Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa)

Botanical Name : Abies lasiocarpa – (Hook.)Nutt
Family : Pinaceae
Genus : Abies
Synonyms : Abies subalpina – Engelm., Pinus lasiocarpa – Hook.
Common Name: German: Korksilbertanne.  Czech: jedle plstnatoplodá

Habitat: Western N. America – Alaska to Arizona and New Mexico.   Often found in poor and rocky soils, it is rarely seen below 600 metres. It grows in forests right up to the timber line where it is no more than a shrub on exposed slopes at high altitudes.

Description:
An evergreen deciduous coniferous Tree growing to 25m by 4m at a slow rate. CLICK & SEE
It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

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Leaf: Flattened needles, usually about 1 inch long, thickened in the middle, bluish white bloom on all surfaces; tips mostly rounded, but may be notched (or pointed near top of tree); spirally arranged but uniformly upswept; commonly have a manicured appearance.

Flower: Monoecious; male cones bluish and borne beneath the leaves; female cones purple and borne upright near the top of the crown.

Fruit: Cones are 2 to 4 inches long, cylindrical, slender, and borne upright on the twig (frequently in clusters); cone scales are deciduous, falling from the cone as seeds ripen; purple when mature.

Twig: Stiff, orange-brown, and covered with round, flat leaf scars when needles fall. Buds are small, rounded, and covered with pitch; terminal buds usually occur in clusters of three or more.

Bark: When young, grayish green and covered with resin blisters; later turning gray to white, unbroken except near base of large trees. Resin pockets scattered throughout inner bark.

Form: When mature 40 to 100 feet tall and 1 to 2 feet in diameter. Very narrow crown of dense foliage; often spire-like with branches to the ground.

Cultivation:
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. Occasionally planted for timber in N. Europe but this species does not thrive in Britain. It is a very cold-hardy tree but the milder winters of this country make it susceptible to damage by aphis and late frosts. The sub-species A. lasiocarpa arizonica. (Merriam.)Lemmon. is growing somewhat better here. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. The crushed foliage has a balsam aroma.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position.

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Edible Uses:-
Edible Parts: Inner bark; Seed; Seedpod.

Edible Uses: Gum; Tea.

The shoot tips are used as a tea substitute. The cones can be ground into a fine powder, then mixed with fat and used as a confection. It is said to be a delicacy and an aid to the digestion. The resin from the trunk is used as a chewing gum. It is said to treat bad breath. Inner bark. No more information is given, but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used with cereal flours when making bread etc[K]. Seeds. No more information is given, but the seeds are very small and fiddly to use. Seeds of this genus are generally oily with a resinous flavour and can be eaten raw or cooked[K].

Medicinal  Actions & Uses:

Antihalitosis; Antiseptic; Emetic; Foot care; Laxative; Poultice; TB; Tonic.

Antiseptic. The gummy exudate that appears on the bark was soaked in water until soft and then applied to wounds. An infusion of the resin has been used as an emetic to cleanse the insides. The resin has also been chewed to treat bad breath. A decoction of the bark is used as a tonic and in the treatment of colds and flu. A poultice of the leaves has been used to treat chest colds and fevers. An infusion has been taken to treat the coughing up of blood, which can be the first sign of TB, and as a laxative.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:-
Baby care; Deodorant; Gum; Hair; Incense; Miscellany; Repellent; Wood.

The fragrant young leaves and twigs are used to repel moths or are burnt as an incense. They were also ground into a powder and used to make a baby powder and perfumes. A gum is obtained from the bark. It is antiseptic and was chewed by the N. American Indians in order to clean the teeth. It was also used to plug holes in canoes. An infusion of the leaves is used as a hair tonic. The leaves can also be placed in the shoes as a foot deodorant. Wood – light, soft, not strong. It is little used except as a fuel and for pulp. The native North American Indians used it for making chairs and insect-proof storage boxes. It was also used as a fuel and was said to burn for a long time.

Scented Plants
Leaves: Crushed
The crushed foliage has a balsam aroma.

Resource:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+lasiocarpa
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ABLAL&photoID=ablal_003_avp.jpg
http://www.about-garden.com/e/en/7-subalpine-fir-abies-lasiocarpa/

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Himalayan Fir (Abies spectabilis)

Botanical Name: Abies spectabilis – (D.Don.)Spach.
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Abies
Species: A. spectabilis
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Common names: East Himalayan fir (Vidakovic 1991).

Taxonomic notes:
Syn: Pinus spectabilis D. Don 1825; Pinus webbiana Wall ex D. Don in Lambert 1828; A. webbiana (Wall ex D. Don) Lindl. 1833; Picea webbiana (Wall ex D. Don) Loudon 1838 (Farjon 1998); A. chiloensis Hort.; A. chilrowensis Hort.; A. densa Griff. (Vidakovic 1991). Silba (1986) describes a variety densa, while Vidakovic (1991) describes a variety brevifolia.

“This species hybridizes freely with A. pindrow forming intermediate populations in the altitudinal middle zone of their common distribution” (Vidakovic 1991).

Sinónimos:
*Pinus spectabilis D.Don
*Pinus webbiana Wall. ex D.Don
*Picea webbiana Loudon ex D.Don
*Abies webbiana Wall. ex D.Don
*Abies chiloensis Hort.
*Abies chilrowensis Hort.
*Abies densa Griff.

Habitat :-Himalayan Fir   is native to E. Asia –  Himalayas from Afghanistan to Nepal.  Hindu Kush; Tibet; India: Karakoram & Kashmir Himalaya; Nepal (Farjon 1998); Sikkim and Bhutan at 2500-4000 m (Vidakovic 1991).   It grows in the forests in Nepal between 2700 – 3900 metres. Moist open areas.
It commonly occurs as a canopy dominant species in very wet forest, accompanied by species of Rhododendron including R. companuletum, R. lepedetum, and R. anthapogen, as well as Betula utilis .

Description:
An evergreen tree attaining in the E. Himalaya a height of 60 m. Crown broadly conical grows at a slow rate.
” Branches horizontally spreading. Bark dark gray, rough and scaly. Shoots red-brown, deeply grooved, pubescent in the grooves. Buds large, globose, resinous. Needles on the upper side of the shoot arranged in several ranks, leaving a V-shaped depression between them, 2-6 cm long, with emarginate apex; upper surface dark green and glossy, with 2 broad stomata bands beneath. Cones cylindrical, 14-20 cm long and about 7 cm thick, violet-purple when young, later brown; seed scales 1.5-2 cm wide; bract scales concealed” (Vidakovic 1991).

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
(See Wu and Raven 1999 ) for a more recent and detailed description.

It is hardy to zone 7 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.


Cultivation:

Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. This species is unsatisfactory in south-eastern Britain due to damage by late frosts, trees rarely live more than 40 years and have a poor thin crown. Trees grow far better in the milder and moister western side of the country. Young trees are very slow to establish because they are often damaged by late frosts, it is best to grow the young trees in high shade to get them through this time[1, 185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Action &  Uses:-

Antiperiodic; Astringent; Carminative; Expectorant; Stomachic; Tonic.

The leaves are astringent, carminative, expectorant, stomachic and tonic. The leaf juice used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis etc. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used to treat colds, rheumatism and nasal congestion. The leaf juice is antiperiodic.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:-
Essential; Fuel; Incense; Wood.

An essential oil is obtained from the plant, though the report does not give yields or uses[240]. The dried leaves, mixed with other ingredients, are used in making incense[272]. The wood is used for construction and thatching roofs. It is also used for fuel.

Scented Plants:-
Leaves: Crushed
The bruised leaves are aromatic.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+spectabilis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_spectabilis
http://www.conifers.org/pi/ab/spectabilis.htm
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_spectabilis

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Toxic Shock Syndrome

Definition:-
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a very rare but potentially fatal illness caused by a bacterial toxin. Different bacterial toxins may cause toxic shock syndrome, depending on the situation. The causative bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcal TSS is sometimes referred to as toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS) or Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (STSS).

TSS, is a serious condition which mainly affects menstruating women using tampons. The patient develops a high fever, diarrhea, vomiting and muscle ache. This is followed by hypotension (low blood pressure), which may eventually lead to shock and death. In some cases there may be a sunburn-like rash with skin peeling.

Experts are not sure why such a significant proportion of toxic shock syndrome patients are women who are menstruating and using a tampon – especially “super absorbent” tampons.

Toxic shock syndrome may also occur as a result of an injury, burn or as a complication of localized infections, such as a boil, as well as with the use of contraceptive sponges.

According to the National Health Service (NHS), UK, approximately 20 patients develop toxic shock syndrome each year in the United Kingdom, of which about 3 die. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA, toxic shock syndrome affects approximately 1 to 2 in every 100,000 women aged 15-44 years in the USA every year.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

You may click to see the pictures of Toxic Shock Syndrome

Main Routes of infection:-
TSS can occur via the skin (e.g., cuts, surgery, burns), vagina (prolonged tampon exposure), or pharynx. However, most of the large number of individuals who are exposed to or colonized with toxin-producing strains of S. aureus or S. pyogenes do not develop toxic shock syndrome. One reason is that a large percentage of the population have protective antibodies against the toxins that cause TSS. It is not clear why the antibodies are present in people who have never had the disease, but likely that given these bacteria’s pervasiveness and presence in normal flora, minor cuts and such allow natural immunization on a large scale.

It is believed that approximately half the cases of staphylococcal TSS reported today are associated with tampon use during menstruation. However, TSS can also occur in children, men, and non-menstruating women.

Although scientists have recognized an association between TSS and tampon use, no firm causal link has been established. Research conducted by the CDC suggested that use of some high-absorbency tampons increased the risk of TSS in menstruating women. A few specific tampon designs and high-absorbency tampon materials were found to have some association with increased risk of TSS. These products and materials are no longer used in tampons sold in the U.S. (The materials include polyester, carboxymethylcellulose and polyacrylate). Tampons made with rayon do not appear to have a higher risk of TSS than cotton tampons of similar absorbency.

Toxin production by S. aureus requires a protein-rich environment, which is provided by the flow of menstrual blood, a neutral vaginal pH, which occurs during menstruation, and elevated oxygen levels, which are provided by the tampon that is inserted into the normally anaerobic vaginal environment. Although ulcerations have been reported in women using super-absorbent tampons, the link to menstrual TSS, if any, is unclear. The toxin implicated in menstrual TSS is capable of entering the bloodstream by crossing the vaginal wall in the absence of ulcerations. Women can avoid the risk of contracting TSS by choosing a tampon with the minimum absorbency needed to manage their menstrual flow and using tampons only during active menstruation. Alternately, a woman may choose to use a different kind of menstrual product that may eliminate or reduce the risk of TSS, such as a menstrual cup or sanitary napkin.

History:-
Initial description of toxic shock syndrome
The term toxic shock syndrome was first used in 1978 by a Denver pediatrician, Dr. James K. Todd, to describe the staphylococcal illness in three boys and four girls aged 8–17 years. Even though S. aureus was isolated from mucosal sites in the patients, bacteria could not be isolated from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine, raising suspicion that a toxin was involved. The authors of the study noted that reports of similar staphylococcal illnesses had appeared occasionally as far back as 1927. But the authors at the time failed to consider the possibility of a connection between toxic shock syndrome and tampon use, as three of the girls who were menstruating when the illness developed were using tampons. Many cases of TSS occurred after tampons were left in the woman using them.

Rely tampons:-
Following a controversial period of test marketing in Rochester, New York and Fort Wayne, Indiana, in August 1978 Procter and Gamble introduced superabsorbent Rely tampons to the United States market in response to women’s demands for tampons that could contain an entire menstrual flow without leaking or replacement. Rely used carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and compressed beads of polyester for absorption. This tampon design could absorb nearly 20 times its own weight in fluid. Further, the tampon would “blossom” into a cup shape in the vagina in order to hold menstrual fluids without leakage.

Package of Rely Tampons

In January 1980, epidemiologists in Wisconsin and Minnesota reported the appearance of TSS, mostly in menstruating women, to the CDC. S. aureus was successfully cultured from most of the women. A CDC task force investigated the epidemic as the number of reported cases rose throughout the summer of 1980, accompanied by widespread publicity. In September 1980, the CDC reported that users of Rely were at increased risk for developing TSS.

On September 22, 1980, Procter and Gamble recalled Rely following release of the CDC report. As part of the voluntary recall, Procter and Gamble entered into a consent agreement with the FDA “providing for a program for notification to consumers and retrieval of the product from the market.” However, it was clear to other investigators that Rely was not the only culprit. Other regions of the United States saw increases in menstrual TSS before Rely was introduced. It was shown later that higher absorbency of tampons was associated with an increased risk for TSS, regardless of the chemical composition or the brand of the tampon. The sole exception was Rely, for which the risk for TSS was still higher when corrected for its absorbency. The ability of carboxymethylcellulose to filter the S. aureus toxin that causes TSS may account for the increased risk associated with Rely.

By the end of 1980, the number of TSS cases reported to the CDC began to decline. The reduced incidence was attributed not only to the removal of Rely from the market, but also to reduced use of all tampon brands. According to the Boston Women’s Health Book Collective, 942 women were diagnosed with tampon-related TSS in the USA from March 1980 to March 1981, 40 of whom died.

Symptoms:-
Symptoms of toxic shock syndrome vary depending on the underlying cause. TSS resulting from infection with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus typically manifests in otherwise healthy individuals with high fever, accompanied by low blood pressure, malaise and confusion, which can rapidly progress to stupor, coma, and multi-organ failure. The characteristic rash, often seen early in the course of illness, resembles a sunburn, and can involve any region of the body, including the lips, mouth, eyes, palms and soles. In patients who survive the initial onslaught of the infection, the rash desquamates, or peels off, after 10–14 days.

Signs and symptoms of TSS (toxic shock syndrome) develop suddenly:
Sudden high fever (first symptom) The following signs and symptoms normally appear within a few hours:

*Vomiting
*Diarrhea
*Sunburn-like skin rash, particularly in the palms and soles
*Redness of eyes, mouth and throat
*Fainting
*Feeling faint
*Muscle aches
*Dizziness
*Confusion
*Hypotension (low blood pressure)
*Seizures
*Headaches

Causes of toxic shock syndrome :-
Scientists have been investigating the causes of TSS for over two decades and are still baffled. 20% to 30% of all humans carry the TSS causing bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus on their skin and nose; usually without any complications. Most of us have antibodies which protect us. Scientists believe that some of us do not develop the necessary antibodies.

Some experts suggest that the super-absorbent tampons – the ones that stay inside the body the longest – become breeding grounds for bacteria, while others believe the tampon fibers may scratch the vagina, making it possible for bacteria to get through and into the bloodstream. However, both are just theories without any compelling evidence to back them up.

We do know that the bacteria get into the body via wounds, localized infections, the vagina, the throat or burns. When the toxins (produced by the bacteria) enter the bloodstream they mess up the blood pressure regulating process, resulting in a hypotension (low blood pressure). Hypotension can cause dizziness and confusion (shock). The toxins also attack tissues, including organs and muscles. Kidney failure is a common TSS complication.

TSS does not only develop in young menstruating women. Older women, men and children may also be affected. Women who have been using a diaphragm or a contraceptive sponge have a slightly higher risk of developing TSS. In fact, anyone with a staph or strep infection has the potential to develop TSS (even though it is extremely rare).

Diagnosis:-
In contrast, TSS caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes, or TSLS, typically presents in people with pre-existing skin infections with the bacteria. These individuals often experience severe pain at the site of the skin infection, followed by rapid progression of symptoms as described above for TSS. In contrast to TSS caused by Staphylococcus, Streptococcal TSS less often involves a sunburn rash.

In either case, diagnosis is based strictly upon CDC criteria modified in 1981 after the initial surge in tampon-associated infections.:

1.Body temperature > 38.9 °C (102.02 °F)
2.Systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg
3.Diffuse rash, intense erythroderma, blanching (“boiled lobster”) with subsequent desquamation, especially of the palms and soles
4.Involvement of three or more organ systems:

*Gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhea)
*Mucous membrane hyperemia (vaginal, oral, conjunctival)
*Renal failure (serum creatinine > 2x normal)
*Hepatic inflammation (AST, ALT > 2x normal)
*Thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100,000 / mm³)
*CNS involvement (confusion without any focal neurological findings)

To date, there is no specific TSS test. The doctor needs to identify the most common symptoms, as well as checking for signs of organ failure.

*Blood and urine tests – these help determine organ function (or organ failure).

According to the National Health Service (NHS), UK, a confident TSS diagnosis can generally be made when:

*The patient’s temperature is above 38.9C (102.02F)
*The patient’s systolic blood pressure is below 90 mmHG
*The patient has a skin rash
*There is evidence that at least three organs have been affected by the infection

Pathogenesis:-
In both TSS (caused by Staph. aureus) and TSLS (caused by Strep. pyogenes), disease progression stems from a superantigen toxin that allows the non-specific binding of MHC II with T cell receptors, resulting in polyclonal T cell activation. In typical T cell recognition, an antigen is taken up by an antigen-presenting cell, processed, expressed on the cell surface in complex with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in a groove formed by the alpha and beta chains of class II MHC, and recognized by an antigen-specific T cell receptor. By contrast, superantigens do not require processing by antigen-presenting cells but instead interact directly with the invariant region of the class II MHC molecule. In patients with TSS, up to 20% of the body’s T cells can be activated at one time. This polyclonal T-cell population causes a cytokine storm, followed by a multisystem disease. The toxin in S. aureus infections is Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1, or TSST-1.

Treatment:-
The medical team’s aim is to fight the infection as well as supporting any body functions that the infection may have affected. The patient will be hospitalized and may be placed in an intensive care unit.

*Oxygen – the patient will usually be given oxygen to support breathing.

*Fluids – fluids will be administered to prevent dehydration and to bring blood pressure back up to normal.

*Kidneys – a dialysis machine will be used if there is kidney failure. The machine filters toxins and waste out of the bloodstream.

*Other damage – damage to skin, fingers or toes will need to be treated. This often involves draining and cleaning. In severe cases a body extremity or parts of skin may need to be surgically removed.

*Antibiotics – a combination of antibiotics is administered intravenously (directly into the bloodstream).

*Immunoglobulin – these are samples of donated human blood with high levels of antibodies which can fight the toxin. In some cases the medical team may administer immunoglobulin as well as antibiotics.
In the majority of cases the patient responds to treatment within a couple of days. However, he/she may have to stay in hospital for several weeks.

Click to see :->Streptococcal Toxic-Shock Syndrome: Spectrum of Disease, Pathogenesis, and New Concepts in Treatment

Prognosis :-
With proper treatment, patients usually recover in two to three weeks. The condition can, however, be fatal within hours.

Prevention:
Before going through about possible preventive measures, it is important to remember that the risk of developing TSS is very low. A significant number of experts point to a probably link between tampon absorbency and TSS risk, and advise women to:

*Thoroughly wash their hands before inserting a tampon
*Use the lowest absorbency tampons for their period flow
*Switch from tampons to sanitary towels (or panty liners) during their period
*Change tampons at least as regularly as directed on the pack
*Insert only one tampon at a time (never more than one)
*Insert a fresh tampon when going to bed and replace it immediately in the morning
*Remove the tampon as soon as the period has ended

The Mayo Clinic, USA, advises women to avoid using tampons completely when their flow is very light (use minipads instead).

The National Health Service (NHS), UK, advises that people who have had TSS should avoid using tampons.

Women who use a diaphragm, cap or contraceptive sponge should follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully (regarding how long to leave the device inside the vagina). The NHS advises women who have had TSS to use an alternative method of contraception.

You may click & see also->

*Necrotizing fasciitis  :
*Septic shock    :
*Toxic headache :

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxic_shock_syndrome
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/175736.php

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232 Toxic Chemicals found in 10 Babies

Laboratory tests commissioned by the Environmental Working Group have detected bisphenol A (BPA), a plastic component and synthetic estrogen, in umbilical cord blood of American infants.
Nine of 10 randomly selected samples of cord blood tested positive for BPA, an industrial petrochemical.

baby-bottle

BPA has been implicated in a lengthening list of serious chronic disorders, including cancer, cognitive and behavioral impairments, endocrine system disruption, reproductive and cardiovascular system abnormalities, diabetes, asthma and obesity.

In all, the tests found as many as 232 chemicals in the 10 newborns, all of minority descent. The cord blood study has produced hard new evidence that American children are being exposed, beginning in the womb, to complex mixtures of dangerous substances that may have lifelong consequences.

And in a separate study, researchers found that complications of pregnancy, such as preterm labor, preterm birth, and infection were lowest in women with the highest vitamin D levels.

Blood levels of activated vitamin D usually rise during very early pregnancy, and some of it crosses the placenta to bathe the fetus, especially the developing fetal brain, in activated vitamin D. But many — in fact most — pregnant women do not make as much vitamin D as they need.

4,000 IU of vitamin D per day during pregnancy was found to be safe (not a single adverse event). However, this amount only resulted in a mean vitamin D blood level of 27 ng/ml in the newborn infants, indicating that even 4,000 IU per day during pregnancy is not enough.


Resources:

Mothering December 9, 2009
Environmental Working Group
New Research Findings Two December 3, 2009
National Institutes of Health

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Abies Sibirica – Ledeb.(Siberian Fir)

Botanical NameAbies sibirica – Ledeb
Family : Pinaceae
Common names: Siberian fir
Genus: Abies
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Species:
A. sibirica

Habitat: Native to the taiga east of the Volga River and south of 67°40′ North latitude through Turkestan, northeast Xinjiang, Mongolia and Heilongjiang N. Europe – Russia to E. Asia – China. Forms extensive forests on cool wet mountainsides in N.E. Russia.

Range:-
China: Xinjiang; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Russian Federation: Altay, Amur, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya. Subsp. semenovii is confined to Kyrgyzstan: Talasskij Ala Tau, but is suspected to extend into China. The species as a whole is considered threatened in China (Conifer Specialist Group 1998).

Description:
An evergreen coniferous Tree.
It is hardy to zone 1 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

You may click to see the pictures of    Abies Sibirica      

The tree lives in the cold boreal climate on moist soils in mountains or river basins at elevations of 1900-2400 m. It is very shade-tolerant, frost-resistant, and hardy, surviving temperatures down to ?50 °C. It rarely lives over 200 years due to the susceptibility to fungal decay in the wood.

Siberian Fir grows 30-35 m tall with a trunk diameter of 0.5-1 m at breast height and a conical crown. The bark is grey-green to grey-brown and smooth with resin blisters typical of most firs. Shoots are yellow-grey, resinous, and slightly pubescent. The leaves are needle-like, 2-3 cm long and 1.5 mm broad on average. They are light green above with two grey-white stomatal bands underneath, and are directed upwards along the stem. They are soft, flattened, and strongly aromatic. The cones are cylindrical, 5-9.5 cm long and 2.5-3.5 cm broad, with small bracts hidden by the scales. They ripen from bluish to brown or dark brown in mid-autumn. The seeds, 7 mm long with a triangular wing 0.7-1.3 cm long, are released when the cone disintegrates after maturity.

There are two varieties:

#Abies sibirica var. sibirica. Described above.

#Abies sibirica var. semenovii (B. Fedtschenko) Farjon. Endemic in Kyrgyzstan. Branchlets noticeably ridged and grooved. Resin canals marginal.

Cones yellow-brown, with broader bracts than those of var. sibirica.

Taxonomic notes:-
Two subspecies, the type and Abies sibirica subsp. semenovii (B. Fedtsch.) Farjon 1990. There is also a widespread natural hybrid found in China: Heilongjiang, Abies × sibirico-nephrolepis Taken. et Chien 1957 (Farjon 1998).

Synonymy for subsp. sibirica (Farjon 1998):

*Pinus sibirica (Ledeb.) Turcz. non Du Tour
*Pinus picea Pall. non L.
*Abies pichta J. Forbes
*Picea pichta (J. Forbes) Loudon
*Pinus pichta Fisch. ex Endl.
Synonymy for subsp. semenovii (Farjon 1998):

*A. semenovii B. Fedtsch.
*A. sibirica var. semenovii (B. Fedtsch.) Liu

Cultivation:-
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope. Cultivated for timber in N. Europe but although very hardy, this species does not thrive in Britain, preferring much harsher climates. It tolerates temperatures down to about -50°c but in the mild winters of Britain it is often excited into premature growth and is then very susceptible to damage by late frosts. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Most if not all trees grown under this name in Britain are in fact A. sachalinensis.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Action &  Uses:-

Antirheumatic; Expectorant; Stimulant.

The essential oil obtained from the leaves is antirheumatic, expectorant and stimulant.Essential oils extracted from the leaves are used in aromatherapy and perfumes.

Other Uses:-
An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used medicinally. The wood is soft, lightweight, and weak. It is used in construction, furniture, and wood pulp.(Wood light and soft, has no heart or resin ducts; used poorly.)

Scented Plants:-
Leaves: Crushed
The bruised leaves are aromatic.

Ecology. :-
Forests with dominance of Siberian fir or with its participation, along with spruce and Siberian pine, form the “dark” taiga of Siberia. Less often, occurs as an admixture in pine and larch forests, in the European part in broad-leaved forests, in mountains of southern Siberia in lime forests. In the Polar Ural up to 600 m a.s.l., in Altai up to 2400 m a.s.l.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+sibirica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_sibirica
http://www.conifers.org/pi/ab/sibirica.htm

http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/related/Abies_sibirica/

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Thymoma

Introduction
Thymoma, the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum, originates within the epithelial cells of the thymus.

click to see the pictures
The thymus is a lymphoid organ located in the anterior mediastinum. In early life, the thymus is responsible for the development and maturation of cell-mediated immunological functions. The thymus is composed predominantly of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Precursor cells migrate to the thymus and differentiate into lymphocytes. Most of these lymphocytes are destroyed, with the remainder of these cells migrating to tissues to become T lymphocytes. The thymus gland is located behind the sternum in front of the great vessels; it reaches its maximum weight at puberty and undergoes involution thereafter.

In human anatomy, the thymus is an organ located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity just behind the sternum. The main function of the thymus is to provide an area for T cell maturation, and is vital in protecting against autoimmunity.

Etiology:-
The etiology of thymomas has not been elucidated; however, it has been associated with various systemic syndromes. As many as 30-40% of patients who have a thymoma experience symptoms suggestive of MG. An additional 5% of patients who have a thymoma have other systemic syndromes, including red cell aplasia, dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematous, Cushing syndrome, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

History:-
The thymus was known to the Ancient Greeks, and its name comes from the Greek word ??µ?? (thumos), meaning heart, soul, desire, life – possibly because of its location in the chest, near where emotions are subjectively felt; or else the name comes from the herb thyme (also in Greek ??µ??), which became the name for a “warty excrescence”, possibly due to its resemblance to a bunch of thyme.

Galen was the first to note that the size of the organ changed over the duration of a person’s life.

Due to the large numbers of apoptotic lymphocytes, the thymus was originally dismissed as a “lymphocyte graveyard”, without functional importance. The importance of the thymus in the immune system was discovered in 1961 by Jacques Miller, by surgically removing the thymus from three day old mice, and observing the subsequent deficiency in a lymphocyte population, subsequently named T cells after the organ of their origin. Recently, advances in immunology have allowed the function of the thymus in T cell maturation to be more fully understood.

Function:-
In the two thymic lobes, lymphocyte precursors from the bone-marrow become thymocytes, and subsequently mature into T cells. Once mature, T cells emigrate from the thymus and constitute the peripheral T cell repertoire responsible for directing many facets of the adaptive immune system. Loss of the thymus at an early age through genetic mutation (as in DiGeorge Syndrome) or surgical removal results in severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to infection.

The stock of T-lymphocytes is built up in early life, so the function of the thymus is diminished in adults. It is largely degenerated in elderly adults and is barely identifiable, consisting mostly of fatty tissue, but it continues to function as an endocrine gland important in stimulating the immune system.[8] Involution of the thymus has been linked to loss of immune function in the elderly, susceptibility to infection and to cancer.

The ability of T cells to recognize foreign antigens is mediated by the T cell receptor. The T cell receptor undergoes genetic rearrangement during thymocyte maturation, resulting in each T cell bearing a unique T cell receptor, specific to a limited set of peptide:MHC combinations. The random nature of the genetic rearrangement results in a requirement of central tolerance mechanisms to remove or inactivate those T cells which bear a T cell receptor with the ability to recognise self-peptides.

Iodine, thymus and immunity:-
Iodine has important actions in the immune system. The high iodide-concentration of thymus suggests an anatomical rationale for this role of iodine in immune system.

Phases of thymocyte maturation:-
The generation of T cells expressing distinct T cell receptors occurs within the thymus, and can be conceptually divided into three phases:

1.A rare population of hematopoietic progenitor cells enter the thymus from the blood, and expands by cell division to generate a large population of immature thymocytes.

2.Immature thymocytes each make distinct T cell receptors by a process of gene rearrangement. This process is error-prone, and some thymocytes fail to make functional T cell receptors, whereas other thymocytes make T cell receptors that are autoreactive. Growth factors include thymopoietin and thymosin.

3.Immature thymocytes undergo a process of selection, based on the specificity of their T cell receptors. This involves selection of T cells that are functional (positive selection), and elimination of T cells that are autoreactive (negative selection).

Anatomy:
The thymus is of a pinkish-gray color, soft, and lobulated on its surfaces. At birth it is about 5 cm in length, 4 cm in breadth, and about 6 mm in thickness. The organ enlarges during childhood, and atrophies at puberty. Unlike the liver, kidney and heart, for instance, the thymus is at its largest in children. The thymus reaches maximum weight (20 to 37 grams) by the time of puberty. It remains active only until puberty. Then with growing age, it starts to shrink. The thymus gland of older people is scarcely distinguishable from surrounding fatty tissue. As one ages the thymus slowly shrinks, eventually degenerating into tiny islands of fatty tissue. By the age of 75 years, the thymus gland weighs only 6 grams. In children the thymus is grayish-pink in colour and in adults it is yellow.
Presentation:-
Peak incidence of thymoma occurs in the fourth to fifth decade of life; mean age of patients is 52 years. No sexual predilection exists. Although development of a thymoma in childhood is rare, children are more likely than adults to have symptoms. Several explanations for the prevalence of symptoms in children have been proposed, including the following: (1) children are more likely to have malignancy, (2) lesions are more likely to cause symptoms by compression or invasion in the smaller thoracic cavity of a child, and (3) the most common location for mediastinal tumors in children is near the trachea, resulting in respiratory symptoms.

Four cases of patients who presented with severe chest pain secondary to infarction or hemorrhage of the tumor have been reported. Cases of invasion into the superior vena cava resulting in venous obstruction have also been reported.2  The clinician should be aware of these rare presentations of a thymoma.

The thymus will, if examined when its growth is most active, be found to consist of two lateral lobes placed in close contact along the middle line, situated partly in the thorax, partly in the neck, and extending from the fourth costal cartilage upward, as high as the lower border of the thyroid gland. It is covered by the sternum, and by the origins of the sternohyoidei and sternothyreoidei. Below, it rests upon the pericardium, being separated from the aortic arch and great vessels by a layer of fascia. In the neck, it lies on the front and sides of the trachea, behind the sternohyoidei and sternothyreoidei. The two lobes differ in size and may be united or separated

Problem:-
No clear histologic distinction between benign and malignant thymomas exists. The propensity of a thymoma to be malignant is determined by the invasiveness of the thymoma. Malignant thymomas can invade the vasculature, lymphatics, and adjacent structures within the mediastinum. The 15-year survival rate of a person with an invasive thymoma is 12.5%, and it is 47% for a person with a noninvasive thymoma. Death usually occurs from cardiac tamponade or other cardiorespiratory complications.

Frequency:-
Thymoma, the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum, accounts for 20-25% of all mediastinal tumors and 50% of anterior mediastinal masses

Two primary forms of tumours originate in the thymus.

Tumours originating from the thymic epithelial cells are called thymomas, and are found in about 10-15% of patients with myasthenia gravis. Symptoms are sometimes confused with bronchitis or a strong cough because the tumor presses on the recurrent laryngeal nerve. All thymomas are potentially cancerous, but they can vary a great deal. Some grow very slowly. Others grow rapidly and can spread to surrounding tissues. Treatment of thymomas often requires surgery to remove the entire thymus. Tumours originating from the thymocytes are called thymic lymphomas.

Radiation Induced:-
People with enlarged thymus glands, particularly children, were treated with intense radiation in the years before 1950. There is an elevated incidence of thyroid cancer and leukemia in treated individuals.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/193809-overview
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymus

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Health Tips For 2010

As Written by :DR GITA MATHAI
————————————————-
Somehow the spirit of the New Year affects everyone, including cynics. It is time for all those resolutions that will change your life and make you a better person. After all, before you “heal the world (and) make it a better place,” you have to change “the man in the mirror”.

The changes must be effected on a war footing. India is already known as the world’s diabetic and ischaemic heart disease capital. The statistics are alarming. Unless we get going right now, many of us will not live to see our grandchildren. And even those who survive may be too sickly to enjoy them.
Health Tips for 2010

IN GOOD COMPANY: Join a group if exercising alone seems uninspiring

Recommendations for fitness have increased over the last five years from walking half an hour three or four times a week to one hour every day. However, a one-hour stroll in bathroom slippers will not do the trick — walking or jogging should be at a steady pace where conversation is not possible. At least four to five kilometres have to be covered in 60 minutes. If you feel you can walk for an hour in the evening as well, your health may improve further.

At times, taking walks outdoors may be dangerous, especially for women. There are no nearby walkers’ parks. Don’t lose heart — it’s possible to get almost similar benefits by spot jogging. This means standing in one spot and running vigorously, moving the arms as well. You must wear jogging shoes. The right foot has to hit the ground 45 times in one minute. Gradually, try to work up to 45 minutes a day. It is less effective than a using a treadmill or running on the road as there is no forward propulsion, but it definitely has health benefits and is better than doing nothing.

Jogging or walking helps reduce weight, trim the waistline and tone the body, controls blood pressure, boosts the immune system, and decreases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, fracture and mental disease. Depression and insomnia are far less. Walkers have also been shown to live to a healthy, mentally active old age in greater numbers than their inactive counterparts.

People are always asking for a magic pill for health, a single ingredient to prevent disease and treat all illnesses……. Regular speed walking or jogging is an activity that provides an answer to all these.

Diabetes, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease develop in susceptible genetically predisposed individuals when the environment is right. Even if the disease appears inevitable, the onset of these diseases can be delayed 10 years or more by maintaining a body mass index (BMI) of 23. This can be calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by the height in metre squared. The only variable in this formula is the weight, as adult height does not change.

Walking or running alone will not help maintain your BMI. Diet has to be factored in by eating 20 calories per kilogram of expected weight. This, combined with jogging or walking, will help maintain your BMI. Calories are hidden everywhere — a cube of chocolate means 60 calories, a ladoo 280 calories and a plate of bhel puri 400 calories! Each teaspoon of sugar in juice adds 20 calories, 100gm of peanuts 550 calories and a teaspoon of oil around 50 calories.

A good way to chart progress is to maintain a diary and record the kilometres covered daily along with the approximate number of calories consumed. The weight should be recorded once a week.

It takes a negative balance of 3,500 calories to lose half a kg of body weight. This cannot be achieved by dieting alone. Walking or jogging builds up the calf muscles. It also increases the BMR (basal metabolic rate) so that more calories are utilised even at rest.

If exercising alone is a bother, get yourself good company. I am a member of groups such as Runners for Life, Chennai Runners and Chain Reaxion. I participated in the Chennai Half Marathon and two 47-km cycling events. To my pleasant surprise, I found a group of enthusiastic young people determined to propagate a healthy lifestyle. I also discovered that contrary to common belief, age is not a bar. Nor does running cause your knees to develop osteoarthritis!

Take the example of 97-year-old Fauja Singh who goes around the world running marathons. He is the Adidas poster boy for their slogan “nothing is impossible”.

So as we move into 2010, let us make the figure our walking milestone and cover 2,010 km in 365 days

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Abies Procera (Noble Fir)

 

Botanical Name : Abies procera – Rehder.
Family : Family Pinaceae
Synonyms: Abies nobilis – (Douglas. Ex D.Don.)Lindl., Pinus nobilis – D.Don.
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Species: A. procera
Genus: Abies

Habitat:–     Native to the Cascade Range and Coast Range mountains of extreme northwest California and western Oregon and Washington in the United States.   Western N. America – Washington to N. California. Self-sows in Britain – in Scotland.  Deep forests at elevations between 600 – 1500 metres. The best specimens are found in deep rich soils with a short cool growing season and abundant annual precipitation, mainly as snow.

Description:
A Perennial  evergreen Tree growing to 60m by 5m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

You may click to see the pictures of Abies Procera (Noble Fir)
click for picture
It is a large evergreen tree typically up to 40-70 m (130-230 ft.) tall and 2 m (6.5 ft.) trunk diameter, rarely to 90 m (295 ft.) tall and 2.7 m (8.9 ft.) diameter[1], with a narrow conic crown. The bark on young trees is smooth, grey, and with resin blisters, becoming red-brown, rough and fissured on old trees. The leaves are needle-like, 1-3.5 cm long, glaucous blue-green above and below with strong stomatal bands, and a blunt to notched tip. They are arranged spirally on the shoot, but twisted slightly s-shaped to be upcurved above the shoot. The cones are erect, 11-22 cm long, with the purple scales almost completely hidden by the long exserted yellow-green bract scales; ripening brown and disintegrating to release the winged seeds in fall.

Cultivation:-
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil. Succeeds in cold exposed positions and in poor mountain peats. Succeeds in poor thin soils so long as sufficient moisture is present. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but they grow more slowly in dense shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Prefers slightly acid conditions with a pH down to about 5. Grows well on a north-facing slope. A long-lived tree in the wild, with specimens more than 600 years old recorded. It is a very ornamental tree, but is very susceptible to damage by aphis in some areas of the country. Planted for timber in W. and N. Europe, in Britain it grows best in wetter parts of the country such as the Perthshire valleys of Scotland[. Trees do not grow well in the drier areas of Britain. In a suitable site it can make new growth of 1 metre a year until it is 25 metres tall when growth slows. Exposure seems to severely limit growth in height in southern and eastern regions but less so in areas of high rainfall such as N. Wales and Argyll. New growth takes place from early June to August. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance. Trees are sometimes used as ‘Christmas trees‘. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 – 8 weeks. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position

Medicinal Actions & Uses

Pectoral.…..A decoction of the leaves has been used as a cough medicine.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses:-
Noble Fir is a popular Christmas tree. Wood – light, hard, strong, close grained, works easily. Used for lumber, interior work, pulp etc. It is used for general structural purposes and paper manufacture.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Abies+procera
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ABPR&photoID=abpr_010_ahp.tif
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id22221/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abies_procera

 

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Healing Gardens

Hand in Hand with Nature ………
Time spent in nature’s embrace is a soothing reminder of the fact that we also are products of the natural world’s ingenuity. We feel at home in a quiet forest and are comforted by the pounding surf of the seaside. In both the sunny meadow and the shaded waterfall’s grotto, stress and tension we have long retained melts away. Finding opportunities to reconnect with nature to enjoy its healing benefits can be difficult, however. Planting and tending a garden allows us to spend time with Mother Nature in a very personal and hands-on way. We work in tandem with nature while gardening—honoring the seasons, participating in the life cycle of various organisms, experiencing the unique biorhythms of our environments, and transcending all that divides us from the natural world. As we interact with the soil, we are free to be ourselves and reflect upon meditative topics. Fresh air invigorates us, while our visceral connection to the earth grounds us.

Though you may plant a garden to grow food or herbs, or for the pleasure of seeing fresh flowers in bloom, you will likely discover that the time you spend working in your plot feels somehow more significant than many of the seemingly more important tasks you perform each day. Whether your garden can be measured in feet or is a collection of plants in pots, tending it can be a highly spiritual experience. You, by necessity, develop a closer relationship with the soil, seeds, water, and sunlight. Nurturing just a single plant means cultivating a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that permit it to thrive. A true healing garden is simply one where you feel comfortable plunging your hands into the earth, lingering over seedlings and plants to observe their growth. And yes, even caressing and talking to plants. Creating beauty through the creative use of space, and giving yourself over to awe when you realize that you have worked hand in hand with nature to give birth to som! ething, is truly wonderful.

The partnership that is formed when you collaborate with Mother Nature through gardening is wonderful in that it provides you with so many opportunities to be outdoors. You will be reminded of not only your connection to the earth but also of your unique gifts that allow you to give back to the earth.


Source:
Daily Om

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Practice Yoga Daily To Earn Maximum Gains

 

Yoga is a low impact form of exercise and when it’s far from being easy, there are plenty of exercises that would suit elderly people. Keeping fit is very important for younger people and in their busy schedule, only yoga can keep them healthier and stress free. Many diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, rheumatism, and arthritis can be aggravated due to lack of exercises. Through yoga, obese problem can also be sorted.
……………....click to  see
Yoga focuses a lot on breathing that keeps you relax and calm. Yoga looks at self development with discipline, confidence and an earnest effort. It is good for your body because the sorts of movements it includes are for the benefit and limberness of each and every part of the body. An integral part of yoga includes meditation and if your mind doesn’t tune rightly, you can’t perform yoga properly.

Yoga has a lot health benefits. It develops the immune system and gives for better blood circulation in the body. It gives complete control over your mind, anxiety, stress and depression. By practicing yoga everyday, you can control your weight and also lose. Yoga assists in detoxifying the body and also assists to cure lots of illnesses such as heart diseases, chronic fatigue, arthritis, back and joint pain. Yoga reduces stress and tension, assist in concentrating better and also better creative thinking. The mind becomes refreshed, relaxed and rejuvenated after a session of deep meditation.

Source: http://www.healthyeatingworld.com/vitamins-suplements/2170-practice-yoga-everyday-to-keep-yourself-healthy-and-fit

 

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