Prunus persica

Botanical Name: Prunus persica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Amygdalus
Species: P. persica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Amygdalis Persica (Linn.). Persica vulgaris Null.
(Chinese and Japanese) ‘Too’.

Common Name: Peach,Nectarine
Habitat: Prunus persica is native to Northwest China, in the region between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Shan mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
Description:
Prunus persica is a decidous tree. It grows to 4–10 m (13–33 ft) tall and 6 in. in diameter. The leaves are lanceolate, 7–16 cm (2.8–6.3 in) long, 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) broad, pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; they are solitary or paired, 2.5–3 cm diameter, pink, with five petals. The fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, and a skin that is either velvety (peaches) or smooth (nectarines) in different cultivars. The flesh is very delicate and easily bruised in some cultivars, but is fairly firm in some commercial varieties, especially when green. The single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped, approximately 1.3–2 cm long, and is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries, plums and apricots, are stone fruits (drupes). There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer…….CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not; both can have either white or yellow flesh. Peaches with white flesh typically are very sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches typically have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this also varies greatly. Both colours often have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China, Japan, and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have historically favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed kinds
Parts Used: Bark, leaves.

Cultivation:
The soil best suited for the Peach is three parts mellow, unexhausted loam, mixed with vegetable mould or manure. Peaches require a lighter soil than pears or plums.

To perpetuate and multiply the choicer varieties, both the Peach and the newly-allied nectarine are budded upon plums or almond stocks. For dry soil, the almond stocks are preferable; for damp or clayey loam, it is better to use certain kinds of plums.

The fruit is produced on the ripened shoots of the preceding year, and the formation of young shoots in sufficient abundance, and of requisite strength, is the great object of peach training and pruning.

In cold soils and bleak situations, it is considered best to cover the walls upon which the trees are trained with a casing of glass, so that the trees may be under shelter during uncongenial spring weather.

Various kinds of Aphis and the Acarus, or Red Spider, infest the leaves of the Peach.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit; Oil; Oil; Seed.
Edible Uses: Gum; Oil; Oil; Tea.

Fruit – raw, cooked or dried for later use. The fruit is often used in ice creams, pies, jams etc. When fully ripe, the fruits of the best forms are soft and juicy with a rich delicious flavour. The size of fruit varies between cultivars but can be up to 7cm in diameter and contains one large seed. Flowers – raw or cooked. Added to salads or used as a garnish. They can also be brewed into a tea. The distilled flowers yield a white liquid which can be used to impart a flavour resembling the seed. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat if it is too bitter, seed can contain high concentrations of hydrocyanic acid which is highly toxic. A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. Although the report does not mention edibility it can be assumed that it is edible. A gum is obtained from the stem. It can be used for chewing
Medicinal Uses:
Alterative; Antiasthmatic; Antitussive; Astringent; Demulcent; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Haemolytic; Laxative;
Sedative.

Antihalitosis. The leaves are astringent, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, laxative, parasiticide and mildly sedative. They are used internally in the treatment of gastritis, whooping cough, coughs and bronchitis. They also help to relieve vomiting and morning sickness during pregnancy, though the dose must be carefully monitored because of their diuretic action. The dried and powdered leaves have sometimes been used to help heal sores and wounds. The leaves are harvested in June and July then dried for later use. The flowers are diuretic, sedative and vermifuge. They are used internally in the treatment of constipation and oedema. A gum from the stems is alterative, astringent, demulcent and sedative. The seed is antiasthmatic, antitussive, emollient, haemolytic, laxative and sedative. It is used internally in the treatment of constipation in the elderly, coughs, asthma and menstrual disorders. The bark is demulcent, diuretic, expectorant and sedative. It is used internally in the treatment of gastritis, whooping cough, coughs and bronchitis. The root bark is used in the treatment of dropsy and jaundice. The bark is harvested from young trees in the spring and is dried for later use. The seed contains ‘laetrile’, a substance that has also been called vitamin B17. This has been claimed to have a positive effect in the treatment of cancer, but there does not at present seem to be much evidence to support this. The pure substance is almost harmless, but on hydrolysis it yields hydrocyanic acid, a very rapidly acting poison – it should thus be treated with caution. In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.

Other Uses
Adhesive; Cleanser; Dye; Gum; Oil; Oil.

A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit. A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. It is used as a substitute for almond oil in skin creams. The bruised leaves, when rubbed within any container, will remove strong odours such as garlic or cloves so long as any grease has first been fully cleaned off. A gum obtained from the stem is used as an adhesive.

Cultural Significance:
Peaches are not only a popular fruit, but are symbolic in many cultural traditions, such as in art, paintings and folk tales such as Peaches of Immortality.

Peach blossoms are highly prized in Chinese culture. The ancient Chinese believed the peach to possess more vitality than any other tree because their blossoms appear before leaves sprout.

The Chinese also considered peach wood (t’ao-fu) protective against evil spirits, who held the peach in awe. In ancient China, peach-wood bows were used to shoot arrows in every direction in an effort to dispel evil. Peach-wood slips or carved pits served as amulets to protect a person’s life, safety, and health.

Aroma: Some 110 chemical compounds contribute to peach aroma, including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters, polyphenols and terpenoids.
Known Hazards:
The seed can contain high levels of hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is readily detected by its bitter taste. Usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm, any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peach
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/peach-17.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+persica+nucipersica

Sium latifolium

Botanical Name: Sium latifolium
Family:
Apiaceae
Genus:
Sium
Species:
S. latifolium
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonym: Water Hemlock

Common Names: Great water-parsnip, Greater water-parsnip and Wideleaf waterparsnip

Habitat : Sium latifolium occurs in most of Europe, including Britain, excluding the northwest, Portugal, Greece and Turkey. It grows in fens and other wet places, often in water, avoiding acid conditions.

Description:
Sium latifolium is a perennial herb, growing to 2 m (6ft 7in). . It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Beetles, flies, bees.The plant is self-fertile. The long creeping root-stock of this and the somewhat smaller, closely allied species S. angustifolium is poisonous, but pigs and oxen eat the stem and leaves without harm. However, cows in milk should not be allowed to eat it, as it communicates a disagreeable taste to the milk……..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is easily recognized by it’s pinnate leaves, the leaf-stalks carrying about six to eight pairs of ovate, toothed leaflets. The umbels of white flowers are flat and have a general involucre composed of broadish or lance-shaped bracts, and there is also an in volucel. The fruit bears slender ribs. Theerect, furrowed stems are from 3 to 6 feet high.

Cultivation: Prefers a light, rich, moisture retentive soil in full sun[200]. A plant of wet ground and shallow water, it grows best in about 20cm of water.

Propagation: Seed – sow late winter to early spring in a cold frame. The seed can be slow to germinate[200]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if they are large enough. Otherwise, grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in the following spring. Division in early spring just before new growth begins. Use the side roots. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer
Edible Uses: …..Leaves are cooked and eaten.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet found any.

Other Uses: An essential oil is obtained from the seed.

Known Hazards: The entire plant, and especially the root, is poisonous. Firm proof of this is not available.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sium_latifolium
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sium+latifolium
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/parwat13.html

Nymphaea odorata

Botanical Name: Nymphaea odorata
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Genus: Nymphaea
Species: N. odorata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Nymphaeales

Synonyms: Sweet Water Lily. Sweet-scented Water Lily. Water Nymph. Large White Water Lily.

Common Names: American white waterlily, beaver root, fragrant white water lily, fragrant waterlily, white water lily, sweet-scented white water lily, and sweet-scented water lily

Part Used for medicines: The fresh root.
Habitat: Nymphaea odorata commonly be found in shallow lakes, ponds, and permanent slow moving waters throughout North America where it ranges from Central America to northern Canada. It is also reported from Brazil and Guyana.
Description:
Nymphaea odorata is a perennial aquatic herb, grows to the surface of the water from a thick horizontal root-stock, stem absent, flowers growing on long peduncles and the leaves on separate petioles. Stipules deltoid or nearly reniform, emarginate; leaves always floating orbicular, smooth, and shining, dark green above, wine-colour beneath. Flowers large white, showy and fragrant, often 6 inches in diameter; sepals four elliptical scaphoid, nearly free; petals numerous; stamens indefinite; ovary large globular, depressed, eighteen to twenty-four-celled. Fruit a depressed globular, fleshy body; seeds oblong, stipulate. The flowers open as the sun rises, after a few hours gradually closing, being entirely closed during the midday heat and at night.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
This plant is rooted from a branched rhizomes which gives rise to long petioles which terminate in smooth floating leaves. Since the leaves are subject to tearing by water and waves, they are round with a waxy upper coating that is water-repellent. The flowers also float. They are radially symmetric with prominent yellow stamens and many white petals. The flowers open each day and close again each night and are very fragrant. Once the flowers are pollinated, the developing fruit is pulled back under water for maturation.

It is cultivated in aquatic gardens as an ornamental plant. It is invasive and weedy on the west coast of North America.

Edible Uses:
The fragrant water-lily has both medicinal and edible parts. The seeds, leaves, flowers and rhizomes can all be eaten.

Constituents: The roots contain tannin, gallic acid and mucilage, starch, gum, resin, sugar, ammonia, tartaric acid, fecula, etc.

Chemical Compositions: The lignans nymphaeoside A and icariside E, and the flavonols kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin), quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (quercitrin), myricetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside (myricitrin), quercetin 3-O-(6′-O-acetyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-beta-d-galactopyranoside and myricetin 3-O-(6′-O-acetyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside can be found in N. odorata

Medicinal Uses:
The root is astringent, demulcent, anodyne, and antiscrofulous, used in dysentery, diarrhoea,gonorrhoea, and leucorrhoea externally. The leaves and roots have been used in form of poultice to boils, tumours, scrofulous ulcers and inflamed skin; the infusion is used as a gargle for ulcers in the mouth and throat. The rhizomes were also used by first nations to treat coughs and colds. The stem could be used to treat tooth aches if placed directly on the tooth.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lilwhi26.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymphaea_odorata

Lilium candidum

Botanical Name : Lilium candidum
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Lilium
Species: L. candidum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Synonym: White Lily.

Common Name: Madonna lily

Habitat : Lilium candidum is native to Greece, the western Balkans and the Middle East, and naturalized in other parts of Europe (France, Italy, Ukraine, etc.) as well as in North Africa, the Canary Islands, Mexico, and other places.It grows on rocky slopes and in scrub to 600 metres.
Description:
Lilium candidum is a BULB . It produces stiff, erect stems, 3 to 5 feet high, clothed with lance-shaped leaves. It is in leaf 7-Oct.
The flowers appear in June, flowering into July, and have a strong, sweet, penetrating perfume, so powerful as to be even annoying to some people. The honey is secreted in long grooves at the base of the white, floral leaves. The seeds ripen from Aug to September.There are several varieties, that with black stems, var. peregrinum, being the best for the garden.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers an open free-draining humus-rich fertile loamy soil with its roots in the shade and its head in the sun. Prefers a sunny position but also succeeds in shade. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. Grows well in acid and limy soils, though it prefers a limey soil. A very ornamental plant. It is seen as a symbol of purity and in Christian tradition is devoted to the Virgin Mary, in pre-Christian times it was sacred to Juno, the Goddess of heaven. The flowers have a scent of heather honey. The Madonna lily is generally very hardy and easy to grow but it is unpredictable and does not grow or flower well in all gardens. It is also susceptible to botrytis. Only just cover the bulb with soil. It is best to leave the clumps undisturbed since they resent being moved, but if you need to transplant then this is best done in late August to early September, certainly no later than mid-October. Plants produce a basal rosette of over-wintering leaves in the autumn, these die off as the plant comes into flower. The plant should be protected against rabbits and slugs in early spring. If the shoot tip is eaten out the bulb will not grow in that year and will lose vigour.

Propagation:
Seed – immediate epigeal germination. Sow thinly in pots from late winter to early spring in a cold frame. Should germinate in 2 – 4 weeks. Great care should be taken in pricking out the young seedlings, many people prefer to leave them in the seed pot until they die down at the end of their second years growth. This necessitates sowing the seed thinly and using a reasonably fertile sowing medium. The plants will also require regular feeding when in growth. Divide the young bulbs when they are dormant, putting 2 – 3 in each pot, and grow them on for at least another year before planting them out into their permanent positions when the plants are dormant. Division with care in the autumn once the leaves have died down. Replant immediately. Bulb scales can be removed from the bulbs in early autumn. If they are kept in a warm dark place in a bag of moist peat, they will produce bulblets. These bulblets can be potted up and grown on in the greenhouse until they are large enough to plant out. Bulblets are formed on the stem just below the soil surface. These should be dug up in the autumn and replanted immediately, preferably in a cold frame for growing on until large enough to plant out into the garden. The formation of bulbils on the stem can be induced by either removing the stem at flowering time and layering it just below the soil surface, or by removing all the flowers before they open
Part Used: The bulb.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Root.

Bulb cooked. The raw bulb contains an acrid principle, but this is destroyed by drying or thorough heating. When cooked the bulb is pulpy, sweet and sugary. Rich in starch, it can be used as a vegetable in similar ways to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum).
Medicinal Uses:
Astringent; Demulcent; Emmenagogue; Emollient; Expectorant.

The Madonna lily has a long history of herbal use, though it is seldom employed in modern herbalism because of its scarcity. The bulb and the flowers are astringent, highly demulcent, emmenagogue, emollient and expectorant. The plant is mainly used externally, being applied as a poultice to tumours, ulcers, external inflammations etc. The bulb is harvested in August and can be used fresh or dried. The flowers are harvested when fully open and used fresh for making juice, ointments or tinctures. The pollen has been used in the treatment of epilepsy.

Other Uses: An essential oil from the flowers is used in perfumery.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lilium_candidum
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lilmad24.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Lilium+candidum

Fritillaria imperialis

Botanical Name : Fritillaria imperialis
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Species: F. imperialis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Common Names: Crown imperial, Imperial fritillary or Kaiser’s crown. The common names and also the epithet “imperialis,” literally “of the emperor,” refer to the large circle of golden flowers, reminiscent of an emperor’s crown.

Habitat: Fritillaria imperialis is native to a wide stretch from Anatolia and Iraq across the plateau of Iran to Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Himalayan foothills. It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental and reportedly naturalized in Austria, Sicily, and Washington State.

Description:
Fritillaria Imperialis is a species of flowering plant with very sturdy stem. It grows to about 1 m (3 ft) in height, and bears lance-shaped, glossy leaves at intervals along the stem. It bears lance-shaped, glossy leaves at intervals along the stem. At the top of the stem, the downward facing flowers are topped with a ‘crown’ of small leaves, hence the name. While the wild form is usually orange-red, various colours are found in cultivation, ranging from nearly a true scarlet through oranges to yellow. The pendulous flowers make a bold statement in the late spring garden; in the northern hemisphere, flowering takes place in late spring, accompanied by a distinctly foxy odour that repels mice, moles and other small animals. (Flowers: Fresh….The flowers smell of wet fur and garlic.)...CLICK &  SEE THE  PICTURES

Due to the way that the bulb is formed, with the stem emerging from a depression, it is best to plant it on its side, to prevent water causing rot at the top of the bulb.

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a moderately fertile soil. Prefers a heavy soil without any disturbance, not even hoeing. Requires a well-drained soil and a sunny position or the shade of deciduous trees or shrubs. Succeeds in drier soils and is drought tolerant once established. Plants succeed in most fertile soils, avoiding pure chalk, heavy clay and boggy sites. The dormant bulbs are very hardy and will withstand soil temperatures down to at least -10°c. A very ornamental plant, there are some named varieties. The flowers smell of wet fur and garlic. Bulbs should be planted 10 – 12 cm deep in July on their side with sharp sand beneath them to ensure that they do not rot.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.
Edible Uses: Root & bulb is cooked & eaten.A minor source of starch. Some caution is advised since there are reports of toxicity.
Medicinal Uses:
Diuretic; Emollient; Galactogogue; Resolvent.
The bulb is diuretic, emollient and resolvent
It is also a cardiac poison. It has been used as an expectorant and also to encourage increased breast milk production. The fresh plant contains the toxic alkaloid ‘imperialine’.
Known Hazards: The bulb is poisonous raw, it contains low concentrations of a toxic alkaloid.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://plants.for9.net/edible-and-medicinal-plants/fritillaria-imperialis/
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lilcro22.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria_imperialis

Senecio viscosus

CBotanical Name: Senecio viscosus
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Senecio
Species: S. viscosus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonym: Stinking Groundsel.

Common Name: Sticky Groundsel, Sticky ragwort

Habitat : Senecio viscosus occurs in Europe, including Britain, south and east from Scandanavia to Spain and W. Asia. It grows on dry banks of ditches, dry waste ground, railway banks and tracks, sea shores.

Description:
Senecio viscosus is an annual herb, growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in). It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

Leaf type:leaves are simple (lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaf arrangement: alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
Leaf blade edges: the edge of the leaf blade has lobes, or it has both teeth and lobes
the edge of the leaf blade has teeth
Flower type in flower heads : the flower head has ray flowers only, meaning all of the individual flowers of the flower head have a strap-shaped ray, which may or may not have teeth at the very tip of the ray
Ray flower color: orange, yellow
Tuft or plume on fruit: at least a part of the plume is made up of fine bristles
Spines on plant: the plant has no spines
Leaf blade length: 200–700 mm
Flower head width: 7–15 mm

Propagation : Seed – sow spring in situ.

Medicinal Uses:
Carminative; Emetic.

The leaves are carminative and emetic

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous to many mammals, including humans. The toxin affects the liver and has a cumulative affect[9, 65]. Some mammals, such as rabbits, do not seem to be harmed by the plant, and will often seek it out[4]. Various birds also eat the leaves and seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senecio_viscosus
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/senecio/viscosus/
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Senecio+viscosus

Senecio sylvaticus

Botanical Name: Senecio sylvaticus
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Senecioneae
Genus: Senecio
Species: S. sylvaticus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name: Woodland ragwort, Heath groundsel, or Mountain groundsel

Habitat : Senecio sylvaticus is native to Eurasia, and it can be found in other places, including western and eastern sections of North America. It grows in open vegetation on non-calcareous sandy or gravelly soils, dry heaths and commons.

Description:
Senecio sylvaticus is an annual herb producing a single erect stem up to 80 centimeters tall from a taproot. It is coated in short, curly hairs. The toothed, deeply lobed leaves are up to 12 centimeters long and borne on petioles. They are evenly distributed along the stem. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The inflorescence is a wide, spreading array of many flower heads, each lined with green- or black-tipped phyllaries. The heads contain yellow disc florets and most have very tiny yellow ray florets as well. The plant has an unpleasant odour....CLICK  &  SEE THE PICTURES

Propagation:     Seed – sow spring in situ.

Medicinal Uses:
Antiscorbutic; Detergent.

The plant is detergent and antiscorbutic.

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous to many mammals, including humans. The toxin affects the liver and has a cumulative affect[9, 65]. Some mammals, such as rabbits, do not seem to be harmed by the plant, and will often seek it out[4]. Various birds also eat the leaves and seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senecio_sylvaticus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Senecio+sylvaticus

Senecio erucifolius

Botanical Name : Senecio erucifolius
Family:Asteraceae or Compositae
Tribe: Senecioneae
Genus: Jacobaea
Species: J. erucifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Syn: Jacobaea erucifolia

Common Names: Hoary Groundsel, Hoary ragwort

Habitat: Senecio erucifolius occurs in Central and southern Europe, including Britain, north to Denmark and Lithuania, east to W. Asia. It grows in dry banks, field borders, grassy slopes and roadsides, in limestone and chalky districts and especially on heavy soils.
Description:
Senecio erucifolius is a perennial herb, growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in).Medium to tall, grey downy plant, with a shortly creeping stock bearing terminal leaf rosettes. Stems erect, branched above the middle. Leaves pinnately lobed, the lower stalked and usually present at flowering time. Upper leaves with narrower lobes; all leaves with somewhat down rolled margins and woolly, especially beneath. Flowerheads bright yellow 12 to 15 mm with 12 to 15 rays, borne in a narrow flat topped cluster.It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on the cultivation needs of this plant but, judging by its native habitats, it is likely to require a sunny position and to succeed in most moderate to heavy soils, including those of an alkaline nature.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. Division in spring
Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Antiscorbutic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Poultice; Purgative.

The plant is used in plasters, ointments and poultices. This species is related to groundsel, S. vulgaris, and is said to have similar properties. These are:- The whole herb is anthelmintic, antiscorbutic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue and purgative. It is often used as a poultice and is said to be useful in treating sickness of the stomach, whilst a weak infusion is used as a simple and easy purgative. The plant can be harvested in May and dried for later use, or the fresh juice can be extracted and used as required. Use with caution, see notes above on toxicity.

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous to many mammals, including humans. The toxin affects the liver and has a cumulative affect. Some mammals, such as rabbits, do not seem to be harmed by the plant, and will often seek it out. Various birds also eat the leaves and seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobaea_erucifolia
http://www.naturespot.org.uk/species/hoary-ragwort
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Senecio+erucifolius

 

Gnaphalium Arenarium

 

Botanical Name: Gnaphalium Arenarium
Family:
Compositae/Asteraceae
Kingdom:
Plantae
Genus:
Helichrysum
Species:
Helicrysum arenarium
Class
: Dicotyledones

Synonym : Stoechados citricum (inflorescences Hel. Arenarium – are used in a scientific compounding).

Common Name: Everlasting Flower

Habitat: Gnaphalium Arenarium occurs in Mongolia, Russia; Europe & Japan.
It grows mainly on sandy soils, on dry wood glades, coppices, hills, on mezhah and deposits, sandy and stony slopes. It is extended everywhere.

Description:
Gnaphalium Arenarium is a perennial herb.It is a Long-term grassy plant in height 10 – 30 see the Stalk of this plant sherstisto-felt, as well as all plant, single (and if it is some of them the secondary do not fructify), grows from a rhizome – idle time, direct or ascending. The Rhizome woody, more often thick, 5-7(-15) mm in diam., or much thinner, only 1-4 mm in diam.

Leaves radical – prodolgovato-obratnojajtsevidnye, tupovatye, top – linearly-lantsetnye, sharp. Flowers citreous, sometimes orange, happen brick colour, are collected in spherical small baskets. Blossoms from June till October. A smell, plants, original.

Capitula (5-)10-30(-100) arranged in compact or slightly branching loose corymb, subspherical or widely obovate, (3-)4-6(-9) mm in diam., on peduncles of indefinite length; in young state corymbs capitate, usually surrounded by a few terminal leaves. Phyllaries ca. 50, slightly loosely arranged in (3 or)4-6(or 7) rows, often with declined tip at end of anthesis, bright lemon-yellow, more pallid yellow, pinkish, or orange; outer ones obovate or elliptic, abaxially densely villous, apex rounded; inner ones widely oblong-spatulate to sublinear.

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Inflorescences-baskets, usually in first two weeks of flowering Gather. It is necessary to dry longer as touch of dryness is deceptive, and nedosushennye inflorescences if are still stored compressed, zaprevajut and spoil.

It is applied in the people as zhelchegonnoe, glistogonnoe, disinfecting bilious channels and mochetochniki, krovoostanavlivajushchee.

Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained, sunny sheltered position. Often cultivated for its flowers which are extensively used as a decoration and in wreaths etc. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow February/March in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 3 weeks at 20°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts

Medicinal Uses:
Cholagogue; Diuretic; Homeopathy; Skin; Stomachic.

The fresh or dried flowers, or the entire flowering herb, are cholagogue, diuretic, skin and stomachic. An infusion is used in the treatment of gall bladder disorders and as a diuretic in treating rheumatism, cystitis etc. A homeopathic remedy is made from the flowering plant. It is used in the treatment of gall bladder disorders and lumbago.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.gbif.org/species/111436439
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200024007
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Helichrysum+arenarium
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/gnapha21.html

Lactuca serriola

Botanical Name: Lactuca serriola
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. serriola
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name: Common Name: Prickly Lettuce. milk thistle (not to be confused with Silybum marianum, also called milk thistle) compass plant, and scarole
Habitat :Lactuca serriola is native to Europe, Asia, and north Africa, and has become naturalized elsewhere. It grows in waste places, walls, occasionally on more or less stable dunes.

Description:
Lactuca serriola is an annual or binnial plant. It has a spineless reddish stem, containing a milky latex, growing from 30 to 200 cm. The leaves get progressively smaller as they reach its top. They are oblong lanceolate, often pinnate and (especially for the lower leaves), waxy grey green. Fine spines are present along the veins and leaf edges. The undersides have whitish veins. They emit latex when cut. The flower heads are 11 to 13mm wide, are pale yellow, often tinged purple. The bracts are also often tinged purple. It flowers from July until September. The achenes are grey, tipped with bristles. The pappus is white with equal length hairs….CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

Cultivation: Prefers a light sandy loam in a sunny position. The wild lettuce is cultivated for the oil in its seed in Egypt. A compass plant, the top leaves align north-south.

Propagation:..…Seed – sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.

Edible Uses: Young leaves are eaten raw as salad or cooked. A bitter flavour. The young tender leaves are mild and make an excellent salad, but the whole plant becomes bitter as it gets older, especially when coming into flower. As a potherb it needs very little cooking. Large quantities can cause digestive upsets. Young shoots – cooked. Used as an asparagus substitute. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The oil must be refined before it is edible. A pleasant flavour.

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Antipyretic; Diuretic; Homeopathy; Hypnotic; Narcotic; Sedative.

The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains ‘lactucarium‘, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. This species does not contain as much lactucarium as L. virosa. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. The fixed oil from the seeds is said to possess antipyretic and hypnotic properties. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the treatment of chronic catarrh, coughs, swollen liver, flatulence and ailments of the urinary tract.
Other Uses: The seed contains 35.2% of a semi-drying oil. It is used in soap making, paints, varnishes etc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca_serriola
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+serriola