Tag Archives: Accessibility

Cypripedium calceolus pubescens

Botanical Name: Cypripedium calceolus pubescens
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Cypripedioideae
Genus: Cypripedium
Species: C. calceolus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: C. flavescens. C. pubescens. Willd. C. parviflorum pubescens.

Common Names: Nerve Root , Lady’s-slipper orchid, Yellow lady’s slipper, Moccasin flower, or Hairy yellow ladyslipper

Habitat :Cypripedium calceolus pubescens occurs in N. America to E. Asia – Japan. It grows in rich woods and meadows. Mesic deciduous and coniferous forest, openings, thickets, prairies, meadows and fens at elevations of 0 – 2900 metres

Description:
Cypripedium calceolus pubescens is a perennial orchid plant. It is 1–2½’ tall and usually unbranched. The central stem is round in circumference, rather stout, and densely covered with hair. Three or more leaves alternate along this stem. These leaves are up to 6″ long and 4″ across; they are oval-ovate to ovate, smooth along their margins, and pubescent. Parallel veins are readily observable along the upper surface of each leaf. The base of each leaf clasps the stem. The color of the foliage can vary from dark green to yellowish green, depending on growing conditions and the maturity of the plant. The central stem terminates in 1 or 2 flowers. Each flower is held above the foliage on a long stalk that has a single leafy bract behind the flower. This bract resembles the leaves, but it is smaller in size and lanceolate in shape. Like other orchids, each flower has 3 petals and 3 sepals. However, because two of these sepals are fused together, there appears to be only 2 sepals.

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The lower petal is in the shape of a slipper or a pouch with an opening on top; it is bright yellow, shiny, and 1½–2″ in length. Within the interior of this petal, there are frequently reddish brown dots. The 2 lateral petals are very narrow, more or less twisted, and 2–3½” in length. These 2 petals vary in color from greenish yellow to brownish purple and they have fine veins running from their bases to their tips. The sepals form an upper hood and a lower hood. They are broader and shorter than the lateral petals, otherwise their appearance is similar. Both the lateral petals and sepals are more or less pubescent. The reproductive organs are located toward the posterior of the slipper-like lower petal. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer and lasts about 3 weeks. There is usually no noticeable floral scent. If a flower is successfully pollinated by insects (often this doesn’t occur), it will form a seedpod. When this seedpod splits open, the fine seeds are easily carried aloft by the wind. The root system consists of a tuft of fleshy fibrous roots. When several plants occur together, they are often clonal offsets of the mother plant.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in shade or full sun so long as there is adequate moisture. Grows well in a woodland garden. Plants are best grown on a north or north-west aspect in order to slow down early growth. Requires a humus rich soil with plenty of moisture in the growing season, it also succeeds in chalky soils. Must not be planted too deeply. A very ornamental plant it is long-lived when once established, though it is very difficult to establish a plant. The flowers have a soft, rose-like aroma. Plants are growing very well at the Savill Gardens in Windsor. This plant is becoming very rare in the wild due to overcollecting for medicinal usage. Reports that the plant is cultivated for its medicinal uses are largely spurious and, unless you can be certain that the root has come from a cultivated source, it is best not to use this plant medicinally but to use suitable substitutes such as Scutellaria laterifolia and Lavendula angustifolia. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division with care in early spring, the plants resent disturbance. Remove part of the original rootball with the soil intact. Division is best carried out towards the end of the growing season, since food reserves are fairly evenly distributed through the rhizome. Small divisions of a lead and two buds, or divisions from the back (older) part of the rhizome without any developed buds, establish quickly using this method. Replant immediately in situ.

Medicinal Uses:

Antidiarrhoeal; Antispasmodic; Diaphoretic; Hypnotic; Nervine; Sedative; Tonic.

Nerve root has a high reputation for its sedative and relaxing effect on the nervous system. The root is a pungent bitter-sweet herb with an unpleasant odour. It was much used by the North American Indians who used it as a sedative and antispasmodic to ease menstrual and labour pains and to counter insomnia and nervous tension. The root is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, tonic. It is taken internally in the treatment of anxiety, nervous tension, insomnia, depression and tension headaches. The active ingredients are not water soluble and so the root is best taken in the form of a tincture. The plant is said to be the equivalent of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) in its effect as a nervine and sedative, though it is less powerful. Another report says that its restorative effect appears to be more positive than that of valerian. The roots are harvested in the autumn and are dried for later use. In the interests of conservation, it is best not to use this herb unless you can be certain it was obtained from a cultivated source – see the notes above under cultivation details.

Lady’s slipper used to be a specific remedy to overcome depression, mental anxiety, and troubled sleep.  It was often recommended for women for both emotional and physical imbalances relating to menopause or menstruation, such as nervous tension, headaches, or cramps.  Lady’s slipper is said to increase nervous tone after a long disease and to relax nervous muscle twitches.  It is almost always given as an alcoholic tincture, since some constituents are not water-soluble.  Lady’s slipper is often compared to valerian, although valerian doesn’t create the uncomfortable side effects.

Known Hazards : Contact with the fresh plant can cause dermatitis in sensitive people. Large doses can cause hallucinations. Large doses may result in dizziness, restlessness, headaches, mental excitement and visual hallucinations. Avoid with allergies. Avoid during pregnancy.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cypripedium_calceolus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cypripedium+calceolus+pubescens
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/woodland/plants/yl_ladyslipper.htm

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

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Color Blindness

Alternative Names : Color deficiency; Blindness – color

Definition: Color blindness is the inability to see certain colors in the usual way.Color blindness, or color vision deficiency, in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. It is most often of genetic nature, but may also occur because of eye, nerve, or brain damage, or due to exposure to certain chemicals. The English chemist John Dalton in 1798 published the first scientific paper on the subject, “Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours”,  after the realization of his own color blindness; because of Dalton’s work, the condition is sometimes called Daltonism, although this term is now used for a type of color blindness called deuteranopia.…………....CLICK & SEE

Color blindness is usually classed as disability; however, in selected situations color blind people may have advantages over people with normal color vision. There are some studies which conclude that color blind individuals are better at penetrating certain camouflages. Monochromats may have a minor advantage in dark vision, but only in the first five minutes of dark adaptation.

Causes:
Color blindness occurs when there is a problem with the color-sensing materials (pigments) in certain nerve cells of the eye. These cells are called cones. They are found in the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye.

If you are missing just one pigment, you might have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color blindness. Other times, people have trouble seeing blue-yellow colors. People with blue-yellow color blindness almost always have problems identify reds and greens, too.

The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. A person with this rare condition cannot see any color. Achromatopsia is often associated with lazy eye, nystagmus (small, jerky eye movements), severe light sensitivity, and extremely poor vision.

There are many types of color blindness. The most common are red-green hereditary (genetic) photoreceptor disorders, but it is also possible to acquire color blindness through damage to the retina, optic nerve, or higher brain areas. Higher brain areas implicated in color processing include the parvocellular pathway of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, and visual area V4 of the visual cortex. Acquired color blindness is generally unlike the more typical genetic disorders. For example, it is possible to acquire color blindness only in a portion of the visual field but maintain normal color vision elsewhere. Some forms of acquired color blindness are reversible. Transient color blindness also occurs (very rarely) in the aura of some migraine sufferers.

The different kinds of inherited color blindness result from partial or complete loss of function of one or more of the different cone systems. When one cone system is compromised, dichromacy results. The most frequent forms of human color blindness result from problems with either the middle or long wavelength sensitive cone systems, and involve difficulties in discriminating reds, yellows, and greens from one another. They are collectively referred to as “red-green color blindness”, though the term is an over-simplification and is somewhat misleading. Other forms of color blindness are much more rare. They include problems in discriminating blues from yellows, and the rarest forms of all, complete color blindness or monochromacy, where one cannot distinguish any color from grey, as in a black-and-white movie or photograph.

Most color blindness is due to a genetic problem. About 1 in 10 men have some form of color blindness. Very few women are color blind.

The drug hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) can also cause color blindness. It is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, among other conditions.

If your clothes don’t match, someone might have teased you about being color-blind. But some people really are color-blind. It doesn’t mean they can’t see any color at all, like a black and white movie. It means that they have trouble seeing the difference between certain colors. (Check out the image on the right to see how well you see colors.)

CLICK & TEST YOUR COLOR VISION

Being color-blind can make it tricky to match your shirt and pants, but it’s not a serious problem. People who are color-blind can do normal stuff, even drive. Most color-blind people can’t tell the difference between red or green, but they can learn to respond to the way the traffic signal lights up. The red light is generally on top and green is on the bottom.

Cones and Color:
To understand what causes color blindness, you need to know about the cones in your eyes. Cones in your eyes? Yes, but they’re very small. These cones are cells on your retina, an area the size of a postage stamp that’s at the back of your eye.

You have “red,” “blue,” and “green” cones, which are sensitive to those colors and combinations of them. You need all three types to see colors properly. When your cones don’t work properly, or you don’t have the right combination, your brain doesn’t get the right message about which colors you’re seeing. To someone who’s color-blind, a green leaf might look tan or gray.

Color Blindness Is Passed Down:
Color blindness is almost always an inherited (say: in-her-ut-ed) trait, which means you get it from your parents. You get inherited traits through genes (say: jeenz), which determine everything about your body, including how tall you’ll be and whether your hair will be straight or curly.

…………....CLICK & SEE

Eye doctors (and some school nurses) test for color blindness by showing a picture made up of different colored dots, like the one above. If a person can’t see the picture or number within the dots, he or she may be color-blind.

Boys are far more likely to be color-blind. In fact, if you know 12 boys, one of them is probably at least a little color-blind. So girls, the next time a boy asks you if something matches, you’d better lend him a hand!

Symptoms :

Symptoms vary from person to person, but may include:

  • Trouble seeing colors and the brightness of colors in the usual way
  • Inability to tell the difference between shades of the same or similar colors

Often, the symptoms may be so mild that some persons do not know they are color blind. A parent may notice signs of color blindness when a child is learning his or her colors.

Rapid, side-to-side eye movements and other symptoms may occur in severe cases.

Exams and Tests:
Your doctor or eye specialist can check your color vision in several ways. Testing for color blindness is commonly done during an eye exam…..….CLICK & SEE

Treatment:
THERE IS NO TREATMENT

Outlook (Prognosis) :
COLOR BLINDNESS IS A LIFE-LONG CONDITION. MOST PERSONS ARE ABLE TO ADJUST WITHOUT DIFFICULTY OR DISABILITY. .

Possible Complications :
THOSE WHO ARE COLORBLIND MAY NOT BE ABLE TO GET CERTAIN JOB THAT NEEDS COLOR VISION. FOR EXAMPLE , A PILOT NEEDS TO BE ABLE TO SEE COLORS.

When to Contact a Medical Professional :
Make an appointment with your health care provider or ophthalmologist if you think you (or your child) have color blindness.

Click to learn more about Color blindness

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001002.htm
http://kidshealth.org/kid/talk/qa/color_blind.html

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Dysuria

Definition:: Painful or difficult urination. This includes burning on urination. Dysuria is most commonly due to bacterial infection of the urinary tract causing inflammation of the bladder (cystitis) or kidney (pyelonephritis).

In women, dysuria may also reflect inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis) or vulva (vulvitis). And in men, dysuria may be due to inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis) or the urethra (urethritis) from gonorrhea or chlamydia.

CLICK & SEE

In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination. This is typically described to be a burning or stinging sensation. It is most often a result of an infection of the urinary tract. It may also be due to an STD, bladder stones, bladder tumours, and virtually any condition of the prostate.

It is one of a constellation of irritative bladder symptoms, which includes frequency of urination and haematuria.

It is a common complaint in women, and almost 25% of women suffer from dysuria each year. It can also affect men, but to a lesser extent. Infection is the most common cause of dysuria.

The most common age range for this complaint is 24 to 54 years old. The infection is also thought to be contracted more easily by people who are sexually active. Genital herpes is one infection that can cause dysuria.

Signs and symptoms of dysuria:

  • Severe pain in urination
  • Incontinence urinary
  • Stinging or burning sensation during urination
  • Nocturia
  • Swelling in the bladder.
  • Urine frequency
  • Polyuria
  • Expulsion of urine from bladder

There are other symptoms that may accompany dysuria. These can include blood in the urine or vaginal discharge. There may be a hesitancy or slowness when urinating, and there may also be pain during intercourse. All of these symptoms must be taken into account and investigated before a diagnosis can be made.

Causes of dysuria:

There are many other causes of dysuria including irritation from chemicals in soaps, bubble baths, spermicides, and douches.

Diagnosis of dysuria:

Urine culture, urine analysis and urine dipstick will be recommended by health care provider to determine the disease. Sometimes, DNA probes may be suggested by the health care provider.

Ultrasonography and neurological tests may be used to detect the infection of urinart tract. Medical history related questions would be asked by health care providers. Medical history questions include:

When did you get problem during urination?

Is there any pain in thighs, urethra, or back pain?

Does pain continue or discontinue after urination?

Was there any blood in urine and drainage from vagina?

Physical activities, including horse riding and bicycle riding, may also cause the condition. There may also be some urethral damage during sexual intercourse. Certain conditions, such as depression, can also bring on dysuria.

A full medical history is required in order to diagnose the cause of dysuria. Factors taken into consideration include frequency and location of the pain. If pain is felt inside the body, then the cause may be cystitis or urethritis. If the pain occurs as urine leaves the body, then it may be a vaginal infection.

Treatment of dysuria:

Types of treatment of dysuria depend on the causes and symptoms of discomfort.

An antibiotic will be prescribed by the doctor to reduce the discomfort. Medications and antibiotics are effective treatment. They can be used in case of severe pain during urination. Sometimes surgical treatment may be used to reduce the infection of urinary tract. Urinary analgesics such as phenazopyridine may be used before completed the culture.

Phenazopyridine (oral) is an effective treatment for pain relief.

Herbs for Dysuria:- Kantakari, Purslane, Sandalwood

Online Ayurvedic Clinic for Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment of Dysuria,

Dysuria -Ayurvedic Treatment

HOMEOPATHIC Treatment & Medicines for URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Prevention of dysuria:

  • You should avoid tight clothes such as pent, suit.
  • You should use latex condoms during sexual activities.
  • You should wipe clearly from front to back after urination.
  • You should manage self-care strategies.
  • You should avoid intercourse.
  • You should not use douching.
  • You can drink 10-12 glasses of water regularly.
  • You should keep the genital area dry and clean with mild soap and water.
  • Do not use vaginal sprays and irritation soaps.
  • Avoid sexual contact with infected person.

There are some simple measures that can be taken to prevent dysuria. These include using condoms and avoiding intercourse until an infection has left the body. Wearing loose clothing may help, and using feminine douches may also help. If dysuria occurs, it is important to seek medical help. Early diagnosis can prevent any infection from spreading.

When to seek medical advice

If you may experience severe pain during urination, you should call your health care provider immediately. There is blood in urine and drainage form vagina and panis call your doctor as soon as possible.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-causes-dysuria.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dysuria
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3163
http://www.womens-health-clinic.com/DYSURIA.htm

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Living with Vision Loss > Getting Around

Not all people considered blind use a long white cane or dog guide. People who are visually impaired and do not use long canes or dog guides often rely on their remaining sight and auditory and tactile cues in their surroundings for orientation and travel.

How Can You Make It Easier To Move Around Your Home?..

1. Replace worn carpeting, and remove area rugs. Move electrical cords away from walkways.

2. Use nonskid products to clean and polish floors.

3. Use contrasting colors to make doors and stairs easier to see.

4.Move furniture out of the main traffic areas in your home, and keep desk chairs and table chairs pushed in.

5.Keep cabinet, closet, and room doors fully open or fully closed—not half open.
Make sure that lighting in hallways and stairwells is bright and even.

6.Use railings when climbing stairs.
7.Make it easy to locate electrical outlets and light switches, oven dials, hot pads, and doorknobs by using color contrasts.
Are You Concerned About Traveling Safely Outside Of Your Home?

Wear comfortable and supportive shoes.
Plan your route before you go. Identify landmarks that are easy for you to detect and use them as reference points.
Cross streets only at crosswalks. If you are uncertain about when it is safe to cross, don’t hesitate to ask for help.
When walking with another person, it may be helpful to hold onto his or her arm slightly above the elbow and walk about a half step behind. This will allow the person to guide you comfortably.

Dog Guides:……..CLICK & SEE

Dog guides are carefully trained service animals used as travel tools by people who are blind.

Dog guides and their masters undergo rigorous training to work safely and effectively as a team.
People who are blind are responsible for the health and well being of their dog guides at all times.
Dog guides should always be kept under control by their masters.
Dog guide users are trained to relieve their dogs regularly and to clean up after their dogs.
Dog guides work most effectively with persons who have very little vision. It is likely that most of the dog guide users you will meet are totally blind.
Dog guides move only in response to directions from their masters. They disobey commands only to avoid danger.
Concentration is essential when a person travels with a dog guide. Petting, feeding, or distracting a dog guide disrupts concentration and can cause serious danger.
Public and private organizations are required to admit dog guides and all service animals into their facilities.

Long Canes..…...CLICK & SEE

Some long canes are made of a single piece of metal, fiberglass, or similar lightweight conductive material. Other canes can fold or collapse like a telescope. Not all long canes are white; some are silver-grey.
People who are blind learn how to use and store their canes safely. It is their responsibility to do so at all times.
To assist a person using a long cane, always announce your presence and ask if your assistance is needed before reaching to help.
When guiding a person who uses a long cane, do not interfere with the arm used to hold the cane.
Always inform a person who is blind where you have stored his or her cane if it is necessary for you to take it for even a brief period of time.

Accessible Mass Transit.……..CLICK & SEE

Why Is Access to Mass Transit Important for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired?

Public transportation is a major key to independence, productivity, and community participation for people who are blind or severely visually impaired–most of whom are not able to drive a motor vehicle because of their visual impairment. Mass transit services such as buses, trains, or special paratransit vans are frequently the only options blind or visually impaired people have for traveling independently to school, work, health care facilities, shopping centers, and a host of other places in the community.
What Do People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Need to Access and Use Mass Transit?
People who are blind or visually impaired need to gather information about their physical surroundings and about the visible information that appears at transit stops, terminals, on transit vehicles, schedules, maps, and directories in order to use mass transit safely and effectively. Because of the visual nature of most transit information, people who are blind, severely visually impaired, or who have poor sight cannot use readily the wealth of information provided in mass transit environments for general information, wayfinding, and safety. For people who are blind or visually impaired, this visible information can be a barrier to using mass transit   barrier that can be addressed by providing information in ways that blind or visually impaired people can use.
What Kinds of Transit Information Present Barriers to People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired?
*Route, timetable, fare, and customer service brochures available only in print formats.
* Print or graphic messages on signs, monitors, or maps displayed in transit terminals, on transit vehicles, and inside transit vehicles.
*Bus stop locations that are not clearly marked, and bus stops whose placement varies within a transit system, that is, some bus stops are placed just before the corner, some are mid-block, and others are just beyond the corner.
*Ticket vending machines that have only visible or touch screen operation controls.
Safety or hazard signs and warnings that are only visibly displayed.

What Is Being Done to Improve Transit Accessibility for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired?
In 1990 the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) became law. This broad civil rights act bans discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, transportation, public services, public accommodations, and telecommunications in the public and private sectors. The U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Justice have issued regulations implementing the ADA’s requirements for public and private transportation vehicles, facilities, and services. The ADA transit regulations are complex, addressing a wide range of areas including the design of transportation vehicles and facilities, paratransit services, training of transit staff, compliance requirements and timeframes, and a host of broad reaching issues.

It is important to note that transit agencies have unique obligations under the ADA as well as concurrent obligations under state and local statutes and codes. Transit agencies are advised to consult legal counsel for meeting Federal, state, and local requirements. The information contained in this fact sheet is not intended to address in whole or in part the obligations of transit agencies with regard to the ADA and other Federal, state, and local requirements. The Department of Transportation regulations for publicly operated mass transit are found in the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR Parts 27, 37, 38).

In general terms, the ADA requires transportation systems to remove barriers to mass transit for persons who are blind or visually impaired, primarily by making visible information accessible and usable. The following list illustrates some of the ways that transit systems have begun to do so:

Providing large-print, high-contrast, and non-glare informational signs in terminals, at bus stops, and on transit vehicles.
Placing braille and tactile information regarding available service at consistent locations near the entrances to and within transit stations.
Installing a tactile domed high-contrast warning surface along platform edges.
Making stop announcements inside transit vehicles at main points along a bus or train route.
Providing external speakers that announce vehicle identification information.
Providing ticket vending machines with braille and large-print markings, or audible output devices.
Training transit personnel to meet the specific needs of persons with visual impairments who use public transportation.

What Does Innovation and Technology Hold in Store for Transit Accessibility?
In the years since the passage of the ADA, rapidly evolving technology has led to innovations that promise to enhance transit accessibility for people who are blind or visually impaired. Computer screen interfaces are being developed that read aloud information displayed on video screen monitors, information kiosks with tactile maps that “talk” to those who seek information about the location of key places in transit stations, multimedia interactive software allows users to query a map to plan routes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) technology enables people to use a portable computer to monitor their progress as they travel from place to place.

This same GPS technology can be used to drive automatic digitized stop announcements and can be linked to external bus speakers that will announce vehicle identification information to those waiting at vehicle stops. And, infra-red signals and radio transmitters can be programmed to broadcast the visual messages displayed on print signs so signs can then be “heard” by people who use special voice output receivers.

Source   :/www.afb.org