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Lilium candidum

Botanical Name : Lilium candidum
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Lilium
Species: L. candidum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Synonym: White Lily.

Common Name: Madonna lily

Habitat : Lilium candidum is native to Greece, the western Balkans and the Middle East, and naturalized in other parts of Europe (France, Italy, Ukraine, etc.) as well as in North Africa, the Canary Islands, Mexico, and other places.It grows on rocky slopes and in scrub to 600 metres.
Description:
Lilium candidum is a BULB . It produces stiff, erect stems, 3 to 5 feet high, clothed with lance-shaped leaves. It is in leaf 7-Oct.
The flowers appear in June, flowering into July, and have a strong, sweet, penetrating perfume, so powerful as to be even annoying to some people. The honey is secreted in long grooves at the base of the white, floral leaves. The seeds ripen from Aug to September.There are several varieties, that with black stems, var. peregrinum, being the best for the garden.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

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Cultivation:
Prefers an open free-draining humus-rich fertile loamy soil with its roots in the shade and its head in the sun. Prefers a sunny position but also succeeds in shade. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. Grows well in acid and limy soils, though it prefers a limey soil. A very ornamental plant. It is seen as a symbol of purity and in Christian tradition is devoted to the Virgin Mary, in pre-Christian times it was sacred to Juno, the Goddess of heaven. The flowers have a scent of heather honey. The Madonna lily is generally very hardy and easy to grow but it is unpredictable and does not grow or flower well in all gardens. It is also susceptible to botrytis. Only just cover the bulb with soil. It is best to leave the clumps undisturbed since they resent being moved, but if you need to transplant then this is best done in late August to early September, certainly no later than mid-October. Plants produce a basal rosette of over-wintering leaves in the autumn, these die off as the plant comes into flower. The plant should be protected against rabbits and slugs in early spring. If the shoot tip is eaten out the bulb will not grow in that year and will lose vigour.

Propagation:
Seed – immediate epigeal germination. Sow thinly in pots from late winter to early spring in a cold frame. Should germinate in 2 – 4 weeks. Great care should be taken in pricking out the young seedlings, many people prefer to leave them in the seed pot until they die down at the end of their second years growth. This necessitates sowing the seed thinly and using a reasonably fertile sowing medium. The plants will also require regular feeding when in growth. Divide the young bulbs when they are dormant, putting 2 – 3 in each pot, and grow them on for at least another year before planting them out into their permanent positions when the plants are dormant. Division with care in the autumn once the leaves have died down. Replant immediately. Bulb scales can be removed from the bulbs in early autumn. If they are kept in a warm dark place in a bag of moist peat, they will produce bulblets. These bulblets can be potted up and grown on in the greenhouse until they are large enough to plant out. Bulblets are formed on the stem just below the soil surface. These should be dug up in the autumn and replanted immediately, preferably in a cold frame for growing on until large enough to plant out into the garden. The formation of bulbils on the stem can be induced by either removing the stem at flowering time and layering it just below the soil surface, or by removing all the flowers before they open
Part Used: The bulb.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Root.

Bulb cooked. The raw bulb contains an acrid principle, but this is destroyed by drying or thorough heating. When cooked the bulb is pulpy, sweet and sugary. Rich in starch, it can be used as a vegetable in similar ways to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum).
Medicinal Uses:
Astringent; Demulcent; Emmenagogue; Emollient; Expectorant.

The Madonna lily has a long history of herbal use, though it is seldom employed in modern herbalism because of its scarcity. The bulb and the flowers are astringent, highly demulcent, emmenagogue, emollient and expectorant. The plant is mainly used externally, being applied as a poultice to tumours, ulcers, external inflammations etc. The bulb is harvested in August and can be used fresh or dried. The flowers are harvested when fully open and used fresh for making juice, ointments or tinctures. The pollen has been used in the treatment of epilepsy.

Other Uses: An essential oil from the flowers is used in perfumery.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lilium_candidum
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lilmad24.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Lilium+candidum

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Kolis

Botanical Name :Memecylon ovatum Smith
Family : Melastomataceae

Other scientific names:
: Memecylon ovatum Smith  ,Memecylon tinctorium Blanco ,Memecylon parviflorum Blanco ,Memecylon lucidum Presl,Memecylon prasinum Naud.  ,Memecylon edule F.-Vill. ,Memecylon parviflorum Roxb. var. ovatum  ,Memecylon umbellatum Merr.

Common names :Bayan (Tag.) ,Diok (Pang.) ,Gisian (Tag.) , Kandong (ilk.) ,Kolis (Tag.),Kulis (Sbl.) , Malabahi (Bik.),Malabanggi (Kuy.),Sagingsing (Bis.) , Sisirai (Ilk.) ,Ironwood tree (Engl.)

Habitat :Common in thickets at low altitudes, especially along the seashore.Mostly in southeast Asia.

Description:
Smooth shrub or small tree reaching a height of 8 meters. Leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate to oblong elliptic, 6 to 14 cn long, green, shining, and usually pointed at both ends. Flowers are faintly scented, numerous, about 7 mm across, deep blue or purple and borned on axillary, solitary or fascicled cymes, 2 to 4 cm long. Fruit is rounded, 7 to 10 mm diameter, fleshy and dark purple….click & see the picture

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Constituents : Plant yields alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids and saponins.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used:  Roots, leaves.

Folkloric:-
Decoction of roots used for menstrual irregularities.
• Infusion of leaves used as astringent in ophthalmia.

Studies
• Antibacterial: . Results showed the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of the plant with moderate antibacterial activity. Maximum activity was shown by the chloroform extract against Bacillus subtilis.
• Radical Scavenging / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: . The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest stimulation for interleukin-10 production; it also caused significant inhibition of the writhing response. The methanol fraction exhibited radical scavenging activity.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Source :http://www.stuartxchange.com/Kolis.html

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Tips for a Disease-Free Summer

Even as the Capital sweltered under severe heat conditions, city doctors cautioned about the downside of quick weather changes. Sudden change in temperature and humidity, doctors say, can be dangerous as the weather is conducive for mosquito breeding and other vector-borne diseases (diseases that spread through breeding of mosquitoes or other insects) to spread. Incidents of cholera, typhoid, jaundice and gastric problems also shoot up during this time of the year.

“This is the time when mosquito breeding starts, so dengue, malaria and other vector-borne diseases make a comeback. Precautions must be taken to stop active breeding,” says Dr Bir Singh, professor community medicine, AIIMS.

The Municipal Corporation of Delhi so far has reported two cases of malaria, but the number is likely to increase with rise in temperature. “We are taking all precautions to control mosquito breeding. Anti-larval medicines are being sprayed in vulnerable spots. We will intensify the drive from April end,” said Dr N K Yadav, medical health officer, MCD.

According to Dr Sanjeev Bagai, head of the department of paediatrics and director, Rockland Hospital, “One should see a doctor if there is headache, vomiting and high-grade fever which persists for more than 24 hours. Extra precaution should be taken in case of children. The bacteria’s incubation period is very short, sometimes just a few hours.”

Meningococcal disease, also referred to as cerebro-spinal meningitis, is a contagious bacterial disease caused by the meningococcus bacteria (Neisseria Meningitidis). It is spread by person-to-person contact through respiratory droplets of infected people. The bacteria attack the meninges (outer cover) of the brain, and infected persons should be treated at hospitals or under medical supervision.

Doctors also advise drinking a lot of water in order to prevent dehydration. However, water from the roadside and any drink that has commercial ice is to be strictly avoided. “We don’t know the source of water that is used in commercial ice. It could lead to diseases like cholera and jaundice. Food and water-borne infections are very common during summers,” informs Dr Bir Singh.

Freshly cooked food is also to be preferred over uncooked options, since gastro-intestinal problems become rampant. “We see a lot of cases of food poisoning, dysentery and other gastric problems during the beginning of summers. The food doesn’t remain sterile for long if not refrigerated in time,” says Dr Bagai. Dairy products should be consumed within days of buying.

Fruit chats, juices and shakes from roadside vendors are also to be avoided. “Maximum cases of gastroenteritis are cause by roadside food. Cut fruits, raw vegetables and chats should not be eaten, as one doesn’t know the method of preparation or how long the fruits and vegetables have been exposed in the heat,” said Dr G C Vaishnava, head of the department internal medicine, Fortis Healthc

Overall, doctors advise taking timely precautions. Children should be vaccinated for typhoid, meningitis, chicken pox and Hepatitis A. One should also drink a lot of water and other fluids. “Dehydration is common and people often faint because of it. Maintaining the body’s water level is essential. During winter our water intake goes down, but one has to make a conscious effort to drink a lot of water,” said Dr Vaishnava.

Sources: toireporter@timesgroup.com