Eleutherococcus trifoliatus

Botanical Name : Eleutherococcus trifoliatus
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily:Aralioideae
Genus: Eleutherococcus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms: Acanthopanax trifoliatus.
Common Name:Climing Ginseng

Habitat: Eleutherococcus trifoliatus is native to E. AsiaHimalayas. It grows in the thickets. Mountainous areas in Vietnam, occasionally on the edges of forests.
Description:
Eleutherococcus trifoliatus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 6 m (19ft 8in). It is scandent or climbers. It has branches with scattered, recurved prickles. Petiole 2-6 cm, glabrous, prickly; petiolules 2-8 mm; leaflets 3(-5), ovate, elliptic-ovate, o r oblong, 4-10 × 2-4.5 cm, papery, adaxially glabrous or slightly setose on midvein and veins, secondary veins 5 or 6 pairs, base cuneate, margin serrulate, apex acute or acuminate. Inflorescence a terminal raceme of umbels or a compound umbel, borne on leafy shoots, with 3-10 umbels; peduncles 2-7 cm; pedicels 1-2 cm. Calyx with 5 teeth, glabrous. Ovary 2-carpellate; styles united to middle. Fruit globose, laterally compressed, 3-4 mm; style bifid, ca. 1.5 mm. It is in flower during Aug-Nov, and fruit matutes in Sep-Dec.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution
Cultivation:
Prefers a light warm open loamy humus-rich soil and a position sheltered from north and east winds. Prefers a well-drained soil and full sun. Tolerates urban pollution and poor soils. All parts of the plant are particularly fragrant. Plants are hardy to between -10 and -15°c if they are sheltered from cold winds.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can be slow to germinate. Stored seed requires 6 months warm followed by 3 months cold stratification and can be very slow to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of ripe wood of the current season’s growth, 15 – 30cm long in a cold frame. Root cuttings in late winter. Division of suckers in the dormant season
Edible Uses: Young leaves – cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
Antirheumatic; Infertility; Nervine; Tonic.

The root bark and stem bark contain triterpenoid saponinsand oleanolic acid.They are used in the treatment of rheumatism, lumbago, ostealgia and impotence. The bark is also considered to be a stimulant and tonic for the central nervous system and to improve the memory. The bark is collected in the summer and autumn, wrapped to bring out the aroma and then thoroughly dried. The plant is used in the treatment of colds, coughs, neuralgia, rheumatism and water on the knee.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleutherococcus
http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/Plant.aspx?id=4145
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242320223
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Eleutherococcus+trifoliatus

Eleutherococcus spinosus

 

Botanical Name : Eleutherococcus spinosus
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily:Aralioideae
Genus: Eleutherococcus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : E. pentaphyllus, Acanthopanax spinosus.

Habitat : Eleutherococcus spinosus is native to E. AsiaChina, C. Japan. It grows in the woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Hedge;

Description:
Eleutherococcus spinosus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Prefers a light warm open loamy humus-rich soil and a position sheltered from north and east winds. Prefers a well-drained soil and full sun[200]. Tolerates urban pollution and poor soils. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c if they are sheltered from cold winds. Considered to be a part of E. sieboldianus by some botanists, but this species has smaller leaves. It is closely related to and often confused with E. divaricatus. There is a spineless form of this species, known as Eleutherococcus spinosus inermis (Makino) H. Ohashi.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can be slow to germinate. Stored seed requires 6 months warm followed by 3 months cold stratification and can be very slow to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of ripe wood of the current season’s growth, 15 – 30cm long in a cold frame. Root cuttings in late winter. Division of suckers in the dormant season
Edible Uses: Tea…..Leaves and young budlings – cooked. The dried leaves are a tea substitute. Although we have no record of the seed being edible, it is said to contain 5.6 – 30.6% protein, 5.6 – 36.6% fat and 2.1 – 3.5% ash.
Medicinal Uses:
Antirheumatic; Tonic.
The cortex of the root is tonic and analgesic. It is used to treat general debility, rheumatic pains and many other complaints. A wine made from the root is considered to be a general tonic for restoring vigour and restoring sexual potency.

Other Uses:...Hedge; Hedge……Plants can be used as a hedge

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleutherococcus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Eleutherococcus+spinosus

Anabasis aphylla

 

Botanical Name : Anabasis aphylla
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily:Salsoloideae
Tribe: Salsoleae
Genus: Anabasis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Caryophyllales

Habitat :Anabasis aphylla is native to Europe – Russia to Siberia and northern China. It grows in the gobi desert, inter-dunes, gravelly alluvial fans, sometimes on arid slopes.

Description:
Anabasis aphylla is a perennial herb, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen in October. It is a low, branching semishrub with tiny, scalelike, opposite leaves; the flowers are spikelike inflorescences. The fruit is berry-shaped and has yellowish or pink winglike appendages. It grows in the saline and clayey deserts and semideserts of Southeast, Middle, and Central Asia and also in the southern European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, and Southern Siberia. The young, green branchlets of A. aphylla contain alkaloids, most importantly anabasine, an effective agent for control of insect pests in agriculture; anabasine is also the raw material for obtaining nicotinic acid, or niacin…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native habitat it is likely to succeed at least in the milder parts of the country, particularly the drier areas. It is likely to prefer a well-drained soil and a sunny position.

Propagation : Seed –

Medicinal Uses:…The plant is used medicinally. No more information is given.

Other Uses:….Insecticide; Miscellany; Soil stabilization.

The annual branches contain the alkaloid anabasine (C10H14N2), a botanical insecticide. The plant is used for stabilizing sand dunes

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anabasis_(plant)
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Anabasis+Aphylla
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Anabasis+aphylla

Amorpha canescens

Botanical Name: Amorpha canescens
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Amorpha
Species:A. canescens
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Names: Leadplant, Leadplant amorpha, Prairie shoestring

Habitat :Amorpha canescens is native to Eastern N. America – Indiana to Minnesota and Manitoba, south to Kansas and New Mexico. It grows on dry sandy prairies, hills and woodland.

Description:
Amorpha canescens is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 1.5 m (5ft in). It has very small purple flowers with yellow stamens which are grouped in racemes. The compound leaves of this plant appear leaden (the reason for the common name “leadplant”) due to their dense hairiness. The roots can grow deeper than 1.2 meters (3.9 feet).

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is in flower from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Cultivation:
Prefers a light well-drained sandy soil in sun or light shade. Tolerant of poor dry soils, plants can be invasive in rich soils. Wind resistant. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25c but it frequently dies down to ground level in the winter, resprouting from the base in the following spring. A very ornamental plant. A deep rooted plant, it thrives best in hot, droughty seasons. It only ripens its seed in fine autumns. Immune to insect pests, the plant contains its own insecticide. At one time this plant was supposed to indicate the presence of lead in the soil. There is some confusion over the correct author of the Latin name of this plant. It is probably Pursh. as stated on the top of this sheet, but some books cite Nutt. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:
Seed – presoak for 12 hours in warm water and sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 2 months at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June/July in a frame. High percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth, autumn, in a sheltered position outdoors. Takes 12 months. Suckers in spring just before new growth begins. Layering in spring

Edible Uses:… Oil; Tea……An infusion of the dried leaves makes a pleasant tasting yellow-coloured tea.

Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Miscellany; Salve; Skin; Stomachic.

An infusion of the leaves has been used to kill pinworms or any intestinal worms. The infusion is also used to treat eczema, the report does not say it if is used internally or externally. The dried and powdered leaves are applied as a salve to cuts and open wounds. A decoction of the root is used to treat stomach pains. A moxa of the twigs has been used in the treatment of neuralgia and rheumatism.

Other Uses:
Insecticide; Miscellany; Oil; Repellent; Shelterbelt; Soil stabilization.

Plants have an extensive root system, they tolerate poor dry soils and are also wind resistant, they are used as a windbreak and also to prevent soil erosion. Resinous pustules on the plant contain ‘amorpha’, a contact and stomachic insecticide that also acts as an insect repellent.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorpha_canescens
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amorpha+canescens

 

Aconitum dienorrhizum

Botanical Name : Aconitum dienorrhizum
Family: Ranunculaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Class : Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Aconitum
Habitat : Aconitum dienorrhizum is native to E. AsiaHimalayas. It grows in Alpine regions around Bashahr.
Description:
Aconitum dienorrhizum is a perennial herb. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil……CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES:

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands.  Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year.
Medicinal Uses: The plant is said to be medicinal but no details are given. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

Known Hazards: The whole plant is highly toxic – simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aconitum+dienorrhizum
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum_heterophylloides

Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus

 

Botanical Name : Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Eleutherococcus
Species: Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus

Synonyms: Acanthopanax sessiliflorus

Common Names:

Habitat : Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus is native to E. Asia – China, Korea, Manchuria. It grows in moist woods, wooded riverbanks, forest edges and clearings.

Description:
Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft 9in). Branches unarmed or with scattered, erect or recurved prickles. Petiole 3-12 cm, unarmed or with small prickles; petiolules 2-10 mm; leaflets 3-5, obovate, oblong-obovate, or oblong-lanceolate, 8-18 × 3-7 cm, papery, secondary veins 5-7 pairs, distinct, adaxially glabrous or slightly scabrous, base cuneate, margin irregularly serrate, apex acuminate. Inflorescence terminal, a raceme of umbels, borne on leafy shoots, with 3-6 capitate umbels; peduncles 0.5-3 cm, densely pubescent; pedicels absent (flowers sessile). Calyx with 5 teeth, white pubescent. Corolla dull purplish. Ovary 2-carpellate; styles united basally into a column, free apically. Fruit obovoid-globose, 1-1.5 cm; styles persistent, ca. 3 mm.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in an open loamy soil, preferring a well-drained humus-rich soil in full sun. Tolerates poor soils and atmospheric pollution. A very cold resistant plant if it is sheltered from cold winds, tolerating temperatures down to at least -15°c. A very ornamental plant, it spreads vigorously by means of suckers. This species is closely related to E. divaricatus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can be slow to germinate. Stored seed requires 6 months warm followed by 3 months cold stratification and can be very slow to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of ripe wood of the current season’s growth, 15 – 30cm long in a cold frame. Root cuttings in late winter. Division of suckers in the dormant season.

Edible Uses:... Drink; Tea….Young leaves – raw or cooked and used as a vegetable. Old leaves are dried and used as a tea substitute. A wine is made from the bark. It is highly fancied by the Chinese. It is probably used mainly for medicinal purposes.

Medicinal Uses:
Adaptogen; Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antipyretic; Diuretic.

The root bark contains saponins, acanthosides, cardiac glycosides and polysaccharides. It is adaptogenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and diuretic. It is used in Korea in the treatment of lumbago, neuralgia, arthritis and oedema.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Eleutherococcus_sessiliflorus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Eleutherococcus+sessiliflorus
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242320208

Eleutherococcus gracylistylus

 Botanical Name : Eleutherococcus gracylistylus
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Eleutherococcus
Species:E. gracilistylu
Kingdom:Plantae

Synonyms : Acanthopanax gracilistylus, W.W.Sm.

Common Names:Wu Jia Pi

Habitat :Eleutherococcus gracylistylus is native to E. Asia – China. It grows on wasted slopes or shrub thickets.

Description:
Eleutherococcus gracylistylus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft 10in).
It is in flower in August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution…..CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Succeeds in an open loamy soil, preferring a well-drained humus-rich soil in full sun. Tolerates poor soils and atmospheric pollution. Plants are hardy to at least -10 to -15°c if they are sheltered from cold winds. This species is closely related to E. sieboldianus.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can be slow to germinate. Stored seed requires 6 months warm followed by 3 months cold stratification and can be very slow to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of ripe wood of the current season’s growth, 15 – 30cm long in a cold frame. Root cuttings in late winter. Division of suckers in the dormant season

Edible Uses: Flowers are eatable.

Medicinal Uses:

Antibacterial; Antirheumatic; Diuretic; Miscellany.

The leafy shoots are tonic and are also believed to alleviate internal injuries by dispelling blood. The root bark is antibacterial, antirheumatic and diuretic. It is used in the treatment of arthritis, backache and a host of other ailments. A medicinal wine made from it is commonly on sale in China. A decoction of the stem bark or the roots is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, aches and pains in the back and legs, open sores on the scrotum, beriberi and traumatic injuries. The plant is aphrodisiac, nutritive and tonic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Eleutherococcus+gracylistylus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleutherococcus_gracilistylus

Aralia mandschurica

Botanical Name : Aralia mandschurica
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Aralia
Species:A. elata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : Manchurian Thorn Tree

Common Name: Manchurian Angelica Tree

Habitat :Aralia mandschurica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Manchuria. It grows in forests on rich well moistened slopes, 900 – 2000 metres in N. Hupeh. Thickets and thin woods in lowland and hills in Japan.
Description:
Aralia mandschurica is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a good deep loam and a position in semi-shade. Requires a sheltered position. Plants are hardier when grown on poorer soils. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[. This plant is very closely related to A. elata and is included in that species by many botanists.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 3 – 5 months of cold stratification. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 4 months at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Once the plants are 25cm or more tall, they can be planted out into their permanent positions, late spring or early summer being the best time to do this. Root cuttings 8cm long, December in a cold frame. Store the roots upside down in sand and pot up in March/April. High percentage. Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Young shoots – cooked. They can also be blanched and used in salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Carminative; Tonic.

Anodyne, carminative. The root, and especially the bark, stimulates the central nervous system. The plant is said to restore the appetite, memory, vigour etc

It is used in Homeopathic medicines.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aralia_elata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aralia+mandschurica

Hedera nepalensis

Botanical Name : Hedera nepalensis
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Hedera
Species: Hedera nepalensis
Varieties: H. n. var. nepalensis – H. n. var. sinensis

Common Names: Himalayan ivy, Nepal Ivy

Habitat :Hedera nepalensis is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows on moist stones and tree stems at elevations of 1600 – 3000 metres in Nepal.
(It is primarily native to forested areas, roadsides and rocky slopes in Nepal and Bhutan but may also be found in Afghanistan, India, China, and Southeast Asia.)

Description:
Hedera nepalensis is an evergreen perennial Climber growing to 15 m (49ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a medium rate with gray-green foliage. It is primarily grown in cultivation as a climbing vine or trailing ground cover. As a vine, it climbs by aerial roots and may, over time, grow upwards to a height of 50-100’ in wild areas, but is more often seen much shorter (10-50’) in cultivated areas. As a ground cover, it typically grows to 6-9″ tall but spreads over time to 50’ or more unless trimmed shorter……CLICK &  SEE  THE  PICTURES
It is in leaf 12-Jan. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, lepidoptera.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.

It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Cultivation:
Ivy is a very easily grown plant that dislikes waterlogged, very dry or very acid soils but otherwise succeeds in all soil types. It grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers some lime in the soil. Tolerates very dense shade, though it may not flower in such a position. This species is not hardy in all parts of Britain, tolerating temperatures down to about -5 to -10°c. Ivy is a rampant climbing plant, clinging by means of aerial roots and often trailing on the ground in woods and hedges. It is of benefit rather than harm when growing on a wall because it keeps the wall dry and acts as an insulation. It does not damage the structure of a wall. Similarly, it does not harm large trees when climbing into them, though it can shade out smaller and ailing trees. It is not a parasitic plant, but instead obtains all its nutrient from the sun and the soil. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – remove the flesh, which inhibits germination, and sow the seed in spring in a cold frame.  Four weeks cold stratification will improve germination. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a shady position in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood, 12cm long, November in a cold frame. Layering. Plants often do this naturally.
Medicinal Uses:
Cathartic; Diaphoretic; Skin; Stimulant.
The leaves and the berries are said to be cathartic, diaphoretic and stimulant. A decoction of the plant is used to treat skin diseases

Known Hazards : Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the following notes are for the closely related Hedera helix and quite possibly are relavent here. The plant is said to be poisonous in large doses although the leaves are eaten with impunity by various mammals without any noticeable harmful affects. The leaves and fruits contain the saponic glycoside hederagenin which, if ingested, can cause breathing difficulties and coma. The sap can cause dermatitis with blistering and inflammation. This is apparently due to the presence of polyacetylene compounds.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=276621&chr=12
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hedera+nepalensis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedera_nepalensis

Kalopanax septemlobus

Botanical Name : Kalopanax septemlobus
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily:Aralioideae
Genus: Kalopanax
Species:K. septemlobus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms: K. pictus. (Thunb.)Nakai. K. ricinifolium. Acanthopanax ricinifolium. Acer pictum. Acer septemlobus

Common Names:Tree Aralia, Castor aralia, Prickly castor oil tree

Habitat :Kalopanax septemlobus is native to E. Asia – China, Japan. It grows in cool deciduous forests from near sea level to elevations of 2500 metres.

Description:
Kalopanax septemlobus is a deciduous Tree growing to 25 m (82ft 0in) at a slow rate with a trunk up to 1–1.5 metres (3.3–4.9 ft) diameter. The stems are often spiny, with stout spines up to 1 centimetre (0.39 in) long. The leaves are alternate, in appearance similar to a large Fatsia or Liquidambar (sweetgum) leaf, 15–35 centimetres (5.9–13.8 in) across, palmately lobed with five or seven lobes, each lobe with a finely toothed margin.

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The leaf lobes vary greatly in shape, from shallow lobes to cut nearly to the leaf base. Trees with deeply lobed leaves were formerly distinguished as K. septemlobus var. maximowiczii, but the variation is continuous and not correlated with geography, so it is no longer regarded as distinct.

The flowers are produced in late summer in large umbels 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in) across at the apex of a stem, each flower with 4-5 small white petals. The fruit is a small black drupe containing 2 seeds.

It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a deep fertile moisture-retentive soil in sun or part shade. Young shoots, especially on young plants, can die back over winter if they are not fully ripened. Young plants are slow-growing. The tree is widely cultivated for timber in China. A polymorphic species.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed probably requires a period of cold stratification and should be sown as soon as possible. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings in late winter

Edible Uses: Young leaves and young shoots – cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
Antifungal; Expectorant; Hepatic; Skin; Stomachic.

The bark contains a range of bio-active constituents, including saponins, flavonoids and lignans. It has antifungal and liver protecting properties. It is used in Korea in the treatment of contusions, beri-beri, lumbago, neuralgia and pleurisy. An infusion of the leaves is used to make a stomachic tea. The root is expectorant. A decoction of the wood is used for skin diseases.

Other Uses:  The tree is cultivated as an ornamental tree for the “tropical” appearance of its large palmate leaves in Europe and North America; despite its tropical looks, it is very hardy, tolerating temperatures down to at least ?40 °C (?40 °F) The bark and the leaves are used as an insecticide. Wood is very useful.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalopanax
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Kalopanax+septemlobus