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Raphanus sativus caudatus(Rat-Tail Radish)

Botanical Name : Raphanus sativus caudatus
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Raphanus
Species: R. caudatus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonmous name:Raphanus sativus var. caudatus (Linn.) Vilmorin , Raphanus sativus var. mougri Helm , Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. caudatus (Linn.) Thell.

Common Name : Rat-Tail Radish

Habitat :Raphanus sativus caudatus is native to Java.( It is found primarily in India and Southeast Asia, and is believed to have originated in China. It was first known in the West no later than 1815, when introduced into England from Java)

Description:
Raphanus sativus caudatus is an annual growing herbaceous plant growing erect when young and turning prostrate when well-grown. The basal leaves are lyrately pinnate while cauline leaves are simple and linear. The species produces purplish veined flowers and long pods containing many seeds in it. The species is cultivated in some regions for its pods which are eaten raw or cooked as vegetable.

You may click to see the pictures

It is hardy to zone 8 and is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a rich soil with ample moisture. Dislikes very heavy or acid soils. Plants are susceptible to drought and require irrigation during dry spells in the summer or the root quality will rapidly deteriorate and the plant will go to seed. The rat-tailed radishes are sometimes cultivated for their large edible seedpods, there are some named varieties. This group of radishes does not produce roots of good quality, it is cultivated mainly for the edible young seedpods which are harvested in the summer. Radishes are a good companion plant for lettuces, nasturtiums, peas and chervil, tomatoes and cucumbers. They are said to repel cucumber beetles if planted near cucumber plants and they also repel the vine borers which attack squashes, marrows and courgettes. They grow badly with hyssop and with grape vines

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. Germination should take place within 2 weeks.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Seedpod.

Young leaves – raw or cooked. A somewhat hot taste. Flowers – raw. A nice spicy addition to salads. Young seedpods – raw. Crisp and juicy, they must be eaten when young because they quickly become tough and fibrous. They can grow more than 60cm long, but they tend to become tough and fibrous when more than 30cm long.

Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Antiscorbutic; Antispasmodic; Astringent; Cancer; Carminative; Cholagogue; Digestive; Diuretic; Expectorant; Laxative; Poultice; Stomachic.

Radishes have long been grown as a food crop, but they also have various medicinal actions. The roots stimulate the appetite and digestion, having a tonic and laxative effect upon the intestines and indirectly stimulating the flow of bile. Consuming radish generally results in improved digestion, but some people are sensitive to its acridity and robust action. The plant is used in the treatment of intestinal parasites, though the part of the plant used is not specified. The leaves, seeds and old roots are used in the treatment of asthma and other chest complaints. The juice of the fresh leaves is diuretic and laxative. The seed is carminative, diuretic, expectorant, laxative and stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of indigestion, abdominal bloating, wind, acid regurgitation, diarrhoea and bronchitis. The root is antiscorbutic, antispasmodic, astringent, cholagogue, digestive and diuretic. It is crushed and used as a poultice for burns, bruises and smelly feet. Radishes are also an excellent food remedy for stone, gravel and scorbutic conditions. The root is best harvested before the plant flowers. Its use is not recommended if the stomach or intestines are inflamed. The plant contains raphanin, which is antibacterial and antifungal. It inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, streptococci, Pneumococci etc. The plant also shows anti-tumour activity.

Other Uses:
Green manure; Repellent.

The growing plant repels beetles from tomatoes and cucumbers. It is also useful for repelling various other insect pests such as carrot root fly. There is a fodder variety that grows more vigorously and is used as a green manure.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.floracafe.com/Search_PhotoDetails.aspx?Photo=All&Id=2129
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Raphanus+sativus+caudatus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphanus_caudatus

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Clematis chinensis

Botanical Name :Clematis chinensis
Family: Ranunculaceae
Subfamily: Ranunculoideae
Tribe: Anemoneae
Genus: Clematis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms : Clematis minor – Lour.

Common Name :Chinese Clematis

Habitat :E. Asia – C. and W. China.[Japan (including Ryukyu Islands), Vietnam.}  Open woods, hedges, thickets, roadsides and banks of streams

Description:
A decidious Climber growing to 5m by 5m. It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from September to October, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a deep moist soil with its roots in the shade and its shoots growing up to the light[164]. Dislikes poorly-drained heavy clay soils, but grows well in clay if grit is added for drainage. Dislikes light sandy soils. Does well on chalk. Succeeds in acid as well as alkaline soils. When planting out, in order to avoid the disease ‘clematis wilt’, it is best to plant the rootball about 8cm deeper in the soil. This will also serve to build up a good root crown of growth buds. A twining plant. The leafstalks wrap themselves around twigs and branches for support. When a side of the stalk touches an object, the growth on that side slows down whilst the other side grows at its normal rate – this causes the leaf stalk to entwine the object it is touching. Plants flower in the autumn on the current season’s growth, any pruning is best carried out in the spring before new growth begins. The flowers are produced quite late in the season and can be damaged by late frosts, so plants generally do better in the milder western parts of the country. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes. The flowers are often damaged by winter cold.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Sow stored seed as soon as it is obtained in a cold frame. Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and remove as much of the tail and outer coat as possible. A period of cold stratification is beneficial. The seed germinates in 1 – 9 months or more at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Internodal cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, late spring in sandy soil in a frame. Layering of old stems in late winter or early spring. Layering of current seasons growth in early summer

Edible Uses: Young shoots – cooked. They are said to be non-toxic in one report but caution is still advised due to reports of toxicity in this genus. It is quite probable that cooking destroys the acrimonious principle, though this is a plant that I have no desire to eat

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Antidote; Antiperiodic; Antirheumatic; Antispasmodic; Antitumor; Cancer; Carminative; Diuretic.

The root is anodyne, antidote, antiperiodic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic and sedative[147, 176, 178, 218, 238]. A decoction is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis, tetanus and cold-type stomach-ache[147, 238]. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use[238]. The whole plant is antirheumatic[147, 176, 178, 218]. The plant has a history of folk use in the treatment of cancer[147, 176, 178, 218]. The root contains anemonin, this has antibacterial, analgesic, sedative and antispasmodic actions. It also inhibits the heart and central nervous system and is rubefacient

A decoction of the root is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis, tetanus and cold-type stomach-ache.  The plant has a history of folk use in the treatment of cancer. The root contains anemonin, this has antibacterial, analgesic, sedative and antispasmodic actions. It also inhibits the heart and central nervous system and is rubefacient. 15 g of the drug in decoction with 250g of rice vinegar dissolves fish bones lodged in the throat

Known Hazards : This species is harmful if eaten. The toxic principle is dissipated by heat or by drying. The plant is also a mild skin irritant

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Clematis+chinensis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clematis
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.wm-sec.com/clematis_chinensis.htm
http://www.stevenfoster.com/photography/imageviewsc/clematis/chinensis/cc5_121810/content/Clematis_chinensis_94370_large.html
http://www.fzrm.com/plantextracts/Chinese_Clematis_Root_extract.htm

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