Saussurea affinis

Botanical Name : Saussurea affinis
Family: Asteraceae or Compositae
Tribe: Cynareae
Genus: Saussurea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms : Hemistepta lyrata. Bunge.

Common Name: Saussurea affinis, Some authorities now say that the correct name of this species is Hemistepta lyrata.

Habitat : Saussurea affinis is native to East AsiaChina & Japan etc. It grows on mountain slopes and valleys, plains, hills, forest margins, forests, grassland, wasteland, farmland, riversidesand roadsides from near sea level to 3300 metres with LMH soil and N moisture levels.

Saussurea affinis is a Biennial plant.It can grow to a height of 0.6 meters and up to meters wide. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation details :…..Succeeds in most soils in a sunny well-drained position.

Propagation:………It is suggested to sow the seed in situ in May. If seed is in short supply then sowing it in a pot in a cold frame would be advisable, planting out in the summer.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves………Leaves and young shoots. No more details are found.

Medicinal Uses:…Women’s complaints………..The juice of the root is given with other herbs in the treatment of diseases of women.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Corn marigold

Botanical Name : Glebionis segetum
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Glebionis
Species: G. segetum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Chrysanthemum segetum

Common Name : Corn marigold , Field marigold and Corn daisy.

Habitat ;Glebionis segetum is native only to the eastern Mediterranean region but now naturalized in western and northern Europe as well as China and parts of North America. It is a weed of lime-free arable land in Britain.
Description: Glebionis segetum is a herbaceous perennial/annual plant growing to 80 cm tall, with spirally arranged, deeply lobed leaves 5–20 cm long. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are bright yellow, produced in capitulae (flowerheads) 3.5-5.5 cm in diameter, with a ring of ray florets and a centre of disc florets.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, lepidoptera, self.The plant is self-fertile.

Succeeds in ordinary garden soil, though it prefers a well-drained fertile soil in full sun. Grows well in sandy soils. Dislikes lime. Cultivated as a vegetable in China and Japan. There are several named varieties selected for their ornamental value.

Seed – sow spring in situ. The seed usually germinates within 10 – 18 days at 15°c. Autumn sowings succeed in mild areas[

Edible Uses:
Young shoots – cooked. Strongly aromatic, they contain coumarin. As a beverage, chrysanthemum is very popular as a summertime tea in southern China. Caution is advised, see the notes on toxicity below.

Medicinal Uses:
Chrysanthemum (mum) is a plant. It gets its name from the Greek words for “gold” and “flower.” People use the flowers to make medicine.

Chrysanthemum is used to treat chest pain (angina), high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, fever, cold, headache, dizziness, and swelling.

In combination with other herbs, chrysanthemum is also used to treat prostate cancer.

Known Hazards: One report suggests that the plant contains coumarin. If this is true it would be unwise to eat the leaves, especially if they are dried, since coumarin can prevent the blood from co-aggulating when there is a cut.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Anthemis arvensis


Botanical Name : Anthemis arvensis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Anthemis
Species: A. arvensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name : Corn Chamomile

Habitat : Anthemis arvensis is native to most of Europe, including Britain, south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia. It is a locally common calcicolous plant of arable land and waste places throughout Britain.

Anthemis arvensis is a annual plant , growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in) by 0.3 m (1ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles, self.The plant is self-fertile.

Stems – Herbaceous, erect to ascending, from fibrous roots, multiple from the base, branching, arachnoid pubescent (less so near base), carinate at apex, green to red in strong sun.

Leaves Alternate, pinnately divided. Divisions of leaf pinnatifid. Ultimate leaf divisions acute, minutely mucronate. Leaves to 5cm long, 2cm broad, sparse pubescent and punctate (use lens) adaxially, arachnoid pubescent below. Petiole with fimbriate divisions.

Inflorescence – Single pedunculate flower clusters terminating stems.

Involucre – 1.2cm in diameter, 4-5mm tall. Phyllaries in one or two series, slightly imbricated, to 5mm long, 2mm broad, scarious, with a green midvein, arachnoid pubescent externally, glabrous internally.
Ray flowers – Pistillate, fertile, +/-15 per head. Ligule white, -1.5cm long, 5-6mm broad, glabrous, 2-3-notched at apex, oblong. Corolla tube to 2mm long, greenish. Style bifurcate, exserted. Achene 1.5mm long in flower, light green, glabrous, truncate at base. Pappus none.

Disk flowers – Disk to 1.2cm broad, becoming globose with age. Corolla -3mm long, translucent at base, becoming yellow at apex, 5-lobed, expanded in apical 1/2. Lobes acute, to .6mm long, recurved. Stamens 5, adnate at base of corolla tube constriction. Filaments very short. Anthers yellow, included, 1.1mm long, connate around style. Style barely exserted beyond anthers, translucent-yellow. Stigmatic portion of style .5mm long. Achene translucent in flower, 1.3mm long, glabrous. Pappus none. Receptacle conic. Chaff thin, translucent, 3mm long, .4mm broad, slightly folded, glabrous, acuminate, linear.

Prefers a sunny position and a well-drained soil that is neutral to slightly acid. Succeeds in heavy clay soils.

Seed – best sown outdoors as soon as it is ripe. Most of the seed germinates in the autumn.

Medicinal Uses:
This species is considered to be one of the best febrifuge species indigenous to France. The flowers and leaves are used. Employed in fevers, colds, and to produce perspiration.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Cephalanthus occidentalis

Botanical Name : Cephalanthus occidentalis
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Cinchonoideae
Tribe: Naucleeae
Genus: Cephalanthus
Species: C. occidentalis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Names: Button Bush, Common buttonbush, Button Willow, Honey Bells

Habitat :Cephalanthus occidentalis is native to Eastern N. America – Nova Scotia to Florida, west to Minnesota and California. It is a lowland species, growing along the edges of streams, rivers, lakes, swamps and wet floodplains.

Cephalanthus occidentalis is a deciduous shrub or small tree that averages 1–3 m (3.3–9.8 ft) in height, but can reach 6 m (20 ft). The leaves are opposite or in whorls of three, elliptic to ovate, 7–18 cm (2.8–7.1 in) long and 4–10 cm (1.6–3.9 in) broad, with a smooth edge and a short petiole. The flowers are arranged in a dense spherical inflorescence 2–3.5 cm (0.79–1.38 in) in diameter on a short peduncle. Each flower has a fused white to pale yellow four-lobed corolla forming a long slender tube connecting to the sepals. The stigma protrudes slightly from the corolla. The fruit is a spherical cluster of achenes (nutlets)....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Easily grown in moist, humusy soils in full sun to part shade. Grows very well in wet soils, including flood conditions and shallow standing water. Adapts to a wide range of soils except dry ones. Pruning is usually not necessary, but may be done in early spring to shape. If plants become unmanageable, however, they may be cut back near to the ground in early spring to revitalize.

Propagation :
Seed – It is  suggested  to sow  the seed as soon as it is ripe in an acid compost in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in late winter in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of soft or semi-ripe wood, July in a frame. Layering.

Medicinal Uses:
Button bush was often employed medicinally by native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a range of ailments. It is little used in modern herbalism. A tea made from the bark is astringent, emetic, febrifuge and tonic. A strong decoction has been used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery, stomach complaints, haemorrhages etc. It has been used as a wash for eye inflammations. A decoction of either the roots or the fruits have been used as a laxative to treat constipation The leaves are astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic and tonic. A tea has been used to check menstrual flow and to treat fevers, kidney stones, pleurisy etc. The plant has a folk reputation for relieving malaria. The inner bark has been chewed in the treatment of toothaches.

Other Uses:
Buttonbush is cultivated as an ornamental plant for a nectar source or ‘honey plant’ and for aesthetics in gardens and native plant landscapes, and is planted on slopes to help control erosion. Buttonbush is a suitable shrub for butterfly gardens. Wood – light, tough.

Known Hazards : The leaves contain glucosides and can be toxic in large doses. Symptoms include vomiting, convulsions, chronic spasms and muscular paralysis


Arctium minus

Botanical Name : Arctium minus
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cynareae
Genus: Arctium
Species: A. minus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names : Lesser Burdock, Burweed, Louse-bur, Common burdock,, Button-bur, Cuckoo-button, or Wild rhubarb

Habitat : Arctium minus is native to Europe, but has become an invasive weed in Australia, North and South America, and other places. It grows in waste ground, edges of woods, roadsides etc.

Arctium minus is a binnial plant.   It can grow up to 1.5 meters (1 to 5 feet) tall and form multiple branches. It is large and bushy. Flowers are prickly and pink to lavender in color. Flower heads are about 3/4 inches (2 cm) wide. The plant flowers from July through October. The flowers resemble and can be easily mistaken for thistles, but burdock can be distinguished by its extremely large (up to 50 cm) leaves and its hooked bracts. Leaves are long and ovate. Lower leaves are heart-shaped and have very wavy margins. Leaves are dark green above and woolly below. It grows an extremely deep taproot, up to 30 cm (12 in) into the ground.

The plant produces purple flowers in its second year of growth, from July to October. Outer bracts end in hooks that are like Velcro. After the flower head dries, the hooked bracts will attach to humans and animals in order to transport the entire seedhead.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera, self.The plant is self-fertile.  It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Cultivation :
Succeeds on most soils, preferably moist. Prefers a sunny position. Prefers partial shade according to another report. A polymorphic species. A good butterfly plant.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown in situ in autumn.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Seed; Stem.
Edible Uses: Coffee.

Root – raw or cooked. The best roots are obtained from young plants. Usually peeled and sliced. The roasted root is a coffee substitute. Young leaves and leaf stems – raw or cooked. Used as a potherb]. Mucilaginous. It is best to remove the rind from the stem. Young flowering stem – peeled and eaten raw or cooked like asparagus. Seed sprouts.
Medicinal Uses:

Alterative; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Aperient; Blood purifier; Carminative; Cholagogue; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Hypoglycaemic.

Burdock is one of the foremost detoxifying herbs in both Chinese and Western herbal medicine. Arctium lappa is the main species used, though this species has similar properties. The dried root of one year old plants is the official herb, but the leaves and fruits can also be us. It is used to treat conditions caused by an ‘overload’ of toxins, such as throat and other infections, boils, rashes and other skin problems. The root is thought to be particularly good at helping to eliminate heavy metals from the body. The plant is antibacterial, antifungal and carminative. It has soothing, mucilaginous properties and is said to be one of the most certain cures for many types of skin diseases, burns, bruises etc. It is used in the treatment of herpes, eczema, acne, impetigo, ringworm, boils, bites etc. The plant can be taken internally as an infusion, or used externally as a wash. Use with caution. One-year old roots are alterative, aperient, blood purifier, cholagogue, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic and stomachic. The seed is alterative, antibacterial, antifungal, antiphlogistic, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic and hypoglycaemic. It is used in the treatment of colds with sore throat and cough, measles, pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis and abscesses. The crushed seed is poulticed onto bruises. The seed is harvested in the summer and dried for later use. The seed contains arctiin, this excites the central nervous system producing convulsions an increase in respiration and later paralysis. It also lowers the blood pressure by dilating the blood vessels. The leaves are poulticed onto burns, ulcers and sores.

Other Uses:..Paper.…..A fibre is obtained from the inner bark and is used to make paper. It is about 0.9mm long. The stems are harvested in late summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed in order to strip off the fibre. The fibres are then cooked for two hours in soda ash before being put in a ball mill for 2 hours. The resulting paper is a light tan/ brown colour.

Known Hazards :Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this plant, some caution is advised due to the following report for the closely related A. lappa[K]. Care should be taken if harvesting the seed in any quantity since tiny hairs from the seeds can be inhaled and these are toxic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Cocculus palmatus

Botanical name: Jateorhiza palmata
Family: Menispermaceae
Genus: Cocculus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Synonym: Menispermum calumba of Roxbury; Jateorhiza calumba of Miers.

Common Name : Moonseed, Colombo

Habitat :Cocculus palmatus is native to warm temperate to tropical regions of North America, Asia and Africa. This plant inhabits the forests near the southeastern coast of Africa, in the neighborhood of Mozambique, where the natives call it Kalumb.

Description: This is a climbing annual plant. The stems are herbaceous and twining; root perennial, fasciculated, fleshy, one to three inches in diameter, brownish without, deep yellow within. The stems, of which one or two proceed from the same root, are twining, simple in the male plant, branched in the female, round, hairy, and about an inch or an inch and a half in circumference. The leaves stand on rounded glandular hairy footstalks, and are alternate, distant, cordate, and have three, seven, or nine lobes and nerves. The flowers are small and inconspicuous . Flowers on solitary axillary racemes; small, green, dioecious. Calyx six-sepaled; corolla six-petaled; stamens six; pistils three. Fruit about the size of a hazel-nut, densely covered with long spreading hairs, either drupaceous or a berry.


The fusiform roots of this plant appear in market in thin slices transversely. “The slices are flat, circular or oval, mostly two inches in diameter and from two to four lines thick and branching. grayish-yellow, bitter.” (Pereira.) The root is often worm-eaten. Its powder has a greenish-yellow tint, a faint smell, and an aromatic bitter taste. The root is covered with a thin brown skin, marked with transverse warts.

Water, alcohol, diluted alcohol, and ether extract its virtues, which most abound in the cortical. It contains starch; a colorless neutral principle named calumbin; and an alkaloid berberia or berberin.

Medicinal Uses:
Columbo, so important in the present practice of medicine. The root is a bitter of the more relaxing order of tonics, stimulating only to a very moderate degree, and having a slightly demulcent character. It resembles the American article of a similar common name, (Frasera Carolinensis,) but is much pleasanter and not at all astringent. Its chief action is upon the stomach; and it is admirably suited to feeble conditions of this organ, with want of appetite, indigestion, flatulence, and vomiting. It never excites nausea, but on the contrary is an excellent agent to allay all forms of sympathetic vomiting, as in pregnancy; and few tonics are so well received by weak and irritable stomachs. During convalescence from fever, diarrhea, and dysentery, it is one of the most useful tonics; and it exerts a very mild influence on the hepatic apparatus, which well fits it for numerous cases of biliousness. It imparts a desirable tonic influence to the bowels. Some class it among the very powerful tonics, like gentian; but this is a mistake, for it is altogether a milder article, and suited for quite other conditions than those to which the gentian is applied. It is generally compounded with other tonics and with aromatics; and deserves more attention than it receives in America. Dose of the powder, ten to twenty grains three times a day.
Pharmaceutical Preparations: I. Infusion. Calumba in coarse powder, six drachms; boiling water, one pint. Macerate for an hour. Dose, eight to twelve fluid drachms three times a day. By adding a few grains of dill seed or fennel, the flavor is much improved.

II. Tincture. This is prepared by macerating two and a half ounces of calumba in a sufficient quantity of proof spirit; transferring to a percolator, and adding proof spirit till one pint in all has been used; then pressing the drugs strongly, and adding enough spirit to the liquid to make the product one pint. Dose, half a fluid drachm to two fluid drachms. This is often added to other tonic preparations, or to such nervine aromatic infusions as may be in use for excessive vomiting. This agent is an ingredient in the compound wine of comfrey.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Rhamnus californica

Botanical Name : Rhamnus californica/Frangula californica
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Rhamnus
Subgenus: Frangula
Species: R. californica—F. californica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names: California coffeeberry, Coffeeberry, and California buckthorn

Habitat : Rhamnus californica is native to California, the Southwestern United States, and Baja California state in Mexico. It is an introduced species in Hawaii. The plant occurs in Oak woodland and chaparral habitats, numerous others in its range. Individual plants can live an estimated 100 to 200 years.

Rhamnus californica is a shrub 3–12 feet (0.91–3.66 m) tall. It is variable in form across subspecies. In favorable conditions the plant can develop into a small tree over 12 feet (3.7 m) tall.More commonly it is a shrub between 3–6 feet (0.91–1.83 m) tall.

The branches may have a reddish tinge and the new twigs are often red in color. The alternately arranged evergreen leaves are dark green above and paler on the undersides. The leaves have thin blades in moist habitat, and smaller, thicker blades in dry areas.


The 1/8″ greenish flowers occur in clusters in the leaf axils, have 5 sepals, and 5 shorter petals.

It blooms in May and June.

The fruit is a juicy drupe which may be green, red, or black. It is just under a centimeter long and contains two seeds that resemble coffee beans.

Edible Uses:
The seeds inside the berries make an excellent, caffeine-free coffee substitute, superior to chicory and with overtones of mocha.

Although the plant itself looks much like a coffee plant, its berries, which are succulent, do not, but they can be made into jams and jellies.

Native Americans of the west coast of North America had several uses for the plant as food, and used parts of it as a traditional medicinal plant. Several tribes of the indigenous peoples of California ate the fruit fresh or dried.

Medicinal Uses:
The Ohlone people used the leaves to treat poison oak dermatitis. The Kumeyaay people had similar uses for its bark. The Kawaiisu used the fruit to treat wounds such as burns. The bark was widely used as a laxative by the indigenous peoples.
Names for the plant in the Konkow language of the Concow tribe include pä and pö.

Other Uses:
This plant is cultivated as an ornamental plant by plant nurseries, for planting in native plant, water conserving, and wildlife gardens; in large pots and containers; and in natural landscaping and habitat restoration projects. It is also used for erosion control, and is usually deer resistant. As a pollinator plant it is of special value to native butterflys and bees.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Rubus chamaemorus

Botanical Name : Rubus chamaemorus
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rubus
Species: R. chamaemorus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names : Cloudberry , Cloud Berry, Bakeapple Berry, Ground Mulberry

Bakeapple (in Newfoundland and Labrador), Knotberry and knoutberry (in England), Aqpik or low-bush salmonberry (in Alaska – not to be confused with true salmonberry, Rubus spectabilis), and Averin or Evron (in Scotland).
Habitat : Rubus chamaemorus is native to Northern Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to Germany and N. Asia. It grows in cool boggy places, often found amongst bilberries on hills and mountain sides, avoiding shade and calcareous soils.

Rubus chamaemorus is a perennial plant .It grows to 10–25 cm (4-10 inches) high. The leaves alternate between having 5 and 7 soft, handlike lobes on straight, branchless stalks. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September . After pollination, the white (sometimes reddish-tipped) flowers form raspberry-sized aggregate fruits. Encapsulating between 5 and 25 drupelets, each fruit is initially pale red, ripening into an amber color in early autumn.

The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.The plant is not self-fertile.

Unlike most Rubus species, the cloudberry is dioecious, and fruit production by a female plant requires pollination from a male plant.

Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Avoids calcareous soils in the wild and is often found in boggy soils. Considered to be a gourmet fruit, it is occasionally sold in speciality stores. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation :
Seed – requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn

Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit.
Edible Uses: Tea.………Fruit – raw or cooked. Sour but delicious, the fruit can be eaten out of hand or stewed, used in preserves, pies etc. Rich in vitamin C. The sweet fruit tastes like baked apples. Flowers – raw. The fresh or dried leaves are used as a tea substitute.

Alcoholic drinks:
In Nordic countries, traditional liqueurs such as Lakkalikööri (Finland) are made of cloudberry, having a strong taste and high sugar content. Cloudberry is used as a spice for making akvavit. In northeastern Quebec, a cloudberry liqueur known as chicoutai (aboriginal name) is made.

Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of the roots has been used as ‘woman’s medicine’. A decoction of the root and lower stem has been used by barren women to try and become pregnant. The root has been used in the treatment of coughs, fevers and consumption.

Other Uses:...Dye.……A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit.

Cultural references:
The cloudberry appears on the Finnish version of the 2 euro coin.  The name of the hill Beinn nan Oighreag in Breadalbane in the Scottish Highlands means “Hill of the Cloudberries” in Scots Gaelic.

The berry is called Bakeapple in Newfoundland. One explanation for the name suggests it is derived from the French term “Baie Qu’Appelle”, meaning “What is this berry called?

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Salvia clevelandii


Botanical Name : Salvia clevelandii
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. clevelandii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names ; The fragrant sage, Blue sage, Jim sage and Cleveland sage, Fragrant sage, Chaparral Sage

Habitat :Salvia clevelandii is native to Southern California and northern Baja California, growing below 900 m (3,000 ft) elevation in California coastal sage and chaparral habitat. The plant was named in 1874 by Asa Gray, honoring plant collector Daniel Cleveland.

Salvia clevelandii is an evergreen perennial shrub that reaches 1 to 1.5 m (3.3 to 4.9 ft) in height and width. The fragrant, ashy green leaves are obovate and rugose, growing less than 2.5 cm (0.98 in) long. Flowers are on 30 cm (12 in) spikes, with numerous whorls of upright amethyst blooms opening in June–July. Bloom Color: Purple. Main Bloom Time: Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Irregular or sprawling…...CLICK &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

Salvia clevelandii is a popular California landscape plant, cultivated since the 1940s. Plants prefer dry summers, good drainage, and full sun, with a relatively short life span of five to ten years. They are hardy to ?7 °C (19 °F).

Cultivars and hybrids include:

*Winnifred Gilman’, a popular cultivar with intense violet-blue flowers.
*Betsy Clebsch’, a shorter cultivar with wide variation in flower color.
*Allen Chickering’, ‘Aromas’, ‘Pozo Blue’, ‘Santa Cruz Dark’, and ‘Whirly Blue’ are hybrids with similar appearance.
Salvia clevelandii is one of the parents of the hybrid Salvia ‘Celestial Blue’

Propagation :
Seed – sow March/April in a greenhouse[200]. Germination usually takes place within 2 weeks. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in early summer. In areas where the plant is towards the limits of its hardiness, it is best to grow the plants on in a greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood succeed at almost any time in the growing season
Edible Uses: Condiment……The leaves have a pleasant flavour and fragrance, they are a good substitute for sage in cooking.

Medicinal Uses:  Not known

Other Uses:  . The gray-green leaves of Salvia clevelandii have intense fragrance. It is a great hummingbird plant. 



Definition:   Tinnitus is noise or ringing in the ears.It may be a the sensation of hearing ringing, buzzing, hissing, chirping, whistling, or other sounds. The noise can be intermittent or continuous, and can vary in loudness. It is often worse when background noise is low, so you may be most aware of it at night when you’re trying to fall asleep in a quiet room. In very rare cases, the sound beats in sync with your heart (pulsatile tinnitus)……..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

A common problem, tinnitus affects about 1 in 5 people. Tinnitus isn’t a condition itself — it’s a symptom of an underlying condition, such as age-related hearing loss, ear injury or a circulatory system disorder.

Although bothersome, tinnitus usually isn’t a sign of something serious. Although it can worsen with age, for many people, tinnitus can improve with treatment. Treating an identified underlying cause sometimes helps. Other treatments reduce or mask the noise, making tinnitus less noticeable.

There are two kinds of tinnitus:

Subjective tinnitus is tinnitus only one can hear. This is the most common type of tinnitus. It can be caused by ear problems in the outer, middle or inner ear. It also can be caused by problems with the hearing (auditory) nerves or the part of your brain that interprets nerve signals as sound (auditory pathways).

Objective tinnitus is tinnitus the doctor can hear when he or she does an examination. This rare type of tinnitus may be caused by a blood vessel problem, an inner ear bone condition or muscle contractions.
Tinnitus can be perceived in one or both ears or in the head. It is usually described as a ringing noise but, in some patients, it takes the form of a high-pitched whining, electric buzzing, hissing, humming, tinging or whistling sound or as ticking, clicking, roaring, “crickets” or “tree frogs” or “locusts (cicadas)”, tunes, songs, beeping, sizzling, sounds that slightly resemble human voices or even a pure steady tone like that heard during a hearing test and, in some cases, pressure changes from the interior ear. It has also been described as a “whooshing” sound because of acute muscle spasms, as of wind or waves. Tinnitus can be intermittent or it can be continuous: in the latter case, it can be the cause of great distress. In some individuals, the intensity can be changed by shoulder, head, tongue, jaw or eye movements.

Most people with tinnitus have some degree of hearing loss: they are often unable to clearly hear external sounds that occur within the same range of frequencies as their “phantom sounds”. This has led to the suggestion that one cause of tinnitus might be a homeostatic response of central dorsal cochlear nucleus auditory neurons that makes them hyperactive in compensation to auditory input loss.

The sound perceived may range from a quiet background noise to one that can be heard even over loud external sounds. The specific type of tinnitus called pulsatile tinnitus is characterized by hearing the sounds of one’s own pulse or muscle contractions, which is typically a result of sounds that have been created from the movement of muscles near to one’s ear, changes within the canal of one’s ear or issues related to blood flow of the neck or face.

Prolonged exposure to loud sounds is the most common cause of tinnitus. Up to 90% of people with tinnitus have some level of noise-induced hearing loss. The noise causes permanent damage to the sound-sensitive cells of the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ in the inner ear. Carpenters, pilots, rock musicians, street-repair workers, and landscapers are among those whose jobs put them at risk, as are people who work with chain saws, guns, or other loud devices or who repeatedly listen to loud music. A single exposure to a sudden extremely loud noise can also cause tinnitus...CLICK & SEE : 

A variety of other conditions and illnesses may lead to tinnitus and they are as follows:
*Blockages of the ear due to a buildup of wax, an ear infection, or rarely, a benign tumor of the nerve that allows us to hear (auditory nerve)

*Certain drugs — most notably aspirin, several types of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, sedatives, and antidepressants, as well as quinine medications; tinnitus is cited as a potential side effect for about 200 prescription and nonprescription drugs.

*The natural aging process, which can cause deterioration of the cochlea or other parts of the ear

*Meniere’s disease, which affects the inner part of the ear

*Otosclerosis, a disease that results in stiffening of the small bones in the middle ear

*Other medical conditions such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, circulatory problems, anemia, allergies, an underactive thyroid gland, and diabetes

*Neck or jaw problems, such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome

*Multiple sclerosis

*Injuries to the head and neck

*External ear infection

*Acoustic shock

*Cerumen (earwax) impaction

*Middle ear effusion

*Superior canal dehiscence

*Sensorineural hearing loss

*Acoustic neuroma*Mercury or lead poisoning

*Neurologic disorders

*Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

*Giant cell arteritis

*Metabolic disorders like thyroid disease, hyperlipidemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, psychiatric disorders,diabetis

*Psychiatric disorders like depression, anxiety
Tinnitus can worsen in some people if they drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes, drink caffeinated beverages, or eat certain foods. For reasons not yet entirely clear to researchers, stress and fatigue seem to worsen tinnitus.

The basis of quantitatively measuring tinnitus relies on the brain’s tendency to select out only the loudest sounds heard. Based on this tendency, the amplitude of a patient’s tinnitus can be measured by playing sample sounds of known amplitude and asking the patient which they hear. The volume of the tinnitus will always be equal to or less than that of the sample noises heard by the patient. This method works very well to gauge objective tinnitus (see above). For example: if a patient has a pulsatile paraganglioma in their ear, they will not be able to hear the blood flow through the tumor when the sample noise is 5 decibels louder than the noise produced by the blood. As sound amplitude is gradually decreased, the tinnitus will become audible and the level at which it does so provides an estimate of the amplitude of the objective tinnitus.

Objective tinnitus, however, is quite uncommon. Often, patients with pulsatile tumors will report other coexistent sounds, distinct from the pulsatile noise, that will persist even after their tumor has been removed. This is generally subjective tinnitus, which, unlike the objective form, cannot be tested by comparative methods. However, pulsatile tinnitus can be a symptom of intracranial vascular abnormalities and should be evaluated for bruits by a medical professional with auscultation over the neck, eyes and ears. If the exam reveals a bruit, imaging studies such as transcranial doppler (TCD) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) should be performed.

The accepted definition of chronic tinnitus, as compared to normal ear noise experience, is five minutes of ear noise occurring at least twice a week. However, people with chronic tinnitus often experience the noise more frequently than this and can experience it continuously or regularly, such as during the night when there is less environmental noise to mask the sound.

The best supported treatment for tinnitus is a type of counseling called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) which can be delivered via the internet or in person. It decreases the amount of stress those with tinnitus feel. These benefits appear to be independent of any effect on depression or anxiety in an individual. Relaxation techniques may also be useful. A program has been developed by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

There are no medications as of 2014 that are effective for tinnitus and, thus, none is recommended. There is not enough evidence to determine if antidepressants or acamprosate is useful. While there is tentative evidence for benzodiazepines, it is insufficient to support usage. Anticonvulsants have not been found to be useful.

Botulinum toxin injection has been tried with some success in cases of objective tinnitus (palatal tremor)

The use of sound therapy by either hearing aids or tinnitus maskers helps the brain ignore the specific tinnitus frequency. Although these methods are poorly supported by evidence, there are no negative effects, which makes them a reasonable option. There is some tentative evidence supporting tinnitus retraining therapy. There is little evidence supporting the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation. It is thus not recommended.

Alternative   Therapy :
Ginkgo biloba does not appear to be effective. Tentative evidence supports zinc supplementation and in those with sleep problems, melatonin. The American Academy of Otolaryngology, however, recommends against melatonin and zinc.

Doing YOGA EXERCISE daily with PRANAYAMA (specially Anuloma belome , Kapalabhati and Bhramari ) may help a lot to improve and sometimes cure totally.
Most people with tinnitus get used to it over time; for a minority, it remains a significant problem.

Prolonged exposure to sound or noise levels as low as 70 dB can result in damage to hearing (see noise health effects). This can lead to tinnitus. Ear plugs can help with prevention.

Avoidance of potentially ototoxic medicines. Ototoxicity of multiple medicines can have a cumulative effect and can increase the damage done by noise. If ototoxic medications must be administered, close attention by the physician to prescription details, such as dose and dosage interval, can reduce the damage done.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.