Gymnadenia conopsea

Botanical Name: Gymnadenia conopsea
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Genus: Gymnadenia
Species: G. conopsea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms : Orchis conopsea. L. Habenaria conopsea. non Rchb.f.

Common Name : Fragrant Orchid

Habitat: Gymnadenia conopsea is native to Europe, including Britain, to north and west Asia. This species habitat includes mountain meadows and pastures, grassland and fens. They grow on siliceous and calcareous substrate, mildly damp and with low nutritional value, at an altitude of 0–2,400 metres (0–7,874 ft) above sea level.

Description:
Gymnadenia conopsea is a is a herbaceous plant It grows to an avarage height of 20–60 centimetres (7.9–23.6 in), with a maximum of 80 centimetres (31 in). These plants are bulbous geophytes, as they bring their buds in underground tubers or bulbs, organs that annually produce new stems, leaves and flowers. Furthermore these orchids are “terrestrial”, because unlike “epiphyte” species do not live at the expense of other plants of major sizes.

The stem is leafy and robust, with a striated surface. The leaves are long, narrow and lanceolate and vary from 3 to 7. The leaf color is gray-green. Size of leaf: width 1 to 2 cm, length 10 – 25 cm.

These orchids have two ovoidal bulbs, deeply webbed and with many small and short lobes. Size of tubers: 1 to 3.5 cm.

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CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The inflorescence is 5–25 centimetres (2.0–9.8 in) long and it is composed of flowers gathered in dense cylindrical spikes (up to 50 flowers per spike). These inflorescences are scented and genes underlying eugenol (a volatile scent compound) production have been identified in Gymnadenia conopsea, Gymnadenia odoratissima and Gymnadenia densiflora The flowers are petiolated, placed in the axils of long bracts and reach on average 8–14 centimetres (3.1–5.5 in). They have a distinctive three lobed lip and long spurs. Their light scent is similar to cloves. Their colors vary from white and pink to pink-purple, more rarely white. These flowers bloom in the Summer, from June to July. They are hermaphrodite and pollinated by insects (entomophily), including moths. The species is almost exclusively pollinated by moths (Lepidoptera). The most common pollinators are the small elephant hawk-moth (Deilephila porcellus), hummingbird hawk-moth (Macroglossum stellatarum), silver Y (Autographa gamma), burnished brass (Diachrysia chrysitis) and large yellow underwing (Noctua pronuba). Fruit set is high with an average of 73%. The seeds germination is conditioned by the presence of specific fungi.
Cultivation:
Very easily grown in any good moist soil. Requires a deep rich soil. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. A polymorphic species, it also hybridizes readily with other members of the genus. The flowers have a delicious perfume which is more pronounced at night in order to attract Night Hawk-moths for pollination. The sub-species G. conopsea densiflora has larger, more strongly scented flowers. This species is a colonizer of disturbed ground and bare soils, new colonies can spring up many kilometres from the plants nearest known locality. They have been known to colonize sites such as waste heaps of clinker at power stations. Plants are very impatient of root disturbance.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division in autumn. The plant is very intolerant of root disturbance, any moving or dividing should be attempted in the autumn, keep a large ball of soil around the plant. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts:…..The Root.

Bulb – cooked. Very nutritious. It is a source of ‘salep’, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a flour. Salep is a starch-like substance with a sweetish taste and a faint somewhat unpleasant smell . It is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or can be added to cereals and used in making bread etc. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day.
Medicinal Uses:

Demulcent; Nutritive.

Salep  is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnadenia_conopsea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gymnadenia+conopsea

Habenaria intermedia

Botanical name: Habenaria intermedia
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Tribe: Orchideae
Subtribe: Orchidinae
Genus: Habenaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Ochyrorchis intermedia, Kryptostoma intermedium
Common name: Intermediate Habenaria • Hindi: Vriddhi, Riddhi • Sanskrit: Vriddhi
Habitat:Habenaria intermedia is native to E. Asia – Himalayas . It is mostly found in the Himalayas, from Pakistan to Nepal, at altitudes between 1500-2500 m.
Description:
Intermediate Habenaria is a very beautiful perennial orchid plant.It is 30-50 cm tall, with oblong, stalkless tuberoids. Stem is evenly leafy. Leaves are 3-5, ovate-oblong, acuminate, up to 8×4 cm, sheathing. Large flowers are borne in clusters of 1-4. Bracts are leaflike. Flowers are large, green and white. Sepals are green, the dorsal ovate-lanceolate, recurved, 20-24 x 9-10 mm, lateral-sepals falcately lanceshaped, spreading, 23-28 x 6-7 mm. Petals are white, crescent-shaped, recurved and adherent to dorsal sepal, minutely ciliolate on margins. Labellum pale or yellowish-green, 3-lobed from an undivided, white, up to 10 mm long base, mid-lobe linear-acumi¬nate, straight or slightly turned upwards, 20-30 x 2.5 mm; side lobes 25-30 mm long, somewhat diverging with c. 10, partly divided, fine, up to 20 mm long fringes on the outer margin. Spur green, 6 cm long, ± flexuous, somewhat widened towards apex and base. Not so rare, but one of the biggest flower in Habenarias. Flowering: July-August.>…CLICK  &  SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors at least in the milder parts of this country. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Even those species that grow in bogs tend to be in the drier areas of the bog with plenty of water 15cm or more below soil level. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division in autumn. The plant is very intolerant of root disturbance, any moving or dividing should be attempted in the autumn, keep a large ball of soil around the plant
Edible Uses: Roots – cooked. Boiled and eaten as a vegetable. Tender young leaves – cooked. Used as a vegetable
Medicinal uses: Intermediate Habenaria is used in Ayurvedic medicine

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habenaria
http://flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Intermediate%20Habenaria.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Habenaria+intermedia

Habenaria sparsiflora

Botanical Name: Habenaria sparsiflora
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Genus: Platanthera
Species: P. sparsiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms : Platanthera sparsiflora.
Common Names: Sparse-flowered bog orchid

Habitat : Habenaria sparsiflora is native to Western N. America – Washington to Arizona and California. Found mainly along the sides of streams or in boggy places in montane coniferous forests, 1200 – 3300 metres. Wet meadows, marshes, fens, stream banks, shores, seeping slopes; 0 – 3500 m.

Description:
Habenaria sparsiflora is a perennial orchid plant, growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It produces a slender, erect flowering stem up to about half a meter tall. It is in flower from May to August. The longest leaves near the base of the stem are up to 15 centimeters long by 3 wide. The inflorescence has widely spaced twisted green flowers with petals up to a centimeter in length. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects…..CLICK  &  SEE THE  PICTURES
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Even those species that grow in bogs tend to be in the drier areas of the bog with plenty of water 15cm or more below soil level. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division in autumn. The plant is very intolerant of root disturbance, any moving or dividing should be attempted in the autumn, keep a large ball of soil around the plant

Edible Uses: The plant has been used as food in times of food shortage.

Medicinal Uses: Not known.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platanthera_sparsiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Habenaria+sparsiflora

Liparis japonica

Botanical Name : Liparis japonica
Family: Orchidaceae
Synonyms: Microstylis japonica

Habitat: Liparis japonica is native to E. AsiaJapan. It grows in Woods all over Japan.
Description:
Liparis japonica is a perennian orchid plant  growing to 0.3 m (1ft). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have almost no information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most areas of this country. It is likely to require woodland conditions. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid.
Propagation :
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division in autumn. Make sure that you keep plenty of soil with each plant. It is also said to be possible to transplant orchids after they have flowered but whilst they are still in leaf.
Edible Uses: ….Young leaves – cooked

Medicinal Uses: Not known

Resource:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Liparis+japonica

Magnolia liliiflora

Botanical Name : Magnolia liliiflora
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
Subgenus: M. subg. Yulania
Section: M. sect. Yulania subsect. Yulania
Species: M. liliiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Magnoliales

Synonyms : M. obovata. non Thunb. M. purpurea. M. quinquepeta. (Buc-Holz.)Dandy. Lassonia quinquepeta.

Common Names : Mu-Lan, Woody Orchid, Lily Magnolia,Mulan magnolia, Purple magnolia, Red magnolia, Lily magnolia, Tulip magnolia, Jane magnolia and Woody-orchid

Habitat: Magnolia liliiflora is native to southwest China (in Sichuan and Yunnan), but cultivated for centuries elsewhere in China and also Japan. It grows in slopes and forests edges at elevations of 300 – 1600 metres in Fujian, Hubei, Sichuan and NW Yunnan Provinces.
Description:
Magnolia liliiflora is a deciduous shrub, exceptionally a small tree, to 4m tall (smaller than most other magnolias). Bloom Color: Pink, Purple. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer, Mid fall. Form: Spreading or horizontal, Upright or erect. It blooms profusely in early spring with large showy flowers, before the leaf buds open.The seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Beetles…...CLICK  &  SEE THE  PICTURES

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Specimen. Best grown in a warm position in a moderately rich free soil of an open texture. Prefers a neutral to acid soil but tolerates alkaline soils so long as they are deep and rich in humus. Plants cannot be grown on limy or chalky soils. The branches are brittle so a sheltered position is required. This species is said to be fairly wind tolerant. It is very tolerant of atmospheric pollution. Plants are hardy to about -20°c, but they require the protection of a wall when grown in northern Britain. The fleshy roots are easily damaged and any transplanting is best done during a spell of mild moist weather in late spring. The flowers, which start to be produced when the plant is less than a metre tall, are deliciously scented. The young wood is aromatic. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Extended bloom season in Zones 9A and above, Fragrant flowers, Blooms are very showy.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed must be kept cold over the winter and should be sown in late winter in a cold frame[200]. The seed usually germinates in the spring but it can take 18 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions when they are more than 15cm tall, though should be well mulched and given some protection from winter cold for their first winter or two outdoors. Layering in early spring .

Medicinal Uses:
Analgesic; Anodyne; Carminative; Febrifuge; Sedative; Tonic.

The flowers and unopened flower buds are analgesic, anodyne, carminative, febrifuge, sedative and tonic. The main effect of this herb is to constrict blood vessels in the nasal passages and so it is taken internally in the treatment of sinusitis, allergic rhinitis and colds with a runny nose or catarrh. In excess it can cause dizziness. This herb is incompatible with Astragalus membranaceus. The flowers are harvested in the spring and can be used fresh or dried.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnolia_liliiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Magnolia+liliiflora

Microtis unifolia

Botanical Name : Microtis unifolia
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Genus: Microtis
Species: M. unifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms : M. porrifolia. R.Br.

Common Name : Onion-Leaf Orchis

Habitat: Microtis unifolia is native to E.Asia to Australasia from China, Indonesia and the Phillipines to Australia and New Zealand. It grows in open places such as on banks and in poor pastures in North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands.

Description:
Microtis unifolia is a perennial terrestrial tuberous orchid plant, growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The plant is often robust, the stem up to 10mm thick at the base. Flower stem 10 to 40cm (sometimes to a metre) high when in flower. It has single tubular leaf. The flower stem emerging from within the leaf about one third to half way up the leaf. there are 5 – 40 flowers per raceme. Numerous and closely spaced. Each 3-5mm in length. Green to yellow-green in colour. Dorsal sepal hooded with a pointed tip. Lateral sepals curled backwards. Labellum irregular oblong with a very coarse edge, narrowest at its mid-length. Stigma not wider than the column....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is in flower from Oct to January. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species. It is a terrestrial orchid that can tolerate light frosts and so could possibly be grown outdoors in the mildest parts of Britain, but its late autumn flowering habit might make it more suited to the greenhouse. The flowers have a powerful if sickly scent. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid.
Propagation :
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move.

Edible Uses: The root

Medicinal Uses:  Not  known

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microtis_unifolia
http://www.nativeorchids.co.nz/Species/Microtis_unifolia.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Microtis+unifolia

Ophrys apifera

 

Botanical Name: Ophrys apifera
Family: Orchidaceae
Genus: Ophrys
Order: Asparagales
Species: O. apiferay
Species: O. apifera
Kingdom: Plantae

Common Name: Bee orchid

Habitat : Ophrys apifera is native to Central and southern Europe, including Britain, to N. Africa . It generally grows on semi-dry turf, in grassland, on limestone, calcareous dunes or in open areas in woodland, also on base-rich clays and calcareous dunes. It prefers calcareous soils, in bright light or dim light.

Description:
Ophrys apifera is a perennial herbaceous orchid plant. It grows to a height of 15–50 centimetres (6–20 in). This hardy orchid develops small rosettes of leaves in autumn. They continue to grow slowly during winter. Basal leaves are ovate or oblong-lanceolate, upper leaves and bracts are ovate-lanceolate and sheathing. The plant blooms from mid-April to July producing a spike composed from one to twelve flowers. The flowers have large sepals, with a central green rib and their colour varies from white to pink, while petals are short, pubescent, yellow to greenish. The labellum is trilobed, with two pronounced humps on the hairy lateral lobes, the median lobe is hairy and similar to the abdomen of a bee. It is quite variable in the pattern of coloration, but usually brownish-red with yellow markings. The gynostegium is at right angles, with an elongated apex...CLICK  &  SEE  THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Plants can be grown in a lawn, but the lawn must not be cut until the plants have set seed. When well-suited, the plants can multiply rapidly. Grows well in a sunny dry border or on a scree. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. This symbiotic relationship makes them very difficult to cultivate, though they will sometimes appear uninvited in a garden and will then thrive. Transplanting can damage the relationship and plants might also thrive for a few years and then disappear, suggesting that they might be short-lived perennials. This species can often appear in disturbed habitats well away from its normal preferred sites on chalk and limestone hills. The flowers resemble a female insect and also emit a scent similar to female pheremones. This species is unique in the genus, however, in that it is not pollinated by insects but is self-pollinated. Tubers should be planted out whilst they are dormant, this is probably best done in the autumn. They should be planted at least 5cm below soil level.
Propagation :
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. This species only rarely forms new offsets and so division is seldom feasible, the following methods can be tried, however. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally

Edible Uses:     Root – cooked. It is a source of ‘salep‘, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or added to other cereals and used in bread etc. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day. The salep can also be made into a drink.

Medicinal Uses:    Demulcent; Nutritive.
Salep is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ophrys+apifera
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ophrys_apifera

Ophrys araneola

 

 

Botanical Name: Ophrys araneola
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Genus: Ophrys
Species: O. sphegodes
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Habitat : Ophrys araneola is native to S. and C. Europe.
Description:
Ophrys araneola is a parennial orchid plant, growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is in flower from Apr to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Plants can be grown in a lawn, but the lawn must not be cut until the plants have set seed. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. This symbiotic relationship makes them very difficult to cultivate, though they will sometimes appear uninvited in a garden and will then thrive. Transplanting can damage the relationship and plants might also thrive for a few years and then disappear, suggesting that they might be short-lived perennials. The flowers resemble a female insect and also emit a scent similar to female pheremones, they are pollinated by a male insect of that species attempting to copulate with the flower. Tubers should be planted out whilst they are dormant, this is probably best done in the autumn. They should be planted at least 5cm below soil level.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. This species only rarely forms new offsets and so division is seldom feasible, the following methods can be tried, however. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally
Edible Uses:
Root – cooked. It is a source of ‘salep‘, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder[200]. Salep is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or added to other cereals and used in bread etc[183]. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day[100, 115]. The salep can also be made into a drink

Medicinal Uses:
Demulcent; Nutritive.

Salep is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ophrys_araneola
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ophrys+araneola

Ophrys bertolonii

 

Botanical Name: Ophrys bertolonii
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Tribe: Orchidae
Subtribe: Orchidinae
Alliance: Orchis
Genus: Ophrys
Species: O. bertolonii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae

Synonym(s):
Ophrys flavicans Vis.
Ophrys grassensis Jauvy ex Steud.
Ophrys inzengae Nyman
Ophrys marzensis Soca
Ophrys romolinii Soca
Ophrys dalmatica (Murr) Soó
Ophrys speculum Bertol.

Common Name: Bertoloni’s Bee Orchid, Bertoloni’s Ophrys

Habitat : Ophrys bertolonii is native to Croatia; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sicilia); Montenegro.It is found in the central Mediterranean and mostly occurrs in Italy, from the River Po to Sicily. The species occurs from Istria in Croatia to Montenegro in the Balkans as well as the Ionian island of Corfu and is found from sea level to 1,450 m altitude (Pederson and Faurholdt 2007, Delforge 1995).

Description:
Ophrys bertolonii is a perennial orchid plant, growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in). It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects…..CLICK  & SEE  THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Plants can be grown in a lawn, but the lawn must not be cut until the plants have set seed[200]. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. This symbiotic relationship makes them very difficult to cultivate, though they will sometimes appear uninvited in a garden and will then thrive. Transplanting can damage the relationship and plants might also thrive for a few years and then disappear, suggesting that they might be short-lived perennials. The flowers resemble a female insect and also emit a scent similar to female pheremones, they are pollinated by a male insect of that species attempting to copulate with the flower. Tubers should be planted out whilst they are dormant, this is probably best done in the autumn. They should be planted at least 5cm below soil level.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. This species only rarely forms new offsets and so division is seldom feasible, the following methods can be tried, however. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally
Edible Uses: ….Root – cooked. It is a source of ‘salep’, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or added to other cereals and used in bread etc. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day. The salep can also be made into a drink....CLICK & SEE
Medicinal Uses:
Demulcent; Nutritive.

Salep is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ophrys_bertolonii
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/176015/0
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ophrys+bertolonii

Ophrys bombyliflora

Botanical Name: Ophrys bombyliflora
Family: Orchidaceae
Genus: Ophrys
Species: O. bombyliflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Name: Bumblebee orchid

Habitat: Ophrys bombyliflora is native to Europe – Mediterranean

Description:
Ophrys bombyliflora is a perennial orchid plant growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. It is pollinated by males of solitary bees of the genus Eucera (which are not bumblebees). As with other species of Ophrys, the flowers mimic the females in appearance and scent. Earlier-emerging males attempt to mate with the flowers (“pseudocopulation”), collecting pollinia in the process which they transfer to other flowers of the same species...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

.
Cultivation:
Plants can be grown in a lawn, but the lawn must not be cut until the plants have set seed[200]. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. This symbiotic relationship makes them very difficult to cultivate, though they will sometimes appear uninvited in a garden and will then thrive. Transplanting can damage the relationship and plants might also thrive for a few years and then disappear, suggesting that they might be short-lived perennials. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. The flowers resemble a female insect and also emit a scent similar to female pheremones, they are pollinated by a male insect of that species attempting to copulate with the flower. Tubers should be planted out whilst they are dormant, this is probably best done in the autumn. They should be planted at least 5cm below soil level.

.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. This species only rarely forms new offsets and so division is seldom feasible, the following methods can be tried, however. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally

Edible Uses: Root – cooked. It is a source of ‘salep‘, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or added to other cereals and used in bread etc. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day. The salep can also be made into a drink…..CLICK  & SEE

Medicinal Uses:
Demulcent; Nutritive.

Salep (see above in edible uses  for more details) is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed .

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ophrys_bombyliflora
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ophrys+bombyliflora