Rhodobryum ontariense

Botanical Name : Rhodobryum ontariense
Family : Bryaceae
Genus:  Rhodobryum (Schimp.) Hampe – rhodobryum moss
Species : Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb.) Par. – Ontario rhodobryum moss
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Division : Bryophyta – Mosses
Subdivision:  Musci
Class : Bryopsida – True mosses
Subclass: Bryidae
Order: Bryales

Common Name : Rose Moss

Habitat : Rhodobryum ontariense is native to North America

Rhodobryum ontariense is a large moss for the genus with leaves that are 4-10mm long. They are oblanceolate with a toothed apex and rectangular cells at the base. The lamina is one stratose with recurved margins. The structure of the costa separates R. ontariense from Roellia roellii, a very similar moss which has yet to be found in New Mexico. Rhodobryum ontariense is found in upper elevation moist meadows.
Please click on an image for a larger file.

Medicinal Uses:
Used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases and nervous prostration in TCM; cures angina.  Ether extract actually did increase the rate of flow in aorta of white mice by over 30%, causing reduction in amount of oxygen resistance.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.






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Acacia caven

Botanical Name : Acacia caven
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Acacia
Species: A. caven
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common NamesRoman Cassie, Aromita, Aromo Criollo, Caven, Churque, Churqui, Espinillo, Espinillo de Baado, Espino, Espino Maulino

Habitat : Acacia caven is native to Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. It grows four to five metres tall and bears very stiff and sharp white thorns up to 2 cm in length. It blooms in Spring, with bright yellow flowers 1 cm to 2 cm in diameter.

Acacia caven is a deciduous tree .It grows four to five metres tall and bears very stiff and sharp white thorns up to 2 cm in length. It blooms in Spring, with bright yellow flowers 1 cm to 2 cm in diameter. It fruits in late spring-early summer.

You may click to see the pictures of Acacia caven

Meditional Uses:
Its bark is rich in tannin, used as a tea, recommended for bruises, wounds and ulcers.its seeds can be toasted and used a coffee replacement, having digestive and stimulating effect. Accoridng to Juan Zin, the cooked bark applied superficially can heal soars and wounds.

Other Uses:
*The flowers of A. caven are used as food for bees in the production of honey.

*Acacia caven  tree is used for erosion control.

*The tree has ornamental uses.

*Tannin from the seed pods is used for tanning hides. The wood is used as fuel and to make posts for fences. The chief current human use for A. caven is in the production of charcoal.

*The flowers are used in perfume

*The wood is used for making charcoal or simply as firewood, and since the wood is very resistant to rotting, the locals prefer it as posts for fences.

*It had in the past use for manufacturing leather (as tanning agent), and also because of its scent it may have uses in perfume industry.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.






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Hesperis matronalis

Botanical Name : Hesperis matronalis
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Hesperis
Species: H. matronalis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Common Names:  Dame’s Rocket, Damask Violet, Dame’s Violet, Dames-wort, Dame’s Gilliflower, Night Scented Gilliflower, Queen’s Gilliflower, Rogue’s Gilliflower, Summer Lilac, Sweet Rocket, Mother-of-the-evening and, Winter Gilliflower.

Habitat :Hesperis matronalis is native to Eurasia and cultivated in many other areas of the world for their attractive spring blooming flowers. In some of those areas, it has escaped cultivation and become a weed species. The genus name Hesperis is Greek for evening, and the name was probably given because the scent of the flowers becomes more conspicuous towards evening.

Hesperis matronalis is biennial or short lived perennial  herb.It grows 100 cm or taller, with multiple upright hairy stems. Typically the first year of growth produces a mound of foliage and flowering occurs the second year, plants are normally biennials but a number of races can be short lived perennials. The plants have showy blooms in early to mid spring. The leaves are alternately arranged on upright stems and lanceolate shaped, they typically have very short or lack petioles and have toothed margins but sometimes are entire, they are widest at the base. The foliage has short hairs on the top and bottom surfaces that give the leaves a somewhat rough feel. The larger leaves are around 12 cm long and over 4 cm wide. In early spring, a thick mound of low growing foliage is produced, during flowering the lower parts of the stems are generally unbranched and denuded of foliage and the top of the blooming plant might have a few branches that end in inflorescences.

The plentiful fragrant flowers are produced in large showy terminal racemes, that can be 30+ cm tall, that elongate as the flowers of the inflorescence bloom. When stems have both flowers and fruits, the weight sometimes causes the stems to bend. Each flower is large (2 cm across), with four petals. Flower coloration varies, with different shades of lavender and purple most common, but white, pink, and even some flowers with mixed colors exist in cultivated forms. A few different double-flowered varieties also exist. The four Petals are clawed and hairless. The flowers have six stamens in two groups, the 4 closest to the ovary are longer than the two oppositely positioned. Stigmas are two-lobed. The four sepals are erect and form a mock tube around the claws of the petals and are also colored similarly to the petals.

Some plants may bloom until August, but warm weather greatly shortens the duration on each flowers blooming. Seeds are produced in thin fruits that are 5–14 cm long pods, containing two rows of seeds separated by a dimple. The fruits are terete and open by way of glabrous valves, constricted between the seeds like a pea-pod. Seeds are oblong shaped and 3–4 mm long and 1–1.5 mm wide.

In North America, Hesperis matronalis is often confused with native Phlox species that also have similar large showy flower clusters. They can be distinguished from each other by foliage and flower differences; Dame’s rocket has alternately arranged leaves and four petals per flower, while phlox have opposite leaves and five petals.

Hesperis matronalis has been a cultivated species for a long time and grows best in full sun to partial shade where soils are moist but have good drainage. It is undemanding and self seeds quickly forming dense stands. Extensive monotypic stands of Dame’s Rocket are visible from great distances; these dense collections of plants have the potential to crowd out native species when growing outside of cultivated areas.

The successful spread of Dame’s Rocket in North America is attributed to its prolific seed production and because the seeds are often included in prepackaged “wildflower seed” mixes that are sold for “naturalizing”. The plants typically produce a low-lying rosette of foliage the first year; in subsequent years, blooming and seed production occurs in tandem throughout the blooming season. This species is commonly found in roadside ditches, dumps and in open woodland settings, where it is noticed when in bloom. It makes an attractive, hardy garden plant and probably does not pose a threat in urban settings.

Hesperis matronalis is propagated by seeds, but desirable individuals including the double flowering forms are propagated from cuttings or division of the clumps.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves are antiscorbutic, diaphoretic and diuretic

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.




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Cistus ladanifer

Botanical Name : Cistus ladanifer
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Cistus
Species: C. ladanifer
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Names:Gum Rockrose, Ladanum, Gum Ladanum and Brown-eyed Rockrose.

Habitat : Cistus ladanifer is a native of the western Mediterranean region. It is indigenous to Spain, Portugal and north-west Africa.

Cistus ladanifer is a shrub growing 1-2.5 m tall and wide. The leaves are evergreen, lanceolate, 3–10 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, dark green above and paler underneath. The flowers are 5–8 cm diameter, with 5 papery white petals, usually with a red to maroon spot at the base, surrounding the yellow stamens and pistils. The whole plant is covered with the sticky exudate of fragrant resin.

Cistus ladanifer is particularly well suited to the Continentalized Mediterranean climate, standing both long summer droughts and cold weather. It is an extremely aggressive plant which has taken over much of former farmland and grasslands in the mountain regions of central Spain. In Spanish it is known as Jara pringosa meaning “sticky shrub”. C. ladanifer has been found to have mycorrhizal associations with Boletus edulis, Boletus rhodoxanthus, and Laccaria laccata.

Medicinal Uses:
Labdanum is an aromatic, expectorant, stimulant herb that controls bleeding and has antibiotic effects. It is used internally in the treatment of catarrh and diarrhea and as an emmenagogue. The leaves are harvested in late spring and early summer and can be dried for later use, or the resin extracted from them

Other Uses:
It is a popular ornamental plant, grown for its strongly resin-scented foliage and conspicuous flowers. Its leaves yield a fragrant oleoresin known as labdanum, used in perfumes, especially as a fixative.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.






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Pellaea atropurpurea

Botanical Name : Pellaea atropurpurea
Family: Pteridaceae
Genus: Pellaea Link
Species: P. atropurpurea
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales

Common Name :Purple-stem cliffbrake or Just purple cliffbrake,Rockbrake

Habitat :Pellaea atropurpurea is  native to U.S. Occur in crevices of limestone and dolomite outcrops, bluffs, boulders, and sinkholes. Sometimes in dry soils adjacent to dolomite glades.

This fern produces clumps of widely arching fronds. The stipe and rachis of the blade are purple, while the blade itself has a blue-gray tinge to it. The upper pinnae are long, narrow, and undivided, while the lower ones are divided into 3-15 pinnules. The pinnae are, for the most part, opposite. Fertile fronds are longer and more heavily divided. They produce sori, which lack a true indusium, within the inrolled margins of the pinnae.

This plant may be distinguished from the similar Pellaea glabella by its hairier nature and larger form.

Stems – Rhizomes compact, scaly. The scales ferruginous, linear.

Leaves – Leaves to 50cm long but often seen much shorter. Rachis deep purplish-brown, densely pubescent (mostly at the base). The hairs ferruginous and curling. Base of hairs often pustulate. Pinnae opposite, with petiolules (except for terminal pinna), the lowest often 1-2 times divided, +/-3cm long, hastate or linear to oblong (depending on fertility), deep green and glabrous adaxially, light green-blue abaxially with a few hairs on the midrib. Margins distinctly revolute and creating a false indusium for the sporangia. Sporangia many, marginal, brown, -.2mm in diameter when coiled, with +/-20(32) spores.

Rachis close-up.

Abaxial surface of pinna with sporangia.

Flowering – Spores produced June – September.

Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of it, taken moderately, has proved efficient in diarrhea, dysentery, night-sweats, and hemorrhages; and, used as a local application, it is beneficial in obstinate and ill-conditioned ulcers, ulcerations of the mouth and fauces, and as a vaginal injection in leucorrhea. A strong decoction is in repute as a remedy for worms. A powerful astringent infusion may be made by adding 4 drachms of the plant to 1 pint of boiling water, and which has been used in diarrhea and dysentery, in 1/2 fluid ounce doses, repeated every 2 or 3 hours, with success. A tincture of the fresh entire plant is suggested in from 1 to 10-drop doses. Efficacious in diarrhea, dysentery, night sweats, to remove worms and as a vaginal injection in leukorrhea, suppression of the lochia, etc.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.






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Acorus gramineus

Botanical Name : Acorus gramineus
Family: Acoraceae
Genus: Acorus
Species: A. gramineus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Acorales

Common Names : Dwarf sedge, Japanese rush, Japanese sweet flag,Rock Sweet Flag

Habitat :Acorus gramineus is  native to Japan in eastern Asia, where it usually occurs in wetlands and shallow water.

Description :
This shrubby plant’s long, narrow, slightly curved leaves may grow to 30 cm (12 inches) in height. It can grow fully or partially submerged, or in very moist soil, but it will usually only flower when at least partially submerged.

Var. pusillus has slightly shorter, more rigid glossy green leaves, while var. variegatus has longer leaves streaked with yellow.

Acorus gramineus spreads aggressively by rhizome, creating a nearly-seamless groundcover where conditions are favorable, and it is frequently used around the edges of ponds and water gardens, as well as submerged in freshwater aquaria. It can be propagated by dividing the fleshy underwater rhizome and planting the base in shallow water until the cutting strengthens

Medicinal Uses:
An important herb in Chinese medicine for poor appetite, gastritis, excess mucus, and depression. Considered to be a warming herb and therefore not given to patients with a tendency to perspire excessively.  Stimulates the digestive system, clears the bronchial passages, relieves indigestion, and has mild sedative effects.  The root is powdered and applied to bleeding gums. It is also used internally in the treatment of depression and epilepsy.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.





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Allium scorodoprasum

Botanical Name : Allium scorodoprasum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. scorodoprasum
Kingdom: Plantae
clade: Angiosperms
clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales

Common Name : Rocambole,Sand leek

Habitat :Grows in most of Europe, including Britain, east and south to W. Asia and Syria.  Grassland and scrub on dry soils.

Allium scorodoprasum is a BULB growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in).
It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation :
Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Thrives in poor dry soils. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Many forms of this species produce numerous bulbils in the flowering head[203]. The plants can become very invasive by means of these bulbils. The sub-species A. scorodoprasum jajlae and A. scorodoprasum rotundum do not produce bulbils. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Occasionally cultivated, especially in Russia, for its edible bulb. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. Very easy, the plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season and the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Leaves;  Root.

Bulb – raw or cooked. A garlic substitute, it is used as a flavouring in salads, soups etc. The bulbs are smaller than garlic and have a milder flavour, they are produced at the points of the stem as well as at the base. The bulbs are 10 – 20mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked[238]. Used as a flavouring in salads etc. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses :

Depurative;  Digestive.

The plant is digestive and depurative. The bulb is used in the treatment of abscesses, amoebic dysentery, bronchitis, cholera, dysentery, influenza, skin diseases and TB.

Other Uses
The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles

Known Hazards :  Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in very large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.





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Epilobium latifolium

Botanical Name : Epilobium latifolium
Family: Onagraceae
Genus: Chamerion
Species: C. latifolium
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales

Common Names:Dwarf Fireweed and River Beauty Willowherb

Habitat: Epilobium latifolium  has a circumboreal distribution, appearing throughout the northern regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including subarctic and Arctic areas such as snowmelt-flooded gravel bars and talus, in a wide range of elevations.

Epilobium latifolium  is a perennial herb growing in clumps of leaves variable in size, shape, and texture above a woody caudex. The leaves are 1 to 10 centimeters long, lance-shaped to oval, pointed or rounded at the tips, and hairy to hairless and waxy. The inflorescence is a rough-haired raceme of nodding flowers with bright to deep pink, and occasionally white, petals up to 3 centimeters long. Behind the opened petals are pointed sepals. The fruit is an elongated capsule which may exceed 10 centimeters in length.


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Edible Uses:
This arctic plant provides valuable nutrition for the Inuit, who eat the leaves raw, boiled with fat, or steeped in water for tea, the flowers and fruits raw, and as a salad with meals of seal and walrus blubber. Every part of this plant is edible, tasting much like spinach, and is also known in the Canadian tundra as River Beauty. It is the national flower of Greenland, where it is known by the Greenlandic name niviarsiaq, which means “little girl”.

Medicinal Uses:
The entire plant is used in Tibetan medicine, it is said to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. It is used in the treatment of fevers and inflammations, plus also itching pimples

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.





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Tetrapanax papyrifer

Botanical Name :Tetrapanax papyrifer
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Tetrapanax (K.Koch) K.Koch
Species: T. papyriferus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Common Names: Tung-tsau or Rice-paper Plant

Habitat : Tetrapanax papyrifer is   widely cultivated in East Asia and sometimes in other tropical regions as well.

It grows to 3-7 m tall, with usually unbranched stems 2 cm diameter bearing a rosette of large leaves at the top (superficially similar to a palm crown). The leaves are carried on 40-60 cm petioles, the leaf blade orbicular, 30-50 cm across, deeply palmately lobed with 5-11 primary lobes, the central lobes larger and Y-forked near the end. It spreads extensively by sprouts from the root system underground. The inflorescence is a large panicle of hemispherical to globular umbels near the end of the stem. The flowers have 4 or 5 small white petals. The fruit is a small drupe.

Medicinal Uses:
Chinese medicine uses the pith as a liver stimulant and a diuretic and to increase milk production. It is believed to have cooling effects.  Plant extracts have shown anticancer activity in animals.  Used to treat coughs, fever, diabetes, induces flow of urine and expels intestinal worms.

Other Uses:
The pith from the stem is used to make a substance commonly known as rice paper, but more properly termed pith paper.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.





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Limnophila aromatica

Botanical Name : Limnophila aromatica
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Limnophila
Species: L. aromatica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonym: Limnophila chinensis var. aromatica
Common Name : Rice Paddy Herb;     It is called “roum om” in Khmer or Phnom Penh dialect “ma om”.

Habitat : Limnophila aromatica is native to Southeast Asia, where it flourishes in hot temperatures and grows most often in watery environments, particularly in flooded rice fields. It is called ngò om or ng? in Vietnam and used as an herb and also cultivated for use as an aquarium plant.The plant was introduced to North America in the 1970s due to Vietnamese immigration following the Vietnam War.


Limnophila aromatica grows to a height of 10 to 20 inches (up to 24in.) (MID to BACKGROUND) The width of each stem is about 2 inches, based on leaf growth
Medium to high lighting (2.0 – 4 watts/gal)  Optimum growth temperature is 72 to 82.4 degrees

You may click to see the pictures

There are several varieties of this plant. The variety grown by Tropica is said to come from Malaysia. It is characterised by its narrow green leaves, which are purple underneath. Like most other red plants, the colour depends on a supply of intensive light. CO2 addition promotes growth significantly, and it also thrives in hard water. Limnophila aromatica is easy to propagate by cuttings. (Excerpt From Tropica)

Limnophila aromatica grows best on drained but still wet sandy soil of harvested rice paddies for a few months after the rainy season ended. After rain stops at the end of monsoon reason in Cambodia, on the right soil, the herb grows everywhere like wildfire. it dies out soon after it flowers. Rural Cambodians often harvest them and put them on the roof of their houses to dry for later use.

Edible Uses:
L. aromatica has a flavor and aroma reminiscent of both lemon and cumin. It is used most often in Vietnamese cuisine, where it is called ngò om. It is an ingredient in canh chua, a sweet and sour seafood soup which also includes tamarind,not to be confused with ngò gai which is also added as an accompaniment to the noodle soup called ph?. In Thai cuisine it is known as phak kayang and is also used to make om
It is used in all traditional Cambodian soup dishes

Medicinal Uss:
In Asia, rau om is employed to treat many ailments.  In China, it is used for the treatment of intoxication and pain; in Indochina, to treat wounds; in Malaysia, chiefly as a poultice on sore legs, but also to promote appetite, and as an expectorant to clear mucus from the respiratory tract, and to treat fever; and in Indonesia, as an antiseptic or cleanser for worms.  The plant is also used in Asia for menstrual problems, wounds, dysentery, fever, elephantiasis, and indigestion.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.





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