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Hemiphragma heterophyllum

Botanical Name: Hemiphragma heterophyllum
Family : Scrophulariaceae
Genus : Monotypus
Species : Hemiphragma heterophyllum

Common names: Nash Jhaar (In Nepali)

Habitat : Hemiphragma heterophyllum is native to E. Asia – Western Himalayas. It grows on dry slopes, forest and scrub at elevations of 1800 – 4000 metres.
Description:
Hemiphragma heterophyllum is a perennial herb growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is diffusely creeping, villous. Stems slender, much branched, rooting from nodes. Leaves dimorphic. Stem leaves opposite, flat, orbicular. Branch leaves crowded, needlelike, involute. Flowers axillary, solitary. Calyx deeply 5-lobed to base, lobes narrow. Corolla white or rose, actinomorphic; lobes 5, subequal, as long as tube. Stamens 4, included, equal, inserted at base of corolla. Style shorter than or as long as stamens; stigma subulate or 2-lobed. Capsule septicidal lengthwise, valves entire or 2-parted. Seeds numerous; seed coat smooth.

Leaves on main stems with petiole 2-5(-10) mm or sometimes subsessile; leaf blade orbicular, cordate, or reniform, 0.5-2 cm, base truncate, subcordate, or cuneate, margin serrately 2-7-toothed, apex obtuse to acuminate, veins inconspicuous. Leaves on branches crowded, needlelike, sometimes linear-lanceolate upward, 3-5 mm. Flowers subsessile or short pedicelled. Calyx lobes narrowly triangular-lanceolate, 3-5 mm, subequal. Corolla white or rose, ca. 6 mm; tube short campanulate; lobes 5, orbicular to oblong, subequal, sometimes transparently punctate. Filaments filiform, adnate to corolla tube; anther locules apically confluent. Style ca. 1 mm. Capsule red, ovoid to globose, berrylike, fleshy, shiny, 5-6(-10) mm. Seeds pale yellow-brown, ovoid, to 1 mm.

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It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Grows best in a warm, sheltered sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Plants are not very cold hardy, tolerating temperatures down to around -7°c. It succeeds outdoors in the milder areas of Britain but elsewhere needs protection from winter cold. A prostrate perennial, forming spreading carpets of growth.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division of plants in mid spring. Layering. Plants often produce new roots along the stems at the nodes. Cuttings
Edible Uses: Fruit – raw. The bright red ripe fruits are eaten fresh.

Medicinal Uses: The juice of the plant is applied to cuts and wounds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=news&newsid=821&lg=en
https://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Nash%20Jhaar.html
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hemiphragma+heterophyllum

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Potentilla kleiniana

Botanical Name: Potentilla kleiniana
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: Potentilla kleiniana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Potentilla reptans. A. Gray. Duchesnea sundaica.

Habitat : Potentilla kleiniana is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, India. It grows on grass thickets, field edges, roadsides and gardens. Field sides, meadows and grassland on mountain slopes at elevations of 400 – 3000 metres in China.

Description:
Potentilla kleiniana is a annual, biennial, or perennial herb, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). Flowering stems prostrate or ascending, 10–50 cm tall, together with petioles pilose or spreading villous, usually rooting at nodes and developing new plants. Radical leaves 3–20 cm including petiole; stipules tinged brown, membranous, abaxially pilose or glabrescent; leaf blade subpedately 5-foliolate; leaflets subsessile or shortly petiolulate, both surfaces green, obovate or oblong-obovate, 0.5–4 × 0.4–2 cm, both surfaces pilose, abaxially densely appressed villous on veins, adaxially sometimes glabrescent, base cuneate, margin acutely or obtusely many serrate, apex obtuse; lower cauline leaves 5-foliolate, upper ones 3-foliolate; stipules green, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, herbaceous, abaxially sparsely villous, margin entire, rarely acutely or acuminately 1- or 2-serrate; petiole gradually shorter higher up stem; leaflets resembling those of radical leaves. Inflorescence terminal, cymose, congested, pseudoumbellate. Flowers 0.8–1 cm in diam.; pedicel 1–1.5 cm, densely spreading villous, bracteate. Sepals triangular-ovate, apex acute or acuminate; epicalyx segments lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, shorter than sepals at anthesis, nearly equaling or slightly longer than sepals in fruit, abaxially pilose, apex acute or acuminate. Petals yellow, obovate, longer than sepals, apex emarginate. Style subterminal, conic, base thickened; stigma dilated. Achenes subglobose, flattened on 1 side, ca. 0.5 mm in diam., rugose.
It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from May to September.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:.…Young leaves and stems – cooked. Fruit – raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:

Astringent; Depurative; Febrifuge.

The plant is astringent, depurative and febrifuge. The whole plant is decocted and used in the treatment of colds, influenza, sore throat etc

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_hippiana
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200011088
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+kleiniana

Potentilla fragarioides

Botanical Name: Potentilla fragarioides

Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: P. fragarioides

Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Habitat : Potentilla fragarioides is native to China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, and Russia. It grows on sunny slopes and waste ground in lowland and mountains all over Japan. Bank of field, ditches, meadows, thickets and thinned forest at elevations of 350 – 2400 metres in northern China.

Description:
Potentilla fragarioides is a perennial herb, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). Roots numerous. Flowering stems tufted, ascending or spreading, 8–25 cm, together with petioles spreading villous. Radical leaves 5–22 cm including petiole; stipules brown, membranous, abaxially sparsely spreading villous; leaf blade pinnate with 2 or 3(or 4) pairs of leaflets; leaflets at intervals of 0.8–1.5 cm, shortly petiolulate or subsessile, green on both surfaces, obovate, elliptic, or oblong-elliptic, 0.5–7 × 0.4–3 cm, both surfaces appressed pilose, abaxially more densely so on veins, sometimes densely ciliate on teeth, base cuneate or broadly so, margin obtusely or acutely many serrate but entire near base, apex obtuse or acute; cauline leaves: stipules green, ovate, herbaceous, abaxially spreading pilose, margin entire, apex acute; petiole very short or almost absent; leaf blade usually 3-foliolate; leaflets resembling those of radical leaves, or oblong, margin entire proximally, and apex serrate. Inflorescence terminal, laxly corymbose-cymose, many flowered. Flowers 1–1.7 cm in diam.; pedicel slender, 1.5–2 cm, pilose. Sepals triangular-ovate, apex acute to acuminate; epicalyx segments oblong-lanceolate, slightly shorter than sepals, apex acute. Petals yellow, obovate, apex rounded or emarginate. Style subterminal, thin at base, thickened distally. Mature achenes subreniform, ca. 1 mm in diam., rugose. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:….Leaf stem – boiled & eaten.
Medicinal Uses
Astringent.

The leaves are astringent. The compound D-catechin has been isolated from the plant and is used in cases of gynaecological bleeding.
The stem is boiled for use as a hemostatic in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_fragarioides
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200011062
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+fragarioides

Potentilla discolor

Botanical Name: Potentilla discolor
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Potentilla
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Habitat ; Potentilla discolor is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows in virgin wilds, mountain slopes and uplands in open ground. Valleys, ravines, meadows on mountain slopes, meadows and sparse forests in China.
Description:
Potentilla discolor is a perennial herb, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). Roots robust, lower parts often enlarged and fusiform. Flowering stems erect, ascending, or subspreading, 10–45 cm tall, together with petioles densely white lanate, sometimes also villous. Radical leaves 4–20 cm including petiole; stipules brown, membranous, white villous; leaf blade with 2–4 pairs of leaflets; leaflets opposite or alternate, at intervals of 0.8–1.5 cm, adaxially dark green, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 1–5 cm × 5–8 mm, abaxially densely white or grayish white lanate, inconspicuously veined, adaxially sparsely white lanate or glabrescent, base cuneate, broadly cuneate, or obliquely rounded, margin obtusely serrate, rarely acutely so, apex obtuse, rarely acute; cauline leaves 1 or 2; stipules green, ovate or broadly so, herbaceous, abaxially densely white lanate, margin incised dentate, rarely entire; leaf blade palmately 3–5-foliolate. Inflorescence cymose, laxly several to many flowered. Flowers 1–2 cm in diam.; pedicel 1–2.5 cm, lanate. Sepals triangular-ovate; epicalyx segments lanceolate, shorter than sepals, abaxially white lanate. Petals yellow, obovate, longer than sepals, apex rounded or emarginate. Style subterminal, base thickened, papillate; stigma slightly dilated. Achenes subreniform, ca. 1 mm wide, smooth. Flowers and fruits inbetween May–Sep.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.
Edible Uses: Root – raw or cooked. It is preferred raw.

Medicinal Uses: The root is aphrodisiac, astringent, depurative, styptic.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200011056
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+discolor

Potentilla chinensis

Botanical Name: Potentilla chinensis
Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Rosoideae
Tribus: Potentilleae
Subtribus: Potentillinae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: Potentilla chinensis

Common Name : Chinese Cinquefoil

Habitat : Potentilla chinensis is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Manchuria. It grows on sandy sunny places, especially along the banks of rivers, C. and S. Japan. Meadows on mountain slopes, grassland, ravines, forest edge, thickets or sparse forest; 400-3200 metres.

Description:
Potentilla chinensis is a perennial herb growing to 0.6 m (2ft). Roots robust, terete, slightly woody. Flowering stems erect or ascending, 20–70 cm tall, sparsely pubescent and sericeous-villous. Radical leaves 4–25 cm including petiole; stipules brown, submembranous, abaxially white sericeous-villous; petiole pubescent and sericeous-villous; leaf blade pinnate with 5–15 pairs of leaflets; leaflets opposite or alternate, at intervals of 5–8 mm, sessile, oblong, obovate, or oblong-lanceolate, 1–5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, gradually becoming smaller toward leaf blade base, abaxially white tomentose, white sericeous-villous on veins, adaxially pubescent or glabrescent, midvein concave, margin revolute, pinnatifid or parted to midvein or nearly so, apex obtuse or acute; segments triangular-ovate, triangular-lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or linear; cauline leaves resembling radical ones but leaflets fewer; stipules green, herbaceous, margin sharply serrate. Inflorescence corymbose-cymose. Flowers 0.8–1(–1.3) cm in diam.; pedicel 0.5–1.5 cm, densely pubescent, with lanceolate bracts at base. Sepals triangular-ovate, apex acute; epicalyx segments fasciated or lanceolate, ca. 1/2 as long as sepals, abaxially pubescent and slightly sericeous-pilose, apex narrowly acute. Petals yellow, broadly obovate, slightly longer than sepals, apex emarginate. Style subterminal, base slightly thickened, slightly papillate; stigma dilated. Achenes dark brown, ovoid, markedly rugose. Flower and fruit…..inbetween  Apr–Oct.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:
Young shoots and leaves – cooked. A famine food, it is only used when all else fails.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is rich in tannins. It is astringent and is used in the treatment of diarrhoea. It is also emmenagogue and febrifuge. It is used in Korea to treat fevers and as a women’s tonic. The plant has antitumour activity
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_chinensis
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+chinensis
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200011043