Lactuca serriola

Botanical Name: Lactuca serriola
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. serriola
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name: Common Name: Prickly Lettuce. milk thistle (not to be confused with Silybum marianum, also called milk thistle) compass plant, and scarole
Habitat :Lactuca serriola is native to Europe, Asia, and north Africa, and has become naturalized elsewhere. It grows in waste places, walls, occasionally on more or less stable dunes.

Description:
Lactuca serriola is an annual or binnial plant. It has a spineless reddish stem, containing a milky latex, growing from 30 to 200 cm. The leaves get progressively smaller as they reach its top. They are oblong lanceolate, often pinnate and (especially for the lower leaves), waxy grey green. Fine spines are present along the veins and leaf edges. The undersides have whitish veins. They emit latex when cut. The flower heads are 11 to 13mm wide, are pale yellow, often tinged purple. The bracts are also often tinged purple. It flowers from July until September. The achenes are grey, tipped with bristles. The pappus is white with equal length hairs….CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

Cultivation: Prefers a light sandy loam in a sunny position. The wild lettuce is cultivated for the oil in its seed in Egypt. A compass plant, the top leaves align north-south.

Propagation:..…Seed – sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.

Edible Uses: Young leaves are eaten raw as salad or cooked. A bitter flavour. The young tender leaves are mild and make an excellent salad, but the whole plant becomes bitter as it gets older, especially when coming into flower. As a potherb it needs very little cooking. Large quantities can cause digestive upsets. Young shoots – cooked. Used as an asparagus substitute. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The oil must be refined before it is edible. A pleasant flavour.

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Antipyretic; Diuretic; Homeopathy; Hypnotic; Narcotic; Sedative.
The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains ‘lactucarium’, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. This species does not contain as much lactucarium as L. virosa. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. Lettuce, White: (Nabalus albus): The Chippewa doctor considered this a  milk root and used the root as a remedy for female complaints, possibly as a douche in leucorrhea, to help arrest the discomforting white discharge of the vagina. At the same time a tea of the leaves was taken as a diuretic to flush the poisons from the urinary organs. To the Indians, the oozing bitter juice also corresponded to the pus of a sore, for which purpose he applied a poultice of the leaves to the bites of snakes and insects. In time, the herb became better known for its content of the astringent tannic acid and was used not only in dysentery but as an everyday vulnerary, to heal cancerous and canker sores. The powdered root is sprinkled on food to stimulate milk flow after childbirth. A tea made from the roots is used as a wash for weakness. A latex in the stems is diuretic it is used in female diseases. It is also taken internally in the treatment of snakebite. . Used in diarrhea and relaxed and debilitated conditions of the bowels.
Other Uses: The seed contains 35.2% of a semi-drying oil. It is used in soap making, paints, varnishes etc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca_serriola
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+serriola

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

Lachnanthes tinctoria

Botanical Name: Lachnanthes tinctoria
Family: Haemodoraceae
Tribe: Haemodoreae
Genus: Lachnanthes
Species: L. caroliniana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Commelinales
Synonyms: Gyrotheca capitata. Gyrotheca tinctoria. Wool Flower. Red Root. Paint Root. Spirit Weed.

Common Names: Carolina redroot or Bloodroot.

Parts Used:   Root, herb.

Habitat: Lachnanthes tinctoria, a plant indigenous to the United States of America, growing in sandy swamps along the Atlantic coast, from Florida to New Jersey and Rhode Island, and also found in Cuba, blossoming from June to September, according to locality.
Description:
Lachnanthes tinctoria is a perennial herb, 1 1/2 to 2 feet high, the upper portion whitewoolly, hence one of its local names: Woolflower. The rhizome is about 1 inch in length and of nearly equal thickness, and bears a large number of long, coarse, somewhat waxy, deep-red roots, yielding a red dye, to which its popular names of Paintroot and Redroot are due.

The leaves are mostly borne in basal rosettes and are somewhat succulent, 1/5 to 3/5 inch wide and reduced to bracts on the upper part of the stem. The flowers are in a close, woolly cyme, the ovary inferior, the perianth sixparted, the sepals narrower than the petals, the stamens three, alternately with the petals on long filaments; the style is solitary, threadlike, its stigma slightly lobed; the fruit, a three-celled, many seeded, rounded capsule…..CLICK &  SEE THE  PICTURES

Constituents: The root yields a fine red dye and a little resin, but so far no analysis determining the nature of its specific constituents has been made: they are, however, quite active, producing a peculiar form of cerebral stimulation or narcosis.

The drug has a somewhat acrid taste, but no odour.

Medicinal Uses:
‘The root,’ says Millspaugh, ‘was esteemedan invigorating tonic by the American aborigines, especially by the Seminole tribe, who use it, it is said, to cause brilliancy and fluency of speech. A tincture of the root has been recommended in typhus and typhoid fevers, pneumonia, severe forms of brain disease,’ rheumatic wry-neck and laryngeal cough.’
The drug is employed for various nervous disorders. A homoeopathic tincture is prepared from the whole fresh plant, while flowering. Doses varying from a few drops of the tincture to a drachm, cause mental exhilaration, followed by ill-humour, vertigo and headache.

The drug Lachnanthes is prepared from the entire plant, but especially from the rhizome and roots of the plant.

Other Uses: Apart from its narcotic uses among the Indians, it has been used in the United States for dyeing purposes.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lachnanthes
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lachna03.html

Kola Nuts

Botanical Name: Kola vera
Family:   Malvaceae
Genus :  Kola
Species:   K.vera
Kingdom :  Plantae
Order:   Malvales

Synonyms: Cola acuminata. Sterculia acuminata. Kola Seeds. Gurru Nuts. Bissy Nuts. Cola Seeds. Guru Nut.

Common NameKola Nuts

Parts Used: The seeds are the most commonly used parts of the kola nut tree for its commercial and medicinal purposes.
Habitat: Kola nut is native to W. Africa; this herb is cultivated extensively in the tropics particularly Nigeria, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and S. America. Though it is a native of tropical West Africa, but has been spread so much by man that today it is cultivated from Senegal to Nigeria.

Originally a tree of tropical rainforest, it needs a hot humid climate but can withstand a dry season on sites with a high ground water level. It may be cultivated in drier areas where ground water is available. C. nitida is a shade bearer but develops a better spreading crown which yields more fruits in open places. Though it is a lowland forest tree it has been found at altitudes over 300 m on deep rich soils under heavy and evenly distributed rainfall.

Description:
The Kola nut is a caffeine-containing nut of evergreen trees of the genus Cola, primarily of the species Cola acuminata and Cola nitida. Cola acuminata, an evergreen tree about 20 metres in height, has long, ovoid leaves pointed at both the ends with a leathery texture. The trees have yellow flowers with purple spots, and star-shaped fruit. Inside the fruit, about a dozen round or square seeds develop in a white seed-shell. The nut’s aroma is sweet and rose-like. The first taste is bitter, but it sweetens upon chewing. The nut can be boiled to extract the cola. This tree reaches 25 meters in height and is propagated through seeds. C. nitida and C. acuminata can easily be interchanged with other Cola species...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Kola nuts comprise about 2% caffeine, as well as containing kolanin and theobromine. All three chemicals function as stimulants

Cultivation:   Ripe fruits harvested before the follicles split open, the seeds or nuts are extracted from the follicles and the white aril removed after 5 days of fermentation. Yields of 300 nuts per tree are considered good. Nuts for planting are the mature ones that have undergone after-ripening. C. nitida can also be propagated by cuttings or aerial layering. The seedl
ings are sometimes raised in pots or in polythene bags before planting out. Field spacing of 10 x 10 m is common. Early weeding is essential and interplanting with a shade tree recommended. Initial growth is slow, reaching only 3 m in 4 years. Slashing the trunk of cola trees before the season of main flowering is believed to induce heavy bearing. Trees start flowering at 4-5 years and very few fruits can be obtained, but full production occurs in 20 years. Cola as an intercrop flowers later than the normal 4-5 years. Seed generally have recalcitrant storage behaviour. Seed can be retained for 1 year or more without loss in viability with seeds wrapped in banana leaves in a basket, or with polythene bags, at room temperature. Nuts may be thus stored for several months without spoiling but will require regular changing of the leaves and checking for weevil damage.

Constituents:    The different varieties of nuts give a greater or lesser percentage of caffeine, which is only found in the fresh state. The seeds are said to contain a glucoside, Kolanin, but this substance appears to be a mixture of Kola red and caffeine. The seeds also contain starch, fatty matter, sugar, a fat decomposing enzyme acting on various oils.

Medicinal   Uses: The properties of Kola are the same as caffeine, modified only by the astringents present. Fresh Kola Nuts have stimulant action apart from the caffeine content, but as they appear in European commerce, their action is indistinguishable from that of other caffeine drugs and Kola red is inert. Kola is also a valuable nervine, heart tonic, and a good general tonic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kola_nut
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/k/kolanu10.html
http://www.findyourfate.com/astrology/plants/trees/kola-nut.html

Polyganum aviculare

Botanical Name: Polyganum aviculare
Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Polygonum
Species: P. aviculare
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms: Knotgrass. Centinode. Ninety-knot. Nine-joints. Allseed. Bird’s Tongue. Sparrow Tongue. Red Robin. Armstrong. Cowgrass. Hogweed. Pigweed. Pigrush. Swynel Grass. Swine’s Grass.

Common Names :  Knotweed, Prostrate knotweed, Birdweed, Pigweed and lowgrass.

Part Used: Whole herb.

Habitat: Polyganum aviculare occurs throughout the world. It is mostly found in fields and wasteland.

Description:
Common knotgrass is an annual herb with a semi-erect stem that may grow to 10 to 40 cm (4 to 16 in) high. The leaves are hairless and short-stalked. They are longish-elliptical with short stalks and rounded bases; the upper ones are few and are linear and stalkless. The stipules are fused into a stem-enclosing, translucent sheath known as an ochrea that is membranous and silvery. The flowers are regular, green with white or pink margins. Each has five perianth segments, overlapping at the base, five to eight stamens and three fused carpels. The fruit is a dark brown, three-edged nut. The seeds need light to germinate which is why this plant appears in disturbed soil in locations where its seeds may have lain dormant for years. It is noted for attracting wildlife……..CLICK  & SEE  THE  PICTURES

Cultivation :
Succeeds in an ordinary garden soil but prefers a moisture retentive not too fertile soil in sun or part shade. Repays generous treatment, in good soils the plant will cover an area up to a metre in diameter. Prefers an acid soil. Dislikes shade. Knotweed is a common and invasive weed of cultivated ground. It is an important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies. It also produces an abundance of seeds and these are a favourite food for many species of birds. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. The flowers have little or no scent or honey and are rarely visited by pollinating insects. Self-fertilization is the usual method of reproduction, though cross-fertilization by insects does sometimes occur. The plant also produces cleistogomous flowers – these never open and therefore are always self-fertilized. The plant is very variable and is seen by most botanists as an aggregate species of 4 very variable species, viz. – P. aviculare. L.; P. boreale. (Lange.)Small.; P. rurivacum. Jord. ex Box.; and P. arenastrum. Box.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually free and easy. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer if they have reached sufficient size. If not, overwinter them in a cold frame and plant them out the following spring after the last expected frosts. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.
Edible Uses: Tea.

Young leaves and plants – raw or cooked. Used as a potherb, they are very rich in zinc. A nutritional analysis is available. Seed – raw or cooked. Rather small and fiddly to utilize, they can be used in all the ways that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is used, either whole or dried and ground into a powder for use in pancakes, biscuits and piñole. The leaves are a tea substitute
Chemical Compositions: Polyganum aviculare contains the flavonols avicularin, myricitrin, juglanin, astragalin, betmidin and the lignan aviculin.
*Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
*Leaves (Fresh weight)
*0 Calories per 100g
*Water : 81.6%
*Protein: 1.9g; Fat: 0.3g; Carbohydrate: 10.2g; Fibre: 3.5g; Ash: 3.5g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Antiphlogistic; Astringent; Cardiotonic; Cholagogue; Diuretic; Emetic; Emollient; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Haemostatic;
Lithontripic; Purgative; TB; Vasoconstrictor; Vulnerary.

Polyganum aviculare is a safe and effective astringent and diuretic herb that is used mainly in the treatment of complaints such as dysentery and haemorrhoids. It is also taken in the treatment of pulmonary complaints because the silicic acid it contains strengthens connective tissue in the lungs. The whole plant is anthelmintic, astringent, cardiotonic, cholagogue, diuretic, febrifuge, haemostatic, lithontripic and vulnerary. It was formerly widely used as an astringent both internally and externally in the treatment of wounds, bleeding, piles and diarrhoea. Its diuretic properties make it useful in removing stones. An alcohol-based preparation has been used with success to treat varicose veins of recent origin. The plant is harvested in the summer and early autumn and is dried for later use. The leaves are anthelmintic, diuretic and emollient. The whole plant is anthelmintic, antiphlogistic and diuretic. The juice of the plant is weakly diuretic, expectorant and vasoconstrictor. Applied externally, it is an excellent remedy to stay bleeding of the nose and to treat sores. The seeds are emetic and purgative. Recent research has shown that the plant is a useful medicine for bacterial dysentery. Of 108 people with this disease, 104 recovered within 5 days when treated internally with a paste of knotweed
The plant has astringent properties, rendering an infusion of it useful in diarrhoea, bleeding piles and all haemorrhages; it was formerly employed considerably as a vulnerary and styptic.

It has also diuretic properties, for which it has found employment in strangury and as an expellant of stone, the dose recommended in old herbals being 1 drachm of the herb, powdered in wine, taken twice a day.

The decoction was also administered to kill worms.

The fresh juice has been found effectual to stay bleeding of the nose, squirted up the nose and applied to the temples, and made into an ointment it has proved an excellent remedy for sores.

Salmon stated:
‘Knotgrass is peculiar against spilling of blood, strangury and other kidney affections, cools inflammations, heals wounds and cleanses and heals old filthy ulcers. The Essence for tertians and quartan. The decoction for colick; the Balsam strengthens weak joints, comforts the nerves and tendons, and is prevalent against the gout, being duly and rightly applied morning and evening.’

The fruit is emetic and purgative.

Other Uses:..Dye…….Yields a blue dye that is not much inferior to indigo. The part used is not specified, but it is likely to be the leaves. Yellow and green dyes are obtained from the whole plant. The roots contain tannins, but the quantity was not given

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been made for this species, there have been reports that some members of this genus can cause photosensitivity in susceptible people. Many species also contain oxalic acid (the distinctive lemony flavour of sorrel) – whilst not toxic this substance can bind up other minerals making them unavailable to the body and leading to mineral deficiency. Having said that, a number of common foods such as sorrel and rhubarb contain oxalic acid and the leaves of most members of this genus are nutritious and beneficial to eat in moderate quantities. Cooking the leaves will reduce their content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygonum_aviculare
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/k/knogra08.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Polygonum+aviculare

Gentiana campestris

Botanical Name : Gentiana campestris
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentianella
Species: G. campestris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Bitterroot. Felwort.
Common name : Field Gentian

Habitat: Gentiana campestris is widespread in Northern and Central Europe and its distribution range includes the European Alps and the Jura. The plant is present in Italy, France, Spain, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland, Estonia and Russia. It grows in moderately moist to rather dry substrates and neutral or acid soils of alpine meadows, lawns, pastures, forest clearings and roadsides, at an altitude of 1,000–2,300 metres (3,300–7,500 ft) above sea leve

Description:
Gentianella campestris is a plant of small size, reaching on average 3–30 centimetres (1.2–11.8 in) in height. It has erect stems, simple or branched at the base and the leaves are opposite, ovate-lanceolate and unstalked. The flowers are 15–30 millimetres (0.59–1.18 in) in size. Their color is usually bluish-purple, but may be white, pink or lilac, with petals and sepals fused (gamopetalous and gamosepalous). There are four petals, ciliate at the base. There are also four sepals, which differ in size (two are wide and two narrow). The flowering period extends from June to October. The fruit is a capsule

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Part Used: Root.

Edible Uses:
Alcoholic Drink:
Fresh Gentian root is used in Germany and Switzerland in the production of an alcoholic beverage.

The roots are cut, macerated with water, fermented and distilled. The resulting liquid gives it a characteristic odour and taste.

Medicinal Uses:
One of the medicinal uses was that it was used as an antidote to poison.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentianella_campestris
https://www.virtualheb.co.uk/field-gentian-wildflowers-western-isles/

Jewelweed ( Impatiens )

 

Botanical Name: Impatiens aurea (MUHL.), Impatiens biflora (WALT.)
Family: Balsaminaceae
Genus: Impatiens
Kingdom: Planta
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Wild Balsam. Balsam-weed. Impatiens pallida. Pale-touch-me-not. Spottedtouch-me-not. Slipperweed. Silverweed. Wild Lady’s Slipper. Speckled Jewels. Wild Celandine. Quick-in-the-hand.

Common Names: Impatiens, Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, Snapweed

Part Used: Herb.
Habitat: Members of the genus Impatiens are found widely distributed in the north temperate zone and in South Africa, but the majority are natives of the mountains of tropical Asia and Africa. It grows in lowlying, damp, rather rich soil, beside streams and in similar damp localities.
Description:
Some species are annual plants and produce flowers from early summer until the first frost, while perennial species, found in milder climates, can flower all year. Regardless of their lifespan, the largest impatiens grow up to about 2 meters (about 7 feet) tall, but most are less than half as tall. The stems somewhat translucent, the foliage showing a brilliant silvery surface when immersed in water, which will not adhere to the surface. The leaves are entire and shiny; their upperside has a thick, water-repellent cuticula that gives them a greasy feel. Particularly on the underside of the leaves, tiny air bubbles are trapped over and under the leaf surface, giving them a silvery sheen that becomes pronounced when they are held under water.They are thin, ovate oval, more or less toothed, of a tender green colour.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers, up to 2–3 cm, around 1 inch long, in most species are made up by a shoe- or horn-shaped spur for the most part, with at least the upper petals insignificant by comparison; some have a prominent labellum though, allowing pollinators to land. Others, like the busy lizzie (I. walleriana), have flattened flowers with large petals and just a tiny spur that appear somewhat similar to those of violets (Viola), an unrelated genus. A few Impatiens species have flowers intermediate between the two basic types.The oblong capsules of both species when ripe explode under the slightest disturbance, scattering the seeds widely. Most of the popular names refer to this peculiarity, others to the shape of the flowers.

The slipper-shaped, yellow flowers, in bloom from July to September, have long recurved tails, those of the first-named species being of a uniform pale-yellow, those of the second species, orange-yellow, crowded with dark spots, hence its common name of Spotted-touch-me-not.

Constituents: Impatiens contain 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, an anti-inflammatory and fungicide naphthoquinone that is an active ingredient in some formulations of Preparation H.
Medicinal Uses:
North American impatiens have been used as herbal remedies for the treatment of bee stings, insect bites, and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) rashes. They are also used after poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) contact to prevent a rash from developing. The efficacy of orange jewelweed (I. capensis) and yellow jewelweed (I. pallida) in preventing poison ivy contact dermatitis has been studied, with conflicting results. A study in 1958 found that Impatiens biflora was an effective alternative to standard treatment for dermatitis caused by contact with sumac, while later studies found that the species had no antipruritic effects after the rash has developed. Researchers reviewing these contradictions state that potential reason for these conflicts include the method of preparation and timing of application. A 2012 study found that while an extract of orange jewelweed and garden jewelweed (I. balsamina) was not effective in reducing contact dermatitis, a mash of the plants applied topically decreased it.

Impatiens glandulifera is one of the Bach flower remedies, flower extracts used as herbal remedies for physical and emotional problems. It is included in the “Rescue Remedy” or “Five Flower Remedy”, a potion touted as a treatment for acute anxiety and which is supposed to be protective in stressful situations. Studies have found no difference between the effect of the potion and that of a placebo.

All Impatiens taste bitter and seem to be slightly toxic upon ingestion, causing intestinal ailments like vomiting and diarrhea. The toxic compounds have not been identified but are probably the same as those responsible for the bitter taste, likely might be glycosides or alkaloids.

?-Parinaric acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid discovered in the seeds of the makita tree (Atuna racemosa racemosa), is together with linolenic acid the predominant component of the seed fat of garden jewelweed (I. balsamina), and perhaps other species of Impatiens. This is interesting from a phylogenetic perspective, because the makita tree is a member of the Chrysobalanaceae in a lineage of eudicots entirely distinct from the balsams.

Certain jewelweeds, including the garden jewelweed contain the naphthoquinone lawsone, a dye that is also found in henna (Lawsonia inermis) and is also the hair coloring and skin coloring agent in mehndi. In ancient China, Impatiens petals mashed with rose and orchid petals and alum were used as nail polish: leaving the mixture on the nails for some hours colored them pink or reddish.

Impatiens has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. However according to Cancer Research UK, “there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer”

Other Uses:  A yellow dye has been made from the flowers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impatiens
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/j/jewelw08.html

Haplopappus Baylahuen

 

Botanical Name : Haplopappus Baylahuen
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Genus: Haplopappus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonym: Haplopappus Baylahuen.
Habitat: Haplopappus Baylahuen occurs in Western United States of America, Chile.

Description:
Haplopappus Baylahuen is a flowering plant.It belongs to the same group as Solidago (Golden Rod) and is closely allied to Grindelia botanically and as a drug….CLICK &  SEE THE PICTURES

Constituents : Volatile oil, fatty oil which has the same odour as the plant, acid resin which is a mixture of four other resines, and tannin.

Medicinal Uses:    Stimulant, expectorant. The medicinal properties lie principally in its resin and volatile oil, the resin acting chiefly on the bowels and urinary passages, and the volatile oil on the lungs. It does not cause disorder to the stomach and bowels, it is a valuable remedy in dysentery, chronic diarrhoea specially of tuberculous nature and in chronic cystitis.

The tincture, by its stimulating and protective action (like tinc. benzoin), has served as a dressing for wounds and ulcers.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplopappus
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/h/hyster50.html

Hydrocotyle

Botanical Name: Hydrocotyle Asiatica
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Hydrocotyloideae
Genus: Hydrocotyl
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms: Indian Pennywort. Marsh Penny. White Rot. Thick-leaved Pennywort.

Common Names: Water pennywort, Indian pennywort, Marsh penny, White rot

Habitat: Hydrocotyleae grows in Asia and Africa in wet and damp places in the tropics and the temperate zones.
Description:
Water pennyworts, Hydrocotyles, are very common. They have long creeping stems that often form dense mats, often in and near ponds, lakes, rivers, marshes and some species in coastal areas by the sea….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Leaves are Simple, with small leafy outgrowth at the base, kidney shaped to round. Leaf edges are scalloped.
Flowers: Flower clusters are simple and flat-topped or rounded. Involucral bracts Inconspicuous bracts at the base of each flower. Indistinct sepals.
Fruits and reproduction: Elliptical to round with thin ridges and no oil tubes (vitta) which is characteristic in the fruit of umbelliferous plants. The prostrate plants reproduce by seed and by sending roots from stem nodes.

Selected species:
The Hydrocotyle genus has between 75 and 100 species. that grow in tropical and temperate regions worldwide A few species have entered the world of cultivated ornamental aquatics. A list of selected species are :

*Hydrocotyle americana L. — American marshpennywort
*Hydrocotyle batrachium Hance
*Hydrocotyle benguetensis Elm.
*Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. — largeleaf pennywort
*Hydrocotyle bowlesioides Mathias & Constance — largeleaf marshpennywort
*Hydrocotyle calcicola
*Hydrocotyle dichondroides Makino
*Hydrocotyle dielsiana
*Hydrocotyle heteromeria — waxweed
*Hydrocotyle hexagona
*Hydrocotyle himalaica
*Hydrocotyle hirsuta Sw. — yerba de clavo
*Hydrocotyle hitchcockii
*Hydrocotyle hookeri
*Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb.
*Hydrocotyle keelungensis Liu, Chao & Chuang
*Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl. — Brazilian pennywort
*Hydrocotyle mannii Hook.f.
*Hydrocotyle microphylla A.Cunn.
*Hydrocotyle moschata G. Forst. — musky marshpennywort
*Hydrocotyle nepalensis Hook.
*Hydrocotyle novae-zelandiae DC.
*Hydrocotyle prolifera Kellogg — whorled marshpennywort
*Hydrocotyle pseudoconferta
*Hydrocotyle pusilla A. Rich. — tropical marshpennywort
*Hydrocotyle ramiflora
*Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. — floating marshpennywort, floating marshpennywort, floating pennyroyal
*Hydrocotyle salwinica
*Hydrocotyle setulosa Hayata
*Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. — lawn marshpennywort
*Hydrocotyle tambalomaensis
*Hydrocotyle tripartita
*Hydrocotyle umbellata L. — manyflower marshpennywort, umbrella pennyroyal
*Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. — whorled marshpennywort, whorled marshpennywort, whorled pennyroyal
*Hydrocotyle vulgaris L.
*Hydrocotyle wilfordii
*Hydrocotyle wilsonii
*Hydrocotyle yanghuangensis

Part Used: The Leaves.

Constituents: An oily volatile liquid called vellarin (which has a strong smell reminiscent of the plant, and a bitter, pungent, persistent taste) and tannic acid.

Medicinal Uses:  A valuable medicine for its diuretic properties; has long been used in India as an aperient or alterative tonic, useful in fever and bowel complaints and a noted remedy for leprosy, rheumatism and ichthyosis; employed as a poultice for syphilitic ulcers. In small doses it acts as a stimulant, in large doses as a narcotic, causing stupor and headache and with some people vertigo and coma.

Other Species:
The native species is not unlike the Indian variety, but there is a slight difference in the leaves.

European hydrocotyle vulgaris (syn. Common Pennywort). Leaves orbicular and peltate. The plant appears to have no noxious qualities; it grows freely in boggy places on the edges of lakes and rivers.

The plant has come into disfavour because it is said to cause footrot in sheep.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocotyle
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/h/hydcol46.html

Paris quadrifolia

Botanical Name: Paris quadrifolia
Family: Melanthiaceae
Genus: Paris
Species: P. quadrifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Synonyms: Herba Paris. Solanum quadrifolium. Aconitum pardalianches. True Love. One Berry.
(French) Parisette.
(German) Einbeere.

Common Names: Herb Paris, True Lover’s Knot

Habitat: Paris quadrifolia occurs in Europe, Russian Asia, and fairly abundant in Britain, but confined to certain places. It grows in moist places and damp shady woods.

Description:
Paris quadrifolia is a herbaceous perennial plant. It has a creeping fleshy rootstock, a simple smooth upright stem about 1 foot high, crowned near its top with four pointed leaves, from the centre of which rises a solitary greeny-white flower, blooming May and June with a foetid odour; the petals and sepals remain till the purply-blackberry (fruit) is ripe, which eventually splits to discharge its seeds.The flower is borne above a single whorl of four or more stem leaves. It prefers calcareous soils and lives in damp and shady places, especially old established woods and streamsides……..CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

Each plant only produces one blueberry-like fruit, which is poisonous, as are other tissues of the plant. Paris quadrifolia poisonings are rare, because the plant’s solitary berry and its repulsive taste make it difficult to mistake it for a blueberry.

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a humus-rich soil in woodland conditions. Prefers a light sandy loam. Plants are hardy to about -15°c. The presence of this plant in a truly wild state in Britain is an indicator of ancient woodland. Plants are very slow to flower from seed. The flowers are very long-lived. The flowers emit a strong unpleasant smell rather like decaying meat.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in late summer in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as soon as it is received. The seed is very slow to germinate. It produces a primary root about 7 months after sowing, this pulls the seed deeper into the soil. Leaves are produced about 4 months later. Sow the seed thinly so that it does not need to be thinned and grow the young plants on undisturbed in a shady part of the greenhouse for their first two years of growth. Give an occasional liquid feed in the growing season to ensure the plants do not become nutrient deficient. At the end of the second year’s growth prick out the young plants into individual pots and grow them on for another year or two in a shady part of the greenhouse before planting them out in the spring. Division.
Part Used: The entire plant, just coming into bloom.
Constituents: A glucoside called Paradin.

Medicinal Uses:
Antianxiety; Antidote; Antirheumatic; Aphrodisiac; Detergent; Homeopathy; Narcotic; Ophthalmic.

The entire plant, harvested just as it is coming into flower, is antirheumatic and detergent. In large doses the herb is narcotic, producing nausea, vomiting, vertigo etc. It should be used with great caution, overdoses have proved fatal to children. In small doses it is of benefit in the treatment of bronchitis, spasmodic coughs, rheumatism, colic etc. The plant is also used in the treatment of headaches and neuralgia. The seeds and the berries have something of the nature of opium, they have been used as an aphrodisiac. A tincture of the fresh plant is useful as an antidote to poisoning by mercurial sublimate and arsenic. A cooling ointment made from the seeds and juice of the leaves is applied externally to wounds, tumours and inflammations. The juice of the berries is used to treat eye inflammations. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant.

It has been used as an aphrodisiac – the seeds and berries have something of the nature of opium. The leaves in Russia are prescribed for madness. The leaves and berries are more actively poisonous than the root.

Herb Paris is useful as an antidote against mercurial sublimate and arsenic. A tincture is prepared from the fresh plant.
Other Uses:..Dye…..A red dye is obtained from the berries. A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves

Known Hazards: The plant is poisonous in large doses. This refers to the fruit.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_quadrifolia
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/paris-08.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Paris+quadrifolia

Thlaspi arvense

Botanical Name: Thlaspi arvense
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Thlaspi
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonym: Pennycress.

Common Names: Field penny-cress,Pennycress

Habitat : Thlaspi arvense occurs in Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa, W. Asia, Siberia and Japan. It grows in waste places and a weed of cultivated ground where it can be a serious pest.

Description:
Thlaspi arvense is an annual plant , it grows to 0.6 m (2ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The leaves are small and narrower, smooth, toothed, arrow-shaped at the base. The flowers are small and white, growing on long branches, the seed-vessels form a round pouch, flat, with very broad wings, earning for the plant its other name of Pennycress. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, self.The plant is self-fertile..…..CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURES 
Cultivation: An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils. Dislikes shade.

Propagation : Seed – sow in situ in March or April.

Part Used: Seeds.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Oil; Seed.

Young leaves are eaten raw or cooked. They should always be harvested before the plant comes into flower or they will be very bitter. Even the young leaves have a somewhat bitter flavour and aroma, and are not to everyone’s taste. They can be added in small quantities to salads and other foods. They can also be cooked in soups or used as a potherb, they taste somewhat like mustard but with a hint of onion. For a leaf, it is very rich in protein. The seed is ground into a powder and used as a mustard substitute. The seed can be sprouted and added to salads.

It was formerly an ingredient in the Mithridate confection, an elaborate preparation used as an antidote to poison, but no longer used in medicine.

Constituents: Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight)
*0 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 54.2g; Fat: 0g; Carbohydrate: 33.1g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 0g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 1900mg;

Medicinal Uses:
Antibacterial; Antidote; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic; Blood tonic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Hepatic; Ophthalmic;
Tonic.

Antirheumatic, diuretic. The seed is a tonic. Both the seed and the young shoots are said to be good for the eyes. The seeds are used in Tibetan medicine and are considered to have an acrid taste and a cooling potency. They are anti-inflammatory and febrifuge, being used in the treatment of pus in the lungs, renal inflammation, appendicitis, seminal and vaginal discharges. The entire plant is antidote, anti-inflammatory, blood tonic, depurative, diaphoretic, expectorant, febrifuge and hepatic. It is used in the treatment of carbuncles, acute appendicitis, intestinal abscess, post-partum pain, dysmenorrhoea and endometriosis. Use with caution since large doses can cause a decrease in white blood cells, nausea and dizziness. The plant has a broad antibacterial activity, effective against the growth of Staphylococci and streptococci.
Other Uses:…Oil…….The seed contains 20 – 30% of a semi-drying oil, it is used for lighting

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thlaspi_arvense
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mustar65.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Thlaspi+arvense