Rhododendron molle

Botanical Name : Rhododendron molle
Family : Ericaceae
Genus :
Rhododendron
Synonyms: Azalea mollis – Blume.,Azalea sinensis – Lodd.,Rhododendron sinense – (Lodd.)Sw.
Common Name: Chinese Azalea ,

Habitat :   Rhododendron molle     is  native to  E. Asia – China.  Grows amongst coarse grasses and shrubs, also in thin pine woods.Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;

It grows in pinus forests, thickets on mountain slopes, exposed grassy hillsides, ridges; near sea level to 2500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.

Description:

Rhododendron molle  is a  decidious  Shrubs, 0.5–2 m tall; branches densely gray-white-pubescent, also sparsely setose when young. Petiole 2–6 mm, puberulent and ± setose; leaf blade papery, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 5–11 × 1.5–3.5 cm; base cuneate; margin ciliate; apex obtuse and mucronate; abaxial surface densely gray-white-pubescent, yellow-brown setose along midrib; adaxial surface sparsely to densely puberulent when young. Inflorescence terminal, racemose-umbellate: flowers opening before or with the leaves; many-flowered. Pedicel 1–2.5 cm, pubescent and sparsely setose; calyx lobes small, rounded, pubescent and setose-ciliate; corolla broadly funnelform, yellow or golden yellow, with dark red flecks on lobes, ca. 4.5 × 5–6 cm; tube cylindric, tapering towards base, ca. 26 mm wide, outer surface puberulent; lobes 5, elliptic or ovate-oblong, ca. 2.8 cm, puberulent on outer surface; stamens 5, unequal; filaments flat, puberulent below; ovary conical, ca. 4 mm, densely gray-white-pubescent, also sparsely setose; style to 6 cm, glabrous. Capsule conical-cylindric, 5-ribbed, 25–35 mm, puberulent and sparsely setose. Fl. Mar–May, fr. Jul–Aug.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES..>………..(01)..……..(1)....(2).(3)…(4)..…...(5)...(6)..…..(7).

It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid soils and can grow in very acid soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It requires moist soil.


Cultivation :

Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam[1]. Succeeds in sun or shade, though it prefers a shady position. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal[1]. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. A very ornamental plant, it is the parent of many cultivars. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:

Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult

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Medicinal Actions & Uses
Anaesthetic; Analgesic; Sedative.

The flowers are analgesic, anaesthetic and sedative. They are applied externally in the treatment of arthritis, caries, itch, maggots and traumatic injuries.  The root is used in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism and traumatic injuries.

Other Uses

Insecticide.

The powdered flowers have a mild insecticidal effect.

.

Cultivars
There are some named forms for this species, but these have been developed for their ornamental value and not for their other uses. Unless you particularly require the special characteristics of any of these cultivars, we would generally recommend that you grow the natural species for its useful properties. We have, therefore, not listed the cultivars in this database

Known Hazards: The plant is very toxic. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Rhododendron+molle
http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/BCP/Rhododendron_molle
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200016492

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Vitamin K May Protect You From Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Individuals who are worried that they may be at risk for developing Non-Hogkin lymphoma may want to consider ingesting more vitamin K supplements, as a new study is suggesting that the medication may lower the risk of developing the disease.

According to researchers from the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, patients who had a higher daily intake of vitamin K had a dramatically lower risk of developing Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which affects the immune system and is the most common hematologic malignancy in the U.S.

“These results are provocative, since they are the first work we have done on the connection between vitamin K and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and this is a fairly strong protective effect,” said the study’s lead investigator, Dr. James Cerhan.

Individuals can ensure that they are getting a healthy dietary intake of vitamin K by eating leaf lettuce, spinach, vegetable oils and fruits. However, the researchers point out that one of the most common ways to incorporate the vitamin is to take nutritional supplements

You may click to see :->Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in blood clotting.

Source: Better Health Research. April 22nd. 2010

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Sago Cycad (Cycas revoluta)

Botanical Name : Cycas revoluta
Family: Cycadaceae
Genus: Cycas
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Cycadophyta
Class: Cycadopsida
Order: Cycadales
Species: C. revoluta

Habitat : E. Asia – China, Japan. Found mainly on the sea shore in S. Japan. Thickets on hillsides on islands, sparse forests on mainland at elevations of 100 – 500 metres in Fujian, China

Description:
Cycas revoluta (sago cycad), is an attractive plant native to southern Japan. Though often known by the common name of king sago palm, or just sago palm, it is not a palm at all, but a cycad.

click & see the pictures.
This very symmetrical plant supports a crown of shiny, dark green leaves on a thick shaggy trunk that is typically about 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter, sometimes wider. The trunk is very low to subterranean in young plants, but lengthens above ground with age. It can grow into very old specimens with 6–7 m (over 20 feet) of trunk; however, the plant is very slow-growing and requires about 50–100 years to achieve this height. Trunks can branch multiple times, thus producing multiple heads of leaves.

The leaves are a deep semiglossy green and about 50–150 cm (20–59 in) long when the plants are of a reproductive age. They grow out into a feather-like rosette to 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter. The crowded, stiff, narrow leaflets are 8–18 cm (3.1–7.1 in) long and have strongly recurved or revolute edges. The basal leaflets become more like spines. The petiole or stems of the Sago Cycad are 6–10 cm (2.4–3.9 in) long and have small protective barbs that must be avoided.

Cultivation :
Requires a strong loam with sharp sand and good drainage. Succeeds in dry soils. Requires a sunny position. Although it is the hardiest cycad, this species is not fully hardy in Britain but can tolerate occasional lows to about -5°c so long as the crown is protected and so is worthwhile trying outdoors in a sheltered position in the mildest areas of the country. Alternatively, it can be given greenhouse or conservatory protection over the winter and be placed outdoors in the summer. Plants are very slow growing. This plant is often used as a food source in its native range but recent research has shown that it can cause chronic nervous disorders if it is not treated properly. Overall its use is not to be recommended, especially since it is becoming rare in the wild. The plants produce special upward growing roots where nitrogen is produced in symbiosis with algae. Dioecious, male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Cycas revoluta is one of the most widely cultivated cycads, grown outdoors in warm temperate and subtropical regions, or under glass in colder areas. It grows best in sandy, well-drained soil, preferably with some organic matter. It needs good drainage or it will rot. It is fairly drought-tolerant and grows well in full sun or outdoor shade, but needs bright light when grown indoors. The leaves can bleach somewhat if moved from indoors to full sun outdoors.

Propagation:
Cycas revoluta is either by seed or by removal of basal offsets. As with other cycads, it is dioecious, with the males bearing cones and the females bearing groups of megasporophylls. Pollination can be done naturally by insects or artificially.

Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe, 2cm deep in individual pots which are then sealed in plastic bags to keep them moist until germination takes place. Germinates in 1 – 3 months at 25°c. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours in warm water then treat as above. Division of suckers in the spring.

Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Seed; Stem.
Seed – raw or cooked. They can be dried and ground into a powder then mixed with brown rice and fermented into ‘date miso’ or ‘sotetsu miso’. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. The heart or pith of the trunk is sliced and eaten baked or powdered. A toxic principal must first be removed. A starch can be extracted from this pith and is used for making dumplings. It is very sustaining.

You may click see : How  Sago  starch is extracted from the pith of sago palm stems and make edible.

Medicinal Actions & Uses

Astringent; Cancer; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Expectorant; Tonic.

The leaves are used in the treatment of cancer and hepatoma. The terminal shoot is astringent and diuretic. The seed is emmenagogue, expectorant and tonic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism. Substances extracted from the seeds are used to inhibit the growth of malignant tumours.

Other Uses:
Of all the cycads, the Sago Palm is the most popular in horticulture. It is seen in almost all botanical gardens, in both temperate and tropical locations. In many areas of the world, it is heavily promoted commercially as a landscape plant. It is also quite popular as a bonsai plant. First described in the late 1700s, it is native to various areas of southern Japan and is thus tolerant of mild to somewhat cold temperatures, provided the ground is dry. Frond damage can occur at temperatures below -10 °C or 15 degrees F and there are several healthy plants that have been grown with little protection as far north as Nashville Tennessee and Newport News Virginia, both are in zone 7b… The cycad revoluta usually defoliates in this temperate climate, but it usually will flush (or grow) several new leaves by April. It does however require hot summers with mean temperatures of 30 to 35 °C (86 to 95 F) for successful growth, making outdoor growing impossible in colder places such as northern Europe or the Northeast US, even where winter temperatures are not too cold. One disadvantage of its domestic use is that it is poisonous to animals and humans. One skin breaking scrape can lead to a hospital visit.

Known Hazards :  The plants contain alkaloids of carcinogens and also an amino-acid that causes chronic nervous disorders. Regular consumption of the plant leads to severe health problems and death. This toxic principle can be removed if the food is properly prepared but consumption of the plant still cannot be recommended because its use often means the death of the plant and it is becoming rare in the wild.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Cycas+revoluta
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycas_revoluta

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Great Masterwort(Astrantia major )

Botnical Name : Astrantia major
Family : Umbelliferae/Apiaceae
Genus : Astrantia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales
Species: A. major

Synonyms : Astrantia biebersteinii – Trautv.  Astrantia carinthiaca – Hoppe. ex Mart.&Koch.,  Astrantia carniolica – Hort. non Wulfen.,Astrantia trifida – Hoffm.Great_Masterwort

Common Name: Great Masterwort(

Habitat : C. and E. Europe. Naturalized in Britain.  Moist woodlands and the banks of streams. It grows on  Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge.

Description:
Perennial growing to 0.8m by 0.5m.
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Beetles, insects. The plant is self-fertile.

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Masterwort produces many small, ivory flowers that are flushed pink and bloom continuously throughout the summer and fall, wafting a sweet scent. Like Queen Anne’s lace, each masterwort blossom is an umbel of tiny flowers, framed by a collar of papery bracts.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a fertile moisture-retentive soil. Succeeds in most well-drained soils in full sun or part shade. Succeeds in an open woodland and along the sides of streams so long as the soil is well above the water level. Plants are hardy to at least -17°c. Plants spread by means of underground runners. There are some named varieties, selected for their ornamental value. The flowers are sometimes dried and used for winter decoration.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed as early in the year as you can obtain it. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. If you have sufficient seed then it can be sown in situ either as soon as it is ripe or in the following spring. Division in spring. Large clumps can be planted out straight into their permanent positions. Smaller clumps are best potted up and kept in a cold frame until they are growing away well and can then be planted out in the summer.

Cultivars
There are some named forms for this species, but these have been developed for their ornamental value and not for their other uses. Unless you particularly require the special characteristics of any of these cultivars, we would generally recommend that you grow the natural species for its useful properties. We have, therefore, not listed the cultivars in this database

Medicinal Actions &  Uses:

Diuretic; Purgative.
The rhizomes and flowering stems have medicinal action.  Their main constituent is an essential oil that acts as a stomachic.  In herbal medicine the dried herb is used in an infusion or as a powder to promote the flow of digestive juices and thus stimulate the appetite.  Great masterwort is also included in diuretic tea mixtures.  A decoction of the root is purgative.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Astrantia+major
http://www.finegardening.com/plantguide/astrantia-major-masterwort.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Masterwort
http://www.heronswood.com/perennials_perennials-a_astrantia/astrantia-major-sunningdale-variegated/

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

 

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High Sugar Intake Greater Risk For Heart Disease

Individuals should watch their daily sugar intake as a new study suggests that high amounts of added sugars can increase the risk of heart disease.
CLICK & SEE 
According to findings published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, consuming added sugars from processed or prepared foods is related to lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), otherwise known as the good cholesterol.

Researchers point out that American citizens have a tendency to consume high amounts of processed foods, and their sugar levels have increased dramatically in recent years due to their new diets.

The scientists observed 6,113 patients and found that the higher sugar levels they had in their system, the more likely they were to have more heart disease risk factors.

“Monitoring trends in consumption and understanding the effect added sugars have on risk of cardiovascular and other diseases is critically important, because added sugars are a potentially modifiable source of calories,” the authors write.

Individuals can take nutritional supplements such as fiber in order to lower their cholesterol.

Source: Better Health Research. April 23. 2010

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Possible New Test For Colon Cancer

While there are certain tests that can identify a patient’s risk of colon cancer, researchers believe that they are developing a new urine test that could possibly detect the disease without the need for a colonoscopy.

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According to a new study published in ACS’ Journal of Proteome Research, scientists believe they are getting closer to developing a urine test for colon cancer, which is the third most common cancer in the U.S.

The researchers are hopeful that these new findings will one day offer alternative testing for colon cancer, negating the need for an invasive colonoscopy. Scientists analyzed the urine of 123 patients, 60 of which who had colon cancer, and 63 without.

Scientists were able to identify 16 substances in the urine that indicated the patient had colon cancer. It was noted that these changes included increased levels of tryptophan, which is one of 22 amino acids that are typically found in proteins.

Source: Better Health Research. April 22nd. 2010

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Lymphoma

Definition:
The most common type of lymphoma is called Hodgkin’s disease. All other lymphomas are grouped together and are called non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas...CLICK & SEE

The lymphatic system is part of the body’s immune defense system. Its job is to help fight diseases and infection.

The lymphatic system includes a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. Lymphatic vessels carry lymph, a colorless watery fluid that contains infection-fighting cells called lymphocytes. Along this network of vessels are groups of small, bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes. Clusters of lymph nodes are found in the underarms, groin, neck, chest, and abdomen.

Other parts of the lymphatic system are the spleen, thymus, tonsils, and bone marrow. Lymphatic tissue also is found in other parts of the body, including the stomach, intestines, and skin.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also called non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is cancer that originates in your lymphatic system, the disease-fighting network spread throughout your body. In non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, tumors develop from lymphocytes — a type of white blood cell.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is more common than the other general type of lymphoma — Hodgkin’s disease.

Many different subtypes of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma exist. The most common non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma subtypes include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma.

Within normal lymph nodes there are microscopic clusters (follicles) of specialized lymphocytes. In some malignant lymphomas, the lymphocytes arrange themselves in a similar pattern that is called follicular or nodular. Small cell and follicular lymphomas typically have a chronic course with an average survival of 6 to 12 years. In the more aggressive lymphomas, the normal appearance of the lymph node is lost by diffuse involvement of tumor cells, which are usually moderate-sized or large.

Hodgkin’s disease, the most common lymphoma, has special characteristics that distinguish it from the others. Often it is identified by the presence of a unique cell, called the Reed-Sternberg cell, in lymphatic tissue that has been surgically removed for biopsy.

Hodgkin’s disease tends to follow a more predictable pattern of spread, and its spread is generally more limited than that of the non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. By contrast, the non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are more likely to begin in extranodal sites (organs other than the lymph nodes, like the liver and bones).

There are about ten different types of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Some types spread more quickly than others. The type is determined by how the cells look under a microscope (histology). The histologies are grouped together, based on how quickly they spread, into low-grade, intermediate-grade, or high-grade lymphomas.

Symptoms :
The most common symptom of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas is a painless swelling in the lymph nodes of the neck, underarm, or groin. Other symptoms may include fevers, night sweats, tiredness, weight loss, itching, and reddened patches on the skin. Sometimes there is nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.

Symptoms of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma may include:

*Swollen lymph nodes in your neck, armpit or groin
*Abdominal pain or swelling
*Chest pain, coughing or trouble breathing
*Fatigue
*Fever
*Night sweats
*Weight loss

As lymphomas progress, the body is less able to fight infection. These symptoms are not sure signs of cancer, however. They also may be caused by many common illnesses, such as the flu or other infections. But it is important to see a doctor if any of these symptoms lasts longer than 2 weeks.

Causes:
The cause of most lymphoma is unknown. Some occur in individuals taking drugs to suppress their immune system.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma occurs when your body produces too many abnormal lymphocytes — a type of white blood cell.
Normally, lymphocytes go through a predictable life cycle. Old lymphocytes die, and your body creates new ones to replace them. In non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, your lymphocytes don’t die, but continue to grow and divide. This oversupply of lymphocytes crowds into your lymph nodes, causing them to swell.

B cells and T cells

There are two types of lymphocytes, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma usually involves one or the other.

*B cells. B cells fight infection by producing antibodies that neutralize foreign invaders. Most non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma arises from B cells.

*T cells.
T cells are involved in killing foreign invaders directly. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma occurs less often in T cells.
Whether your non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma arises from your B cells or T cells helps to determine your treatment options.

Risk factors:
In most cases, people diagnosed with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma don’t have any obvious risk factors, and many people who have risk factors for the disease never develop it. Some factors that may increase the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma include:

*Medications that suppress your immune system. If you’ve had an organ transplant, you’re more susceptible because immunosuppressive therapy has reduced your body’s ability to fight off new illnesses.

*Infection with certain viruses and bacteria
. Certain viral and bacterial infections appear to increase the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Viruses linked to increased non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma risk include HIV, hepatitis C virus and Epstein-Barr virus. Bacteria linked to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma include the ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori.

*Chemicals.
Certain chemicals, such as those used to kill insects and weeds, may increase your risk of developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. More research is needed to understand the possible link between pesticides and the development of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

*Older age.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can occur at any age, but the risk increases with age. It’s most common in people in their 60s or older.

Diagnosis:

Tests and procedures used to diagnose non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma include:

*Physical examination. Your doctor may conduct a physical exam to determine the size and condition of your lymph nodes and to find out whether your liver and spleen are enlarged.

*Blood and urine tests. Swollen lymph nodes are common and most often signal that your body is fighting an infection. Blood and urine tests may help rule out an infection or other disease.

*Imaging tests. An X-ray or computerized tomography (CT) scan of your chest, neck, abdomen and pelvis may detect the presence and size of tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can help your doctor determine whether your brain and spinal cord are affected. Doctors also use positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to detect non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Imaging tests can help determine the stage of your lymphoma.

*Removing a sample of lymph node tissue for testing.
Your doctor may recommend a biopsy procedure to sample or remove a lymph node for testing. Analyzing lymph node tissue in a laboratory may reveal whether you have non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and, if so, which type.

*Looking for cancer cells in your bone marrow.
To find out whether the disease has spread, your doctor may request a biopsy of your bone marrow. This involves inserting a needle into your pelvic bone to obtain a sample of bone marrow.

Determining your type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
:-
Doctors classify non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma into many different types. Several methods for classifying types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma exist. Each method uses different combinations of factors, including:

*Whether your cancer involves B cells or T cells

*How the cells appear when examined using a microscope

*Specific genetic changes within the cancer cells

*Which antigens are present on the surface of the cancer cells

Doctors also assign a stage (I through IV) to the disease, based on the number of tumors and how widely the tumors have spread.

Treatment:
Treatment isn’t always necessary
If your lymphoma appears to be slow growing (indolent), a wait-and-see approach may be an option. Indolent lymphomas that don’t cause signs and symptoms may not require treatment for years.

Delaying treatment doesn’t mean you’ll be on your own. Your doctor will likely schedule regular checkups every few months to monitor your condition and ensure that your cancer isn’t advancing.

Treatment for lymphoma that causes signs and symptoms
If your non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is aggressive or causes signs and symptoms, your doctor may recommend treatment.

Treatment planning takes into account the type of lymphoma, the stage of disease, whether it is likely to grow slowly or rapidly, and the general health and age of the patient. Common treatment options for several types are as follows:

Low Grade

Low-grade lymphomas include small lymphocytic, follicular small cleaved, and follicular mixed cell. For low-grade lymphomas, which usually grow very slowly and cause few symptoms, the doctor may wait until the disease shows signs of spreading before starting treatment.

Although low-grade lymphomas grow slowly and respond readily to chemotherapy, they almost invariably return and are generally regarded as incurable. The long-term outcome has not been favorably affected by the use of intermediate chemotherapy. Single agent or combination chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be required when the disease progresses or begins to cause symptoms.

Intermediate and High Grades
Intermediate grade includes follicular large cell, diffuse small cleaved, diffuse mixed cell, and diffuse large cell. The chance of recovery and choice of treatment depend on the stage of the cancer, age, and overall condition. Whatever the origin, the features that best predict the prognosis and guide decisions about therapy are the size, shape and pattern of the lymphocytes as seen microscopically.

Intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas are curable. Treatment for intermediate- or high-grade lymphomas usually involves chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy. In addition, surgery may be needed to remove a large tumor.

Combination chemotherapy is almost always necessary for successful treatment. Chemotherapy alone, or abbreviated chemotherapy and radiation, cure 70 to 80 percent of patients with limited   intermediate-grade lymphoma. Advanced  disease can be eradicated in about 50 percent of patients.

Hodgkin’s Disease
The usual treatment for most patients with early stage Hodgkin’s disease is high-energy radiation of the lymph nodes. Research has shown that radiation therapy to large areas at high doses (3,500 to 4,500 rads) is more effective in preventing relapse than radiation of the diseased nodes alone.

Combination chemotherapy also is effective in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin’s disease. In addition, chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for advanced (stages III and IV) Hodgkin’s disease and for patients who have relapsed after radiotherapy. Drugs and radiation are sometimes given together, mainly in treating patients with tumors in the chest or abdomen.

Coping and support:
A diagnosis of cancer can be overwhelming. With time you’ll find ways to cope with the distress and uncertainty of cancer. Until then, you may find it helps to:

*Learn everything you want to know about your cancer
. Find out everything you need to know about your cancer in order to help you make treatment decisions. Ask your doctor for the type and stage of your cancer, as well as your treatment options and their side effects. Ask your doctor where you can go for more information. Good places to start include the National Cancer Institute and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.

*Build a strong support system. Having a support system of close friends and family may help you cope. Though you may feel tempted to keep to yourself, be open with your loved ones. Friends will ask you if there’s anything they can do to help you. Think of requests ahead of time, such as preparing meals or just being there to talk.

*Connect with other cancer survivors.
Sometimes you’ll feel as if your friends and family can’t understand what you’re going through. In these cases, other cancer survivors can offer support and practical information. You may also find you develop deep and lasting bonds with people who are going through the same things you are. Ask your doctor about support groups in your area. Or go online to Internet message boards, such as those offered by the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.

*Set reasonable goals. Having goals helps you feel in control and can give you a sense of purpose. But don’t choose goals you can’t possibly reach. You may not be able to work a 40-hour week, for example, but you may be able to work at least part time. In fact, many people find that continuing to work can be helpful.

*Take time for yourself. Eating well, relaxing and getting enough rest can help combat the stress and fatigue of cancer. Also, plan ahead for when you may need to rest more or limit what you do.

*Stay active. Receiving a diagnosis of cancer doesn’t mean you have to stop doing the things you enjoy or normally do. For the most part, if you feel well enough to do something, go ahead and do it. Stay involved as much as you can.

*Look for a connection to something beyond yourself.
Having a strong faith or a sense of something greater than yourself may help you cope with having cancer. It may also help you maintain a more positive attitude as you face the challenge of cancer.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/non-hodgkins-lymphoma/DS00350
http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/304/main.html#SymptomsofLymphoma

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Ma Jia Zi (Paliurus ramosissimus)

Botanical Name : Paliurus ramosissimus
Family  : Rhamnaceae
Genus :              Paliurus
Synonyms : Aubletia ramosissima – Lour., Paliurus aubletii – Benth.
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: P. aubletii. Benth.

Common Name: Ma Jia Zi

Habitat : E. Asia – S. China.  Roadsides and riverbanks in W. Hupeh and Szechwan. Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Hedge;

Description:
A decidious Shrub growing to 6m. The shoots are zig-zagged, with a leaf and two stipular spines on the outside of each kink. The leaves are deciduous or evergreen, oval, 2-10 cm long and 1-7 cm broad, glossy green, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and an entire or bluntly toothed margin. The fruit is a dry woody nutlet centred in a circular wing 1-3.5 cm diameter.
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It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in an ordinary garden soil in full sun. Prefers a limy soil. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame and moved into the greenhouse in February. Fair to good germination. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and overwinter them in the greenhouse for their first year. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings 4cm long, December in a greenhouse. Fair to good percentage. Layering.

Chemical Constituents:To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of Paliurus ramosissimus, various chromatographic techniques were used to separate and purify the chemical constituents. Three triterpenes have been isolated and purified by using various column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by their physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic data. These compounds were determined as: 22S, 23R-epoxy-tirucalla-7-ene-3alpha,24, 25-triol (1), 21S, 23R-epoxy-21, 24S, 25-trihydroxy-apotirucalla-7-ene-3-one (2), 21R, 23R-epoxy-21-ethoxy-24S, 25-dihydroxy-apotirucalla-7-ene-3-one (3), separately. Compound 1 is a new compound, and the others were obtained from this genus for the first time.

Medicinal Actions &  Uses
Diuretic; Tonic; Vulnerary.

The leaves are applied as a poultice to ulcers and abscesses. The fruit is cooling and diuretic. The root is used in the treatment of sore throats, swellings and internal injuries. The thorny branches and flowers are used in the treatment of thoracic congestion, abscesses and swellings. The spines are said to benefit the uro-genital system and to increase virility in married men. The flowers are applied to running sores.


Other Uses

Hair; Hedge; Wood.
The plants are used as a hedge in China. The ashes of twigs are mixed with oil for a hairwash. The hard timber can use for producing farm tools.

The hard wood is used for producing farm tools. The roots, branches, leaves, flowers, and fruit are used medicinally. Oil extracted from the seeds is used for making candles.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Paliurus+ramosissimus
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paliurus_ramosissimus3.jpg
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paliurus_ramosissimus4.jpg
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19806894
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paliurus
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200013353

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Green Tea Helps Fight Eye Diseases

Scientists have discovered that green tea can help prevent glaucoma and other eye diseases.

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They have found that the healthful substances found in green tea — renowned for their powerful antioxidant and disease-fighting properties — do penetrate into tissues of the eye.

The new study has documented how the lens, retina, and other eye tissues absorb these substances.

Chi Pui Pang and colleagues pointed out that so-called green tea ‘catechins’ have been among a number of antioxidants thought capable of protecting the eye.

Those include vitamin C, vitamin E, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Until now, however, nobody knew if the catechins in green tea actually passed from the stomach and gastrointestinal tract into the tissues of the eye.

The researchers resolved that uncertainty in experiments with laboratory rats that drank green tea. Analysis of eye tissues showed beyond a doubt that eye structures absorbed significant amounts of individual catechins.

The retina, for example, absorbed the highest levels of gallocatechin, while the aqueous humor tended to absorb epigallocatechin. The effects of green tea catechins in reducing harmful oxidative stress in the eye lasted for up to 20 hours.

“Our results indicate that green tea consumption could benefit the eye against oxidative stress,” the study concluded.

The study appears in ACS’ bi-weekly Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Source :
BBC NEWS

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Aspidistra

Botanical Name :Aspidistra elatior
Family: Convallariaceae/Ruscaceae
Genus : Aspidistra
Synonyms : Aspidistra lurida – Ker-Gawl.
Common Name :
Cast-iron Plant
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Species: A. elatior

Habitat :Although sometimes thought to be of Chinese origin, the species is in fact native to islands in southern Japan including Kuroshima, Suwanosejima and the Uji Islands. It occurs in association with overstorey species such as Ardisia sieboldii and Castanopsis sieboldii  E. Asia – Japan – Kuroshima, Suwanose, and Uji Islands. An understory plant, found growing in forests beneath Ardisia crenata and Castanopsis sieboldii. Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Ground Cover;

Description:
Aspidistra elatior  is a rhizomatous perennial. It is a stemless plant to 1 metre in height with dark green leaves. Small, solitary purplish flowers may appear at the base of the plant in spring.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year, in flower from January to April. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Slugs, snails.

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Aspidistra elatior is a staple of the shade garden. It has wide, evergreen leaves that rise up from tough, rhizomatous roots. The lance shaped leaves are dark green and leathery, and around 12-20 in (30-50 cm) long. The aspect of cast-iron plant is decidedly vertical. Some types of aspidistra are variegated with creamy streaks or dots; some are shorter than the species. The plants spread in clumps, vigorously but at a moderate enough rate not to be invasive or even troublesome. The flowers are borne close to the ground and never even seen unless one deliberately searches for them.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Medicinal Uses
Febrifuge; Styptic; Tonic.

The roots, stems and leaves are febrifuge, styptic and tonic. Strengthens bones and muscles. A decoction of the root, stems or leaves is used in the treatment of abdominal cramps, amenorrhoea, diarrhoea, myalgia, traumatic injuries and urinary stones.

Other Uses:
Ground cover.
Aspidistras can be grown as a ground cover in a shady position.

Aspidistra is often grown in a container as a porch or patio plant, or as a house plant. In landscapes, it can be used as a border or be planted in a drift around trees, or to fill a planter under an overhang. In his North Florida garden, Steve has a stand of them growing in almost total shade at the base of a large live oak tree. Florists use the leaves in arrangements, where they lend drama and provide an excellent background for flowers. The leaves of cast-iron plant are especially long lasting in arrangements.

Cultivation :
Prefers a shady position in a rich well-drained soil. Tolerates poor soils and drought. Almost hardy in Britain[1], plants can withstand temperatures down to about -15°c if they are well sited. A plant growing under shrubs in Worcestershire has survived in the garden for over 30 years. This plant used to be commonly grown as a house plant, it tolerates considerable neglect.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in the greenhouse. Plant them out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division as the plant comes into growth in the spring. Suckers. Best removed in the autumn and grown on in the greenhouse for the first winter.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aspidistra+elatior
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspidistra_elatior
http://www.floridata.com/ref/a/aspi_ela.cfm
http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week078.shtml
http://www.plantoftheweek.org/week078.shtml

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