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Cinchona micrantha

Botanical Name: Cinchona micrantha
Family: Rubiaceae/ Zygophyllaceae
Subfamily: Cinchonoideae
Tribe: Cinchoneae
Genus: Cinchona
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Cinchona affinis Wedd.

Common Name : Huannco

Habitat : Cinchona micrantha is native to western S. AmericaBolivia, Ecuador, Peru. It grows well in light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil.
Description:
Cinchona micrantha is an evergreen Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a medium rate. it is relatively thin-textured, usually broad leaves, its expansive multiflowered inflorescences, and its small white flowers with the corolla tube 5-7.5 mm long. This species is similar to Cinchona pubescens, which is more widespread and common. In fruit these can be difficult to separate.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers high humidity and a temperature that does not fall below about 15 degree centigrade . Requires a well-drained, moist soil and a position in full sun or partial shade.

Propagation:
Seed – Nodal softwood cuttings. Cuttings of half-ripe wood in a sandy soil.

Medicinal Uses:
Cinchona micrantha has a long history of native use, especially as a treatment for fevers and malaria. Modern research has shown it to be a very effective treatment for fevers, and especially as a treatment and preventative of malaria. The bark contains various alkaloids, particularly quinine and quinidine. The bark is a bitter, astringent, tonic herb that lowers fevers, relaxes spasms, is antimalarial (the alkaloid quinine) and slows the heart (the alkaloid quinidine). The bark is made into various preparations, such as tablets, liquid extracts, tinctures and powders. It is used internally in the treatment of malaria, neuralgia, muscle cramps and cardiac fibrillation. It is an ingredient in various proprietary cold and influenza remedies. It is also used as a gargle to treat sore throats. Large and too constant doses must be avoided, as they produce headache, giddiness and deafness.

Other Uses:
The powdered bark is often used in tooth-powders, owing to its astringency.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinchona
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cinchona+micrantha
http://eol.org/pages/1110446/overview

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Ciliosemina pedunculata

Botanical Name: Ciliosemina pedunculata
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Cinchonoideae
Tribe: Cinchoneae
Genus: Ciliosemina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Cinchona pedunculata H.Karst. Ladenbergia pedunculata (H.Karst.) K.Schum. Remijia pedunculata (H.Kar

Common Name: Ciliosemina

Habitat : Ciliosemina pedunculata is native to S. America – northern Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. It grows in light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Description: Ciliosemina pedunculata is an evergreen Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft). These are woody plants taking the form of shrubs or trees. The white flowers are borne in axillary inflorescences. The fruits are stiff capsules containing winged seeds.

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Cultivation: The plant can be grown in light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Propagation: Seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is a source of quinine. Quinine contains the alkaloids quinine and quinidine. It is a very effective treatment for fevers, and especially as a treatment and preventative of malaria. The bark is a bitter, astringent herb that lowers fevers, relaxes spasms, is antimalarial (the alkaloid quinine) and slows the heart (the alkaloid quinidine). The bark is made into various preparations, such as tablets, liquid extracts, tinctures and powders. It is used internally in the treatment of malaria, neuralgia, muscle cramps and cardiac fibrillation. It is an ingredient in various proprietary cold and influenza remedies. It is also used as a gargle to treat sore throat
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliosemina
http://www.wikiwand.com/de/R%C3%B6tegew%C3%A4chse
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ciliosemina+pedunculata

Crataegus coccinoides

Botanical Name: Crataegus coccinoides
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Series: Diltatae
Kingdom:Plaantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names;Kansas hawthorn, Red hawthorn and Large-flowered cockspurthorn.

Habitat: Crataegus coccinoides is native to Central N. America – Illinois and Missouri to Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. Uncommon in Oklahoma.It grows in the dry uplands on limestone hills.

Description:
Crataegus coccinoides is a spiny large deciduous shrub or a small tree, to 4.6 m (15 ft) in height and 10 cm (4 in) in diameter. Crown broad and rounded with spreading branches. Bark dark brown and scaly. Twigs lustrous brown, glabrous; with many spines up to 5 cm (2 in) in length. Leaves alternate,simple, broadly ovate, 6-7.5 cm (2.4-3 in) long and 5-6 cm (2-2.4 in) wide, glabrous,dull dark green above, paler beneath, pubescent when young, glabrous with age, variable, either acute, rounded or narrow at base, acute at apex, serrate or doubly serrate with several shallow lobes above the middle, turning dull dark green above, paler beneath. Flowers in corymbs, glabrous, 4-7, 1.9 cm (0.75 in) wide, calyx-tube broadly obconic and glabrous; petals 5, white; styles 5; stamens 20, anthers rose colored; flowers appear in May. Fruits pomes, 2 cm (0.8 in) diameter, subglobose and terminally flattened, shiny dark red with many pale dots, pulp thick and juicy; seeds 5.

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It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position[11, 200]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted.
Propagation:
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate[78]. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. Firm and sub-acid. The fruit can be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit is borne in small clusters and is up to 17mm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:
Cardiotonic; Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic[222]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses:
Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_coccinioides
http://www.biosurvey.ou.edu/shrub/crat-coc.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+coccinoides

Hieracium murorum

Botanical Name : Hieracium murorum
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Hieracium
Species: H. murorum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names: Few-leaved hawkweed, Golden lungwort, Hawkweed, Wall hawkweed

Habitat : Hieracium murorum is Native to Europe (i.e. Denmark, Finland, Ireland, the UK, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Romania, Yugoslavia, France, Portugal and Spain) and western Asia (i.e. Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and southern Russia) It is naturalized in some of the colder regions of North America.It is common on rocks, walls and in grassland. Many mountain forms exist. …..CLICK & SEE

Description:
Hieracium murorum L. is a herbaceous perennial  flowering  plant . This perennial upright species will produce rosettes of medium green leaves. The flowers are clusters of small yellow blooms.

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Flowerhead diameter c 20-50 mm

ID: Flowerhead has involucral bracts of differing lengths (i.e not just in two or more rows each of uniform length)

Other features: Normally has black hairs on involucre. Fruits with feathery pappus like dandelion but shorter and brownish.

Flowerhead diameter c 20-50 mm

ID: Flowerhead has involucral bracts of differing lengths (i.e not just in two or more rows each of uniform length)

Other features: Normally has black hairs on involucre. Fruits with feathery pappus like dandelion but shorter and brownish.

Medicinal Uses: Nothing known

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hieracium_murorum
http://www.greenplantswap.co.uk/plants/9539-hieracium-murorum
http://www.plant-identification.co.uk/skye/compositae/hieracium-murorum.htm
http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/080c0106-040c-4508-8300-0b0a06060e01/media/html/Hieracium_murorum.htm