter. A slow-growing and drought tolerant tree, it can live for 500 years. Seed production is cyclic, with a year of high production being followed by 2 – 3 years of lower yields. The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first year. Intolerant of root disturbance, trees should be planted in their permanent positions whilst young. Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features: North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.
Propagation:
Seed – it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee.

Seed – raw or cooked. Up to 25mm long. Up to 32mm long and 25mm wide according to other reports, which also said that it has a sweet taste. The seed is ground into a powder and used in making bread etc, it is a good thickener for soups and stews. The seed has a high content of bitter tannins, these can be leached out by thoroughly washing the dried and ground up seed in water, though many minerals will also be lost. Either the whole seed can be used or the seed can be dried and ground it into a powder. It can take several days or even weeks to properly leach whole seeds, one method was to wrap them in a cloth bag and place them in a stream. Leaching the powder is quicker. A simple taste test can tell when the tannin has been leached. The traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.

Medicinal Uses:

Astringent; TB.

Any galls produced on the tree are strongly astringent and can be used in the treatment of haemorrhages, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery etc[4]. A decoction of the bark has been used in the treatment of tuberculosis. An infusion of the plant has been drunk by a mother before her first baby comes. The pounded bark has been rubbed on the abdomen and sides of the mother before her first delivery.
Other Uses:
Repellent; Tannin; Wood.

A mulch of the leaves repels slugs, grubs etc, though fresh leaves should not be used as these can inhibit plant growth. Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff. Wood – hard, heavy, strong, tough, close grained, durable, easy to split. Used for furniture, cabinet making, general construction etc and also for fence posts and fuel. When used as firewood, garry oak produces 28 million BTUs per cord burned.
Recently the wood, which is similar to that of other white oaks, has been used experimentally in Oregon for creating casks in which to age wine.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quercus_garryana
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Quercus+garryana

Garrya elliptica

Botanical Name: Garrya elliptica
Family: Garryaceae
Genus: Garrya
Species: G. elliptica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Garryales

Common Names: Coast silk-tassel, Silk tassel bush or Wavyleaf silktassel

Habitat : Garrya elliptica is native to South-western N. America – California to Oregon. It grows in chaparral and forest on dry slopes and ridges below 600 metres.

Description:
Garrya elliptica is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a medium rate. It has a multi-furcate branching structure yielding an almost spherical form. Like others of its genus, G. elliptica has opposite leaves with a tough leathery feel, glossy green on top, but paler and duller on the underside. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Nov to February.

The dioecious flowers are concentrated in inflorescences which cascade downward as aments of 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) in length. While it manifests separate male and female plants, the pendant male catkins are much more showy and are grey-green and up to 30 cm (12 in) long; the female ones are shorter and silver-grey. Although the flowers bloom in late winter and early spring, dried bracts remain on the plant well into summer as light gray decorations. The plant has smooth bark, dark-greenish when young, but roughening with age. New twigs are green and moderately stout.

For pistillate flowers, above each small bract there is a solitary flower inside the inflorescence. This plant produces tiny dark seeds. The ripened purplish black fruit of about 1 cm in diameter has a hard desiccated coating, but is rather fleshy on the interior. In the case of stamenate infloresences, there are a total of four stamens per flower; moreover, above each bract pair there is a triplet of flowers. The cultivar ‘James Roof’ has catkins up to 30 cm (12 in) in length.

The unique characteristics of Garrya elliptica are its waxy convex leaves with wavy leaf margins, coupled with dense individual hairs on the leaf undersides that are scarcely distinguishable with a hand lens. Its leaf blades are six to eight centimeters in length, and has petioles which range in length from six to twelve millimeters. For identification purposes Congdon silk-tassel (Garrya congdonii) is most closely related. Congdon silk-tassel has the same leaf appearance, but leaf hairs are distinguishable with a hand lens and both leaf blades and petioles are about two thirds the size of Coast silk-tassel. Both Fremont silk-tassel (Garrya fremontii) and Ashy silk-tassel (Garrya flavescens) have similar fruit characteristics, but have a flat leaf margin.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Cultivation:
Prefers a sunny position succeeding in most well-drained fertile soils. Succeeds in a hot dry position. Succeeds in light shade, the plants are also tolerant of quite deep shade. Does not require a rich soil or abundant moisture, if the soil is too fertile the flowering will be delayed. Plants are resistant to urban pollution and maritime exposure, but they are subject to wind scorch from cold drying winds in colder areas. This species is hardy to about -15°c, it is best on a sunny wall in most parts of the country but does very well as a free standing shrub in Devon and Cornwall. In cold winters and springs the previous year’s leaves may fall before the new leaves are produced. A hedge in a relatively open area at Wisley in Surrey is growing well (1991), as is a plant in a friend’s garden in Stockton on Teesside(1998). All pruning should be carried out in spring before new growth starts but after flowering has ended. Plants are strongly resentful of root disturbance, they should be planted into their permanent positions as soon as possible. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Very slow, the seed can take 2 or more years to germinate. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood 10cm with a heel, August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood 10 – 12 cm with a heel, December/January in a frame.

Medicinal Uses:
Abortifacient; Antiperiodic; Febrifuge.

The leaves are intensely bitter and are used as an antiperiodic and febrifuge. They can be used as a quinine substitute. An infusion has been used to induce menstruation, probably acting as an abortifacient.
Other Uses:
Dye; Hedge; Hedge; Repellent; Wood.

A hedge in a sheltered position at Wisley in 1991 was very healthy. Makes a good wind shelter. Grey to black dyes are obtained from the berries. The colour varies according to the ripeness of the fruit, green fruits are the best. The bark and leaves are very bitter, a possible insect repellent?. Wood – hard, close-grained. It has been used for fine cabinet work, though its small size and rarity limits its commercial usefulness.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garrya_elliptica
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Garrya+elliptica

Potentilla supina

Botanical Name: Potentilla supina
Family : Rose Family (Rosaceae)
Subfamily :Rosoideae
Category :Finger Herbs ( Potentilla )
Type : Low finger herb
Order : Rosey (Rosales)

Common Name : Lower fingerwort

Habitat : Potentilla supina is native to C. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on dampish waste ground and ditches, 200 – 2500 metres in Turkey.

Description:
Potentilla supina is a annual/perennial herb growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is a bald to soft-haired, one- year to short-lived perennial, krautige plant . It usually has several, descending, ascending, 10 to 40 centimeter long, branched and rich-flowered stems . The leaves are unpaired feathered two to six pairs of leaflets . The lateral leaflets are elongated to obedient, egg-shaped, coarse-sawed to spatially split, and the endblade is often deeply split, with a length of 1 to 3 centimeters. The top of the page and bottom is green.

The flowering period is rich from May to September. The leaves are inflated in the inflorescence up to the leaf-like shape of the leaves and surpass the young flowers. The flowers are foliage-shaped or seemingly armpit and sit on 5 to 20 millimeters long, after the anthesis downwards bent bloom stalks. The bipedal flowers are radial symmetric and five-fold in diameter from 6 to 10 millimeters. The five sepals are 3 to 4 millimeters long and triangular. The five free, yellow petals are usually shorter than the sepals.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:     Young leaves – cooked. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails.
Medicinal Uses:

Astringent; Febrifuge; Odontalgic; Tonic.

The root is astringent, febrifuge and tonic. Pieces of the root are held in the mouth for 1 – 2 hours to relieve toothache. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of indigestion.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resurces:
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niedriges_Fingerkraut
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+supina

Potentilla simplex

Botanical Name: Potentilla simplex
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: P. simplex
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names: Common cinquefoil, Old-field five-fingers, Oldfield cinquefoil

Habitat: Potentilla simplex is native to eastern North America from Ontario, Quebec, and Labrador south to Texas, Alabama, and panhandle Florida.It grows in dry open woods, prairie hillsides, roadsides, old fields and waste places.

Description:
otentilla simplex is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is a familiar plant with prostrate stems that root at nodes, with yellow flowers and 5-parted palmately pinnate leaves arising from stolons (runners) on separate stalks. Complete flowers bearing 5 yellow petals (about 4-10 mm long) bloom from March to June. It bears seed from April to July. It is commonly found in woodlands, fields, and disturbed areas.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Pollinators include mason bees, small carpenter bees, cuckoo bees, halictid bees, syrphid flies, tachinid flies, blow flies, and others. Less common pollinators are wasps and butterflies. Rabbits and groundhogs eat the foliage.

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade[1]. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Plants grown in rich soils produce more foliage at the expense of flowering. Hardy to about -25°c. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses: Young shoots and leaves are edible as a salad or pot herb.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is mildly astringent and antiseptic. A decoction is used as a gargle for loose teeth and spongy gums. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of dysentery.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_simplex
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+simplex

Potentilla palustris

Botanical Name: Potentilla palustris
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Comarum
Species: C. palustre
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Comarum palustre

Common Names: Marsh Cinquefoil

Habitat : Potentilla palustris is native to Europe, including Britain, from Iceland south and east to the Pyrenees, temperate Asia and Japan. It grows on marshes, bogs, acid fens and wet heaths.

Description:
Potentilla palustris is a perennial herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 1.5 m (5ft). Its branches spread into leaves with three to seven narrow leaflets which are sharply jagged. The stem is a reddish-brown, low sprawling, vine-like structure. Flowers extend from the branch which vary from red to purple, and are about one inch in diameter, blooming in summer. The stems roots at the base then rises to about 30 cm.

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It is in flower from May to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers wet soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a moist to wet soil, preferably on the acid side. A very cold-hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c. A rapidly spreading plant, capable of forming clumps several metres across. It is a plant for the wild wet garden. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.
Edible Uses: Tea..…..The dried leaves are a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses:...Astringent.
The root is astringent. A decoction has been used in the treatment of dysentery and stomach cramps.
Other Uses:..Dye; Tannin……..A red dye is obtained from the flowers. Tannin is obtained from the root.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary ,  and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comarum_palustre
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+palustris

Potentilla norvegica

Botanical Name : Potentilla norvegica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: P. norvegica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Potentilla monspeliensis.

Common Name : Norwegian Cinquefoil

Habitat : Norwegian cinquefoil is native to much of Europe, Asia, and parts of North America, and it can be found in other parts of the world as an introduced species. Its natural habitat is arable fields, gardens, banks, hedgerows, wasteland, logging clearings, loading areas and occasionally shores, often on sandy or gravelly soils

Description:
Norwegian cinquefoil is usually an annual but may be a short-lived perennial. It produces a basal rosette of leaves from a taproot, then a green or red stem growing erect up to about 50 cm (20 in) in maximum length, and branching in its upper parts. The leaves are stalked and are either divided into five leaflets, or have three leaflets with the terminal leaflet being divided into three lobes. The basal leaves have narrow, sharp-tipped stipules while the upper leaves have elliptical stipules which are longer than the leaf stalks. Each leaflet is up to 5 cm (2 in) long and is widely lance-shaped with toothed edges. The inflorescence is a cyme of several flowers. Each flower has five rounded yellow petals no more than 4 mm (0.2 in) long inside a calyx of hairy, pointed sepals with reddish tips. There are twenty stamens, a separate gynoecium and many pistils. The calyx lengthens after flowering and the fruit is a cluster of pale brown achenes.
It is in flower from Jun to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. An annual, biennial or short-lived perennial plant. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Medicinal Uses:
The root is astringent. A decoction of the root has been gargled, or the root has been chewed, in the treatment of sore throats. A cold infusion of the whole plant has been used to relieve pain. The plant has been burnt and the fumes used to treat sexual infections. All the above uses are recorded for the sub-species P. norvegica monspeliensis. (L.)Aschers.&Graebn.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_norvegica
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+norvegica