Cold Air Blast May Cure Isomnia

A cap that cools the brain could mean a better night’s sleep for insomniacs.
………………….cold air blast
The cap pumps a liquid coolant round the front of the scalp and the forehead.
This chills the prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain thought to play a role in prompting deep sleep.
Tests show insomniacs have higher levels of activity in this part of the brain at night than those who have no trouble nodding off.
But cooling the brain seems to dampen this activity and allows it to switch off properly for a good night’s sleep.
Eight volunteers wore the cap for an hour before bedtime and the first hour of sleep, after which researchers removed it.
Scans taken during the night showed wearing the cap caused a marked decline in brain metabolism, the rate at which cells in the frontal cortex process sugars and chemicals in the blood.
Six of the volunteers reported more refreshing sleep, fewer distracting thoughts at bedtime and waking up less in the night.
One in four people is affected by insomnia – most have ‘primary’ insomnia, an inability to fall asleep because of worries or stress.
Secondary insomnia, which is due to existing illness or a side-effect of prescription drugs, is less common.
Lots of money are being spent every year towards sleeping pills. Many sufferers rely on drugs such as benzodiazepines, which act as tranquillisers, to help them.

In England alone, there are ten million prescriptions for sleeping pills every year.
Yet the drugs can have side effects, such as memory and concentration problems, and make you more likely to have an accident.
In the search for drug-free alternatives, scientists at the University of Pittsburgh have spent the past few years studying the brain’s metabolism at night.

They found insomnia patients have increased activity, especially in the frontal cortex. Essentially, their brain cells continue to work at full capacity at night when they should be resting.
Professor Eric Nofzinger, who led the research, said they then searched for ways to slow the brain’s metabolic rate. ‘That’s when we came across cerebral hypothermia or brain cooling,’ he says.
This technique is already used in medicine. Researchers first discovered its benefits ten years ago, when they found babies starved of oxygen at birth had a better chance of survival if their brains were quickly cooled from the normal temperature of 37c to 32c.

This stops brain cells from committing suicide when deprived of oxygen.
Scalp cooling is also used as a way to minimise hair loss in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Professor Nofzinger and his team recruited eight patients with primary insomnia and scanned their brains to measure activity levels in the frontal cortex at night.
They then used the cooling cap to see if it made a difference.
The results, presented at a recent conference in Seattle, showed a significant drop in activity levels once the brain was chilled.
‘There was an increase in deeper, restorative sleep, feelings of relaxation and a reduction in distracting thoughts before sleep,’ says Professor Nofzinger.
But British sleep specialists say there are simpler ways to cool the body to aid sleep.
Professor Jim Horne, from Loughborough University, says that a bedside fan that blows cool air over the face can help.
As cooled blood from the cheeks flows back to the heart, it runs alongside an artery transporting warmer blood in the other direction to the brain.
‘It’s like having a hot water pipe next to the cold pipe,’ Professor Horne says.
‘Cooler blood enters the brain and leads to better sleep. A gentle breeze over the face is all that’s needed.’

Source: Mail Online. 14th. July.2009

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Botanical Name:Sempervivum tectorum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Genus: Sempervivum

Synonyms: Jupiter’s Eye. Thor’s Beard. Jupiter’s Beard. Bullock’s Eye. Sengreen. Ayron. Ayegreen.
(French) Joubarbe des toits.
(German) Donnersbart.

Common Name:Hen and chicks.
Part Used: Fresh leaves.

They occur from Morocco to Iran, through the mountains of Iberia, the Alps, Carpathians, Balkan mountains, Turkey, the Armenian mountains, in the northeastern part of the Sahara Desert, and the Caucasus. Their ability to store water in their thick leaves allows them to live on sunny rocks and stony places in the montane, subalpine and alpine belts.

Houseleeks grow as tufts of perennial but monocarpic rosettes. Each rosette propagates Asexually by lateral rosettes (offsets, “hen and chicks“), by splitting of the rosette (only Jovibarba heuffelii) or sexually by tiny seeds.

This plant has a fibrous root, with several tufts of oblong, acute, extremely succulent leaves. The stem from the centre of these tufts is about a foot high, erect, round, and downy; flowers large, pale rose-colored, and scentless. Offsets spreading.

Sempervivum arachnoideum.Typically, each plant grows for several years before flowering. Their hermaphrodite flowers have first a male stage. Then the stamens curve themselves and spread away from the carpels at the center of the flower, so Self-pollination is rather difficult. The colour of the flowers is reddish, yellowish, pinkish, or – seldom – whitish. In Sempervivum, the flowers are actinomorphic (like a star) and have more than six petals, while in Jovibarba, the flowers are campanulate (bell-shaped) and are pale green-yellow with six petals. After flowering, the plant dies, usually leaving many offsets it has produced during its life.

Although their subtropical cousins are very frost-sensitive, Sempervivums are among the most frost-resistant succulents, making them popular garden plants. They require only moderate water and some protection from extreme exposure to the sun.

Sempervivums grow very well in dry conditions. Despite this if Sempervivums are grown in normal flower beds among other cultivated plants there can be a problem. If the flower beds are not particularly dry other plants may grow more strongly than the Sempervivums and overshadow them. Other plants may need to be removed, cut back or tied out of the way.

“Semp-lovers” are numerous and often have many different cultivars in their collections. Sempervivums are very variable plants and hence hundreds, maybe thousands of cultivars were created, but a lot of them are not much different from each other. The main interest of these cultivars are not their flowers, but form and colour of the rosette-leaves. The most colourful time is generally from March till June.

Culinary Use

A variety of this plant is commonly used in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. (Chinese name:  shi2 lian2 hua1, lit. stone lotus leaf.) They are eaten raw, one leaf at a time, much like celery.

Medicinal Uses:

It is also purported to have medicinal benefits. The fresh leaves are useful as a refrigerant when bruised, and applied as a poultice in erysipelatous affections, burns, stings of insects, and other inflammatory conditions of the skin. The leaves, sliced in two, and the inner surface applied to warts is a positive cure for them. It can be used for many skin diseases. The leaves also possess an astringent property, serviceable in many cases

Hens and Chicks can be used like a weaker version of Aloe Vera. The bruised or torn leaves can be applied to burns or skin inflammations for relief. Folklore also says this herb will remove warts and corns.

While some sources do list this plant as a “green herb,” or one cabable of being ingested, be cautioned that in large doses the juice of the leaves can be emetic and purgative.

The Latin botanical name has an historical reference. Charlemagne (742-814 A.D.) recommended that his subjects plant these hardy prolific plants on the roof of their houses to ward off lightening and fire. The leaves contain tannins and mucilage that are soothing to skin. It is used in the treatment of burns, skin wounds and infections.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Permanently Parents

The Changing Nest
Once individuals become parents, they are parents forevermore. Their identities change perceptively the moment Mother Nature inaugurates them mom or dad. Yet the role they undertake when they welcome children into their lives is not a fixed one. As children move from one phase of their lives to the next, parental roles change. When these transitions involve a child gaining independence, many parents experience an empty nest feeling. Instead of feeling proud that their children have achieved so much—whether the flight from the nest refers to the first day of kindergarten or the start of college—parents feel they are losing a part of themselves. However, when approached thoughtfully, this new stage of parental life can be an exciting time in which mothers and fathers rediscover themselves and relate to their children in a new way.

As children earn greater levels of independence, their parents often gain unanticipated freedom. Used to being depended upon by and subject to the demands of their children, parents sometimes forget that they are not only mom or dad but also individuals. As the nest empties, parents can alleviate the anxiety and sadness they feel by rediscovering themselves and honoring the immense strides their children have made in life. The simplest way to honor a child undergoing a transition is to allow that child to make decisions and mistakes appropriate to their level of maturity. Freed from the role of disciplinarian, parents of college-age children can befriend their offspring and undertake an advisory position. Those with younger children beginning school or teenagers taking a first job can plan a special day in which they express their pride and explain that they will always be there to offer love and support.

An empty nest can touch other members of the family unit as well. Young people may feel isolated or abandoned when their siblings leave the nest. As this is normal, extra attention can help them feel more secure in their newly less populated home. Spouses with more leisure time on their hands may need to relearn how to be best friends and lovers. Other family members will likely grieve less when they understand the significance of the child’s new phase of life. The more parents both celebrate and honor their children’s life transitions, the less apprehension the children will feel. Parents who embrace their changing nest while still cherishing their offspring can look forward to developing deeper, more mature relationships with them in the future.

Daily Om

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Being Gay is Natural

Homosexuality is widespread in several species, ranging from worms to insects, birds to dolphins, sheep to reptiles. What is more, it serves a purpose:-
._gaymen.Gay women
Biologist Nathan Bailey’s recent scientific conclusions may be a shocker for the religious leaders or self-professed moral guardians who are indignant at the recent Delhi High Court ruling decriminalising sexual intimacy between same sex individuals in India.

While some argue that homosexual behaviour is “deviant” or “unnatural”, Bailey, a professor of evolutionary biology at the University of California, Riverside, has amassed scientific evidence that it might be as ubiquitous as life itself.

Bailey and colleague Marlene Zuk, who co-authored the study, collected several past research studies that reveal same sex behaviour — males having sex with males, females with females — in diverse species, from worms to insects, birds to dolphins, sheep to reptiles. While some of them are mere flings, others lead to lifelong relationships. Their study shows that it serves a purpose.

The study, which recently appeared in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution, has listed as many as 14 animal species that exhibit homosexual tendencies. “It is by no means an exhaustive list, but it provides a starting point for those interested in obtaining further information and examples,” they say.

The variety and ubiquity of same sex sexual behaviour in animals is impressive. They found thousands of instances of same sex courtship, pair bonding and copulation in a wide range of species.

Domestic sheep exhibit it. Birds like the laysan albatross and zebra finch indulge in it. So do bonobo monkeys, chinstrap penguins, bottlenose dolphins and garter snakes. Behavioural biologists have recorded male-male pairing among insects like the flour beetle and African bat bug too.

In the past, researchers, investigating whether gay sex is genetically encoded, found that tweaking certain genes can turn fruit flies and roundworms into homosexuals.

The attempts to find a genetic link to homosexuality have a strong Indian connection. The first-ever such gene manipulation study was conducted by an Indian scientist Kulbir Singh Gill who was a visiting researcher at Yale University in the 1960s. Gill, while studying the genetic causes of female sterility, almost serendipitously found in 1963 that male flies lacking a gene — later named fruitless gene — court other males. Gill’s pioneering work opened the floodgates and many other scientists subsequently discovered several other genes whose manipulation yields varying types and degrees of male-male courtship in fruit flies.

“Same sex sexual behaviour has long been viewed as a fascinating puzzle from the evolutionary perspective. The most obvious mystery is why animals would engage in sexual behaviour that does not directly result in reproduction,” says Bailey who, along with Zuk, seeks to understand the significance of such acts in the evolution of species.

Interestingly, a closer examination by them led to several significant conclusions. Some species use same sex pairings as a social glue for bonding (bottlenose dolphins), while for others (the bonobos, dung flies) it is a tool to resolve intra-sexual conflicts. In certain other species like fruit flies, immature individuals use them as an opportunity for practice, but for flour beetles it is a ploy for indirect insemination. More often than not, male members among the beetles use same sex copulation to deposit sperm in other males, which then transfer it to females during subsequent opposite sex mating.

“The secret of the peaceful bonobo society appears to rest with their sexual behaviour; in their society sex is used to solve conflicts,” writes Morten Kringelbach, psychiatrist at the University of Oxford, in his recent book The Pleasure Center.

The authors of the new study think that there may be many more animal species indulging in homosexual behaviour. It is difficult to know their sexual orientation, as there are no means of knowing what their ‘desire’ is. “We can only observe what they do,” they say.

Qazi Rahman of Queen Mary, University of London, who has been studying homosexuality in humans, says genes responsible for such behaviour have a significant role in evolution. One reason nature keeps these genes intact — although they have no role in reproduction — is that they confer certain other traits. A certain dosage of gay genes is found to be beneficial even in heterosexual people because they might express traits that are more attractive to the opposite sex — like kindness, parental skills and co-operative traits. But a higher dosage of these genes leads to homosexuality, he adds.

“Evolution keeps genes for homosexuality intact because they benefit heterosexual carriers of those same genes,” Rahman, a scientist of Pakistani descent, told KnowHow. For instance, a study by Rahman and others, which appeared in the Journal of Sexual Archives last year, showed that gay men may tend to come from larger families with more fertile females. In other words, the females in gay men’s families “outreproduce” those in heterosexual men’s families.

Kringelbach says homosexual behaviour is a natural phenomenon in all human societies. Quoting American sex researcher Alfred C Kinsey, who studied in the 1940s and 1950s sexual habits, he says 37 per cent of all men have homosexual experiences, 10 per cent have homosexual relationships lasting longer than three years, and 4 per cent are exclusively homosexual throughout life. “The exact numbers have been disputed but it remains a fact that all serious sex studies have found that homosexuality is naturally occurring among both men and women,” Kringelbach told KnowHow.

Bailey hopes that scientific contributions from animal studies will shed more light than heat on the topic of same sex sexual behaviour.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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The Pill that Reduces Body Fat by Half in a Week

Scientists are working on an anti-obesity pill that could reduce the fat stored by overweight people by almost a half in a week.

Tests on mice have shown that the drug could decrease body weight by a quarter and their fat content by 42 per cent after seven days.
After a month, the weight of the mice had been reduced by 28 per cent and their fat mass by 63 per cent.
But experts warned that it could take a decade for the potential wonder drug to be developed for use by patients.
The researchers, whose findings are published online in Nature Chemical Biology, say further research is needed before the drug is tested on humans.
But they say the results point to a new approach for the treatment of obesity and adult-onset diabetes.
The drug is an artificial hormone that regulates glucose metabolism.
Previous studies have found this substance can suppress appetite or lead to weight loss by increasing the body’s calorie usage.
Dr Richard DiMarchi and colleagues at Indiana University in the U.S. created the synthetic hormone and carried out the trials on mice.
He said: ‘Obesity and its associated consequences, including adult-onset diabetes, remain a primary health and economic threat for modern societies.’
At the moment surgical interventions such as gastric bypass remain the only therapeutic options with the potential for a cure.
Dr DiMarchi said acute glucagon administration reduces food intake in animals and in humans, and may also promote weight loss.
He added: ‘Pharmacological treatment of obesity using single agents has limited efficacy or presents risk for serious adverse effects.
‘No single agent has proven to be capable of reducing body weight more than 5 to 10 per cent in the obese population.
‘Combination therapies using multiple drugs simultaneously may represent the preferred pharmaceutical approach to treat obesity, and there is ample precedent for combination therapy in treatment of chronic diseases.

‘Here we present results that prove the principle that single molecules can be designed that are capable of simultaneously activating more than one mechanism to safely normalise body weight.’

Last night, he said it would be ten years before the drug is available and tests needed to be completed on humans.
Cambridge University professor of clinical biochemistry Stephen O’Rahilly said: ‘It is important that these are demonstrated to be effective and safe in animal models before going forward with trials in humans.’
He added: ‘Many promising drugs fall down when tried in humans either because they don’t work sufficiently well or because of side effects.
‘It is far too early to tell whether this molecule will be one of the exceptions and become a safe and effective treatment for obesity in humans.’
But he concluded: ‘I hold out considerable hope for the discovery of safe and effective anti-obesity therapies.’
Professor O’Rahilly said that patients being treated with the drug could take one pill a day, or an injection.

Source: Mail Online. July 14th. 2009

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Low Vitamin D Level is Bad for Heart

Low levels of Vitamin D and other nutrients may not be good for the health of your heart, according to latest research.

Recent studies have identified low vitamin D levels as a common problem with many adverse health effects, including higher rates of cardiovascular disease.

People with vitamin D deficiency are at increased risk of high blood pressure (BP), heart failure and heart disease, according to Suzanne Judd, University of Alabama, Birmingham (UA-B) and Vin Tangpricha of Emory University.

In heart disease patients, low vitamin D may increase the risk of high blood pressure or sudden death. Vitamin D deficiency may also help explain the apparent links between osteoporosis-related fractures and heart failure.

Osteoporosis and heart failure are both common conditions in older adults and share several risk factors including low vitamin D. Pending further research to clarify this relationship, patients with heart failure need attention to their risks of osteoporosis and fractures.

Source: These findings were published in the July issue of The American Journal of the Medical Sciences (AJMS).

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Fit Enough to Fly

Families are scattered all over  the globe and they travel to stay in touch. Airplanes are safe, despite the high flying altitude, relatively lower partial pressure of oxygen, variable air circulation, low humidity, sustained periods of noise, vibration and turbulence.
The rapid changes that occur during a flight (typically during descent) can give rise to ear pain, a blocked feeling, ringing in the ears, giddiness, hearing loss or even rupture of the eardrum. These complications are more likely if the Eustachian tube (connecting the ear and throat) is blocked by allergy, colds, sinusitis or middle ear infections. Chewing gum and frequent swallowing during descent can help ease the discomfort.

Decongestant nose drops will clear a blocked nose. Air travel should be avoided for 10 days if there has been a recent ear surgery or tonsillectomy.

Women often need to travel during pregnancy — as part of their jobs, because of transfers or simply to head home to have the baby. Air travel during pregnancy is safe and poses no special risks. Mid pregnancy, from the 14th to 28th week, is the safest time. In the case of multiple pregnancy (twins), a history of premature delivery, cervical incompetence, bleeding or increased uterine activity (irritable uterus), flying is inadvisable. If you need to be elsewhere for the delivery, it is better to leave before the 36th week or use an alternative mode of transport.

Most airlines refuse to allow pregnant passengers after the 36th week because of the fear that labour may set in during the flight. It is better to carry certified medical documentation about the expected date of delivery.

During pregnancy,

• the seat belt should be fastened under the abdomen, not across it;

• an aisle seat is preferable to facilitate visits to the toilet;

• try to get out of the seat every 30 minutes and walk a short distance;

• if this is not possible, flex and extend the ankles.

Babies should, preferably, not fly till they are at least seven days old.

There is a 10-day ban on air travel (not prohibited but inadvisable) after a stroke, brain surgery, an epileptic seizure, eye surgery or ear, nose or throat procedures.

Even in normal people abdominal gas increases by 25 per cent during air travel. A three to four week gap is advisable after abdominal surgery even if it is a “keyhole” or laparoscopic surgery as gas is introduced into the abdomen during the procedure. This extra gas can expand and cause the sutures to give way.

A person with congestive cardiac failure (when the heart does not function properly) should be stable for at least 10 days prior to travel.

In the case of a heart attack the person should have been stable for three to four weeks.

After pneumonia or chest surgery, a person should wait for three weeks
. Even after this time they should be able to walk unassisted for at least 50 metres without becoming breathless.

Anaemia, with haemoglobin count less than 7.5 grams per decilitre, reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. This can get critical during flights.

People with fractures can travel two days after the cast has been applied. In traditional casts air can be trapped between the cast and the leg. As this air expands during the flight, it can compress the limb and cut off blood supply. If a person needs to fly immediately, the doctor needs to be informed beforehand. A bivalved or split cast, which does not trap air, can be applied.

People with mental illness should be well controlled, on medication and preferably have a companion.

Diseases are spread from one country to another by infected travellers. In the recent swine flu epidemic, the spread of the disease could be plotted by tracking the flights out of Mexico (where the epidemic started).

People with open tuberculosis or measles should also defer travel.
If a person has an infectious disease, travelling should be postponed until recovery. Infected air keeps circulating in a plane and this will result in the disease spreading.

The economy class has little legroom. The edge of the seat can compress the veins at the bent knee.
Together with the forced immobility, blood pools in the legs and the feet swell. This can result in deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Sudden unexpected death can occur hours or days after travel.

Generally, try to drink plenty of fluids and balance any alcohol consumed with an equal amount of water. Walk around the airport while waiting. Remember, the most dangerous thing to do is to sit still with your legs crossed.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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Apothecary Rose

Botanical Name:Rosa gallica officinalis
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Common Names: Gallic Rose, French Rose,  Rose of Provins,Apothecary’s Rose.
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Genus: Rosa
Species: R. gallica

Habitat: Native to southern and central Europe eastwards to Turkey and the Caucasus.

It is a deciduous shrub forming large patches of shrubbery, the stems with prickles and glandular bristles. The leaves are pinnate, with three to seven bluish-green leaflets. The flowers are clustered one to four together, single with five petals, fragrant, deep pink. The hips are globose to ovoid, 10-13 mm diameter, orange to brownish.
Apothecary Rose-4.php-5.Apothecary Rose-3.Apothecary Rose-2
The species is easily cultivated on well drained soil in full sun to semishade; it can survive temperatures down to ?25 °C. It is one of the earliest cultivated species of roses, being cultivated by the Greek and Romans and it was commonly used in Mediaeval gardens. In the 19th century it was the most important species of rose to be cultivated, and most modern European rose cultivars have at least a small contribution from R. gallica in their ancestry.

Cultivars of the species R. gallica and hybrids close in appearance are best referred to a Cultivar Group as the Gallica Group roses. The ancestry is usually unknown and the influence of other species can not be ruled out.

The Gallica Group roses share the vegetative characters of the species, forming low suckering shrubs. The flowers can be single, but most commonly double or semidouble. The colours range from white (rare) to pink and deep purple. All Gallica Group roses are once flowering. They are easily cultivated.

The semidouble cultivar ‘Officinalis’, the “Red Rose of Lancaster“, is the county flower of Lancashire.

In 2004, a cultivar of the Gallica Group named ‘Cardinal de Richelieu‘ was genetically engineered to produce the first blue rose.


In Persia (Iran) Apothecary Rose was described by the Ancient Greek poet Sappho as “ the queen of flowers”, this rose has had many uses over time. The Ancient Romans consumed the petals as food and marinated them in wine to use them as a cure for hangovers. Avicenna, a famous eleventh century Arab physician and philosopher living in Moslem Spain, prepared rose water from the petals that he used in treating his patients for a variety of ailments. Knights returning from the Crusades brought the plant to Europe. It was grown chiefly in monastic gardens for medicinal purposes. In the Middle Ages, the blossoms were used in aroma therapy for the treatment of depression. In the nineteenth century beginning in the time of Napoleon, French pharmacists grew them in pots at the entrances of their shops, hence the origin of the common name Apothecary Rose. The Apothecary Rose became the professional symbol of the pharmaceutical profession much as the balanced scales became the professional symbol of the legal profession. French druggists dispensed preparations made from this rose to treat indigestion, sore throats and skin rashes.

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Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Naps with Dreams Improve Performance

Have to solve a problem? Try taking a nap. But it has to be the right kind of nap — one that includes rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep, the kind that includes dreams.


Researchers led by Sara C. Mednick, an assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego, gave 77 volunteers tests under three before- and-after conditions: spending a day without a nap, napping without REM sleep, and napping with REM sleep. Just spending the day away from the problem improved performance; people whostayed awake did a little better on the 5 p.m. session than they had done on the 9 a.m. test. Taking a nap without REM sleep also led to slightly better results. But a nap that included REM sleep resulted in nearly a 40 percent improvement over the pre-nap performance.

The study is published June 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood.. Children with ADHD have impaired functioning in multiple settings, including home, school, and in relationships with peers. If untreated, the disorder can have long-term adverse effects into adolescence and adulthood.

Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).

……….Child with ADDH

ADHD has three subtypes:
1.Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive …….Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive  child
*Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories.
*Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree.

2.Predominantly inattentive
…………………Predominantly inattentive
*The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree.

*Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice that he or she has ADHD.

3.Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive. ..Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive.
*Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present.
*Most children have the combined type of ADHD

Treatments can relieve many of the disorder’s symptoms, but there is no cure. With treatment, most people with ADHD can be successful in school and lead productive lives. Researchers are developing more effective treatments and interventions, and using new tools such as brain imaging, to better understand ADHD and to find more effective ways to treat and prevent it.

Signs & Symptoms
Symptoms of ADHD will appear over the course of many months, and include:

Impulsiveness: a child who acts quickly without thinking first.
Hyperactivity: a child who can’t sit still, walks, runs, or climbs around when others are seated, talks when others are talking.

Inattention: a child who daydreams or seems to be in another world, is sidetracked by what is going on around him or her.

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes, but for children with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe and occur more often. To be diagnosed with the disorder, a child must have symptoms for 6 or more months and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age.

Children who have symptoms of inattention may:
*Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
*Have difficulty focusing on one thing
*Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable
*Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new
*Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
*Not seem to listen when spoken to
*Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
*Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
*Struggle to follow instructions.

Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may:
*Fidget and squirm in their seats
*Talk nonstop
*Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
*Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
*Be constantly in motion
*Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.

Children who have symptoms of impulsivity may:
*Be very impatient
*Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
*Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
*Often interrupt conversations or others’ activities.

ADHD Can Be Mistaken for Other Problems too.
Parents and teachers can miss the fact that children with symptoms of inattention have the disorder because they are often quiet and less likely to act out. They may sit quietly, seeming to work, but they are often not paying attention to what they are doing. They may get along well with other children, compared with those with the other subtypes, who tend to have social problems. But children with the inattentive kind of ADHD are not the only ones whose disorders can be missed. For example, adults may think that children with the hyperactive and impulsive subtypes just have emotional or disciplinary problems.

If ADHD is suspected, the diagnosis should be made by a professional with training in ADHD. This includes child psychiatrists, psychologists, developmental/behavioral pediatricians, behavioral neurologists, and clinical social workers. After ruling out other possible reasons for the child’s behavior, the specialist checks the child’s school and medical records and talks to teachers and parents who have filled out a behavior rating scale for the child. A diagnosis is made only after all this information has been considered.

Children mature at different rates and have different personalities, temperaments, and energy levels. Most children get distracted, act impulsively, and struggle to concentrate at one time or another. Sometimes, these normal factors may be mistaken for ADHD. ADHD symptoms usually appear early in life, often between the ages of 3 and 6, and because symptoms vary from person to person, the disorder can be hard to diagnose. Parents may first notice that their child loses interest in things sooner than other children, or seems constantly “out of control.” Often, teachers notice the symptoms first, when a child has trouble following rules, or frequently “spaces out” in the classroom or on the playground.

No single test can diagnose a child as having ADHD. Instead, a licensed health professional needs to gather information about the child, and his or her behavior and environment. A family may want to first talk with the child’s pediatrician. Some pediatricians can assess the child themselves, but many will refer the family to a mental health specialist with experience in childhood mental disorders such as ADHD. The pediatrician or mental health specialist will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms. For example, certain situations, events, or health conditions may cause temporary behaviors in a child that seem like ADHD.

Between them, the referring pediatrician and specialist will determine if a child:

*Is experiencing undetected seizures that could be associated with other medical conditions
*Has a middle ear infection that is causing hearing problems
*Has any undetected hearing or vision problems
*Has any medical problems that affect thinking and behavior
*Has any learning disabilities
*Has anxiety or depression, or other psychiatric problems that might cause ADHD-like symptoms
*Has been affected by a significant and sudden change, such as the death of a family member, a divorce, or parent’s job loss.
A specialist will also check school and medical records for clues, to see if the child’s home or school settings appear unusually stressful or disrupted, and gather information from the child’s parents and teachers. Coaches, babysitters, and other adults who know the child well also may be consulted.

The specialist also will ask:
*Are the behaviors excessive and long-term, and do they affect all aspects of the child’s life?
*Do they happen more often in this child compared with the child’s peers?
*Are the behaviors a continuous problem or a response to a temporary situation?
*Do the behaviors occur in several settings or only in one place, such as the playground, classroom, or home?
The specialist pays close attention to the child’s behavior during different situations. Some situations are highly structured, some have less structure. Others would require the child to keep paying attention. Most children with ADHD are better able to control their behaviors in situations where they are getting individual attention and when they are free to focus on enjoyable activities. These types of situations are less important in the assessment. A child also may be evaluated to see how he or she acts in social situations, and may be given tests of intellectual ability and academic achievement to see if he or she has a learning disability.

Finally, if after gathering all this information the child meets the criteria for ADHD, he or she will be diagnosed with the disorder.

Effective treatments for ADHD are available, and include behavioral therapy and medications.

Currently available treatments focus on reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types of psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.

Getting Help: Locate Services
Locate mental health services in your area, affordable healthcare, NIMH clinical trials, and listings of professionals and organizations.

Click to see for more locational services
You may also clic to see:->
*Child and Adolescent Mental Health:
*Treatment of Children with Mental Disorders
*Information about medications
*Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Information and Organizations from NLM’s MedlinePlus (en Español) :
*Listen to a NIH podcast about a study on ADHD medications by the National Institute on Environmental and Health Sciences:

*Chiropractic Care for ADD/ADHD

*ADD & Toxins


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