Tag Archives: Addison’s disease

Glycyrrhiza Uralensis

Botanical Name : Glycyrrhiza Uralensis
Family:    Fabaceae
Genus:    Glycyrrhiza
Species:G. uralensis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Fabales

Common Name: Licorice, Gan Cao, Iriqsus, Kan T’Sao, Kan Ts’Ao, Liquirita, Madhuka, Meyankoku, Mi Ts’Ao, Regaliz, Sus Maikik,Chinese liquorice.

Common Names in Azerbaijani:Ural biyan
Common Names in Chinese:Gan Zao
Common Names in English:Chinese Licorice, Gan-Cao, Russian Licorice
Common Names in French:Réglisse De L´oural, Réglisse De Sibérie
Common Names in German:Chinesische Lakritze, Chinesisches Sübholz
Common Names in Hinese:Gan Cao
Common Names in Japanese:Gurukiruriza Urarenshisu, Uraru Kanzou,
Common Names in Kazakh:Miya-Tamr
Common Names in Russian:Solodka Ural´skaja, Solodka Uralskaya
Common Names in Thai:Cha Em Kha Kai (Central Thailand)
Common Names in Tibetan:Shing-Mngar
Common Names in Vietnamese:Cam thao

Habitat : Native to Central Asia. Licorice grows in sandy soil usually near a stream for ample water. Glycyrrhiza glabra, which is very similar medicinally, comes from the Mediterranea region.

Description:
Glycyrrhiza uralensis is a perennial  herb  growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.4 m (1ft 4in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)It can fix Nitrogen.....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Species:
Glycyrrhiza has several Species and that include:

Glycyrrhiza acanthocarpa
Glycyrrhiza aspera
Glycyrrhiza astragalina
Glycyrrhiza bucharica
Glycyrrhiza echinata – Russian liquorice
Glycyrrhiza eglandulosa
Glycyrrhiza foetida
Glycyrrhiza foetidissima
Glycyrrhiza glabra – liquorice, licorice
Glycyrrhiza gontscharovii
Glycyrrhiza iconica
Glycyrrhiza inflata
Glycyrrhiza korshinskyi
Glycyrrhiza lepidota – American licorice
Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora
Glycyrrhiza squamulosa
Glycyrrhiza triphylla
Glycyrrhiza uralensis – Chinese liquorice
Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis

Cultivation:  
Requires a deep well cultivated fertile moisture-retentive soil for good root production. Prefers a sandy soil with abundant moisture. Slightly alkaline conditions produce the best plants. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. This species is widely cultivated in China as a medicinal plant. Unless seed is required, the plant is usually prevented from flowering so that it puts more energy into producing good quality roots. A very deep-rooted plant, it can be difficult to eradicate once it is established. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:    
Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow spring or autumn in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out in late spring or early summer when in active growth. Plants are rather slow to grow from seed. Division of the root in spring or autumn. Each division must have at least one growth bud. Autumn divisions can either be replanted immediately or stored in clamps until the spring and then be planted out. It is best to pt up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a cold frame until they are established before planting them out in the spring or summer.

Edible Uses:    
Edible Parts: Root.
The fibrous root is used as a sweetener for foods. It is boiled in water to extract the sugars etc and used as a liquorice substitute in sweets, medicines, drinks etc. The root contains glycyrrhizin, which is 50 times sweeter than sugar.

Parts Uses: Root & the whole herb

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne, Antioxidant, Antispasmodic, Anti-inflammatory, Demulcent, Depurative, Diuretic, Emollient, Estrogenic, Expectorant, Pectoral

Glycyrrhiza Uralensis is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. It is considered to be second in importance only to Ginseng (Panax spp). Used in excess, however, it can cause cardiac dysfunction and severe hypertension. The root is a sweet tonic herb that stimulates the corticosteroidal hormones, neutralizes toxins and balances blood sugar levels. It is also antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic, antitussive, cholagogue, demulcent, emollient, expectorant and laxative. It is used internally in the treatment of Addison’s disease, asthma, coughs and peptic ulcers. Externally, it is used to treat acne, boils and sore throats. It is included in almost all Chinese herbal formulae, where it is said to harmonize and direct the effects of the various ingredients. It precipitates many compounds and is therefore considered to be unsuitable for use with some herbs such as Daphne genkwa, Euphorbia pekinensis and Corydalis solida. It increases the toxicity of some compounds such as ephedrine, salicylates, adrenaline and cortisone. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women or for people with high blood pressure, kidney disease or anyone taking digoxin-based medications. Excessive doses cause water retention and high blood pressure. It can cause impotence in some people. The roots are harvested in early autumn, preferably from plants 3- 4 years old, and is dried for later use. The flowers are alterative and expectorant.

Other Uses:
Fire retardant;  Insulation.
Liquorice root, after the medicinal and flavouring compounds have been removed, is used in fire extinguishing agents, to insulate fibreboards and as a compost for growing mushrooms.

Known Hazards: Liquorice root contains glycyrrhizin, which can cause high blood pressure, salt and water retention, and low potassium levels; it could also lead to heart problems. Patients who take liquorice with diuretics or medicines that reduce the body’s potassium levels could induce even lower potassium levels. Taking large amounts of liquorice root could also affect cortisol levels as well.[citation needed] People with heart disease or high blood pressure should be cautious about taking liquorice root. Pregnant women also need to avoid liquorice root because it could increase the risk of preterm labor.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Glycyrrhiza+uralensis
http://www.angelicaherbs.com/herbdetail.php?id=339&cat=latin_name&latin_name=Glycyrrhiza%20uralensis
http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/G/Glycyrrhiza%5Furalensis/
http://www.theplantencyclopedia.org/wiki/Glycyrrhiza

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Kidney transplant

Introduction:
A kidney transplant is an operation that places a healthy kidney in your body. The transplanted kidney takes over the work of the two kidneys that failed, and you no longer need dialysis.

CLICK  & SEE
During a transplant, the surgeon places the new kidney in your lower abdomen and connects the artery and vein of the new kidney to your artery and vein. Often, the new kidney will start making urine as soon as your blood starts flowing through it. But sometimes it takes a few weeks to start working.

If you have advanced and permanent kidney failure, kidney transplantation may be the treatment option that allows you to live much like you lived before your kidneys failed. Since the 1950s, when the first kidney transplants were performed, much has been learned about how to prevent rejection and minimize the side effects of medicines.

But transplantation is not a cure; it’s an ongoing treatment that requires you to take medicines for the rest of your life. And the wait for a donated kidney can be years long.

Many transplanted kidneys come from donors who have died. Some come from a living family member. The wait for a new kidney can be long. People who have transplants must take drugs to keep their body from rejecting the new kidney for the rest of their lives.

A successful transplant takes a coordinated effort from your whole health care team, including your nephrologist, transplant surgeon, transplant coordinator, pharmacist, dietitian, and social worker. But the most important members of your health care team are you and your family. By learning about your treatment, you can work with your health care team to give yourself the best possible results, and you can lead a full, active life.

Around 40 per cent of patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) need a transplant which frees people from the need for dialysis treatments.

A successful kidney transplant has ten times the function of dialysis (for example ten times the ability to remove toxins and extra water from the blood). It means that transplant patients have a better quality of life, with more energy than they did on dialysis.

How transplants work:-
An assessment is necessary to determine whether your body will accept an available kidney. This may require several visits over four to six months, and all potential recipients must be healthy enough for surgery.

Although there is no age limit, few units will transplant patients over 70 years – unless very fit.

If a family member, partner or friend wants to donate a kidney, they will need to be evaluated for general health too.

If there is no potential living donor, you will need to register with hospital and be put on a national waiting list to receive a kidney from a deceased donor. but this varies considerably around the country. Kidneys can also be donated by strangers.

If there is a suitable living donor, the operation can be scheduled in advance, when it suits both sides. If you’re on a waiting list for a deceased donor kidney, as soon as it becomes available, you must go to the hospital quickly – where a test is carried out to check the kidney won’t be rejected. If it’s suitable, the transplant can proceed. The operation usually takes three to four hours.

A surgeon places the new kidney inside your lower abdomen and connects the artery and vein of the new kidney to your artery and vein. Your blood flows through the new kidney, which makes urine, just like your own kidneys did when they were healthy. Unless they are causing infection or high blood pressure, your own kidneys are left in place.

During the operation, the transplant kidney is inserted into the lower abdomen and connected to an artery and vein (to the leg). The blood flows through the new kidney, which makes urine, just like the old kidneys did when they were healthy. The old kidneys are usually left in place.

CLICK & SEE

Often the new kidney will start making urine as soon as blood starts flowing through it, but about one third of patients will require dialysis for around a week. Most patients leave hospital two weeks after the operation.

To prevent the immune system from seeing the new kidney as foreign and rejecting it, you’ll have to take drugs that turn off (or suppress) your immune response (immunosupressants). It’s important to understand the instructions for taking these medicines before leaving hospital, as missing the tablets for just 24 hours can cause rejection and the loss of the kidney.

 

Recovery From Surgery:-
As after any major surgery, you’ll probably feel sore and groggy when you wake up. However, many transplant recipients report feeling much better immediately after surgery. Even if you wake up feeling great, you’ll need to stay in the hospital for about a week to recover from surgery, and longer if you have any complications.

Posttransplant Care:-
Your body’s immune system is designed to keep you healthy by sensing “foreign invaders,” such as bacteria, and rejecting them. But your immune system will also sense that your new kidney is foreign. To keep your body from rejecting it, you’ll have to take drugs that turn off, or suppress, your immune response. You may have to take two or more of these immunosuppressant medicines, as well as medications to treat other health problems. Your health care team will help you learn what each pill is for and when to take it. Be sure that you understand the instructions for taking your medicines before you leave the hospital.

If you’ve been on hemodialysis, you’ll find that your posttransplant diet is much less restrictive. You can drink more fluids and eat many of the fruits and vegetables you were previously told to avoid. You may even need to gain a little weight, but be careful not to gain weight too quickly and avoid salty foods that can lead to high blood pressure

Rejection:-
You can help prevent rejection by taking your medicines and following your diet, but watching for signs of rejection—like fever or soreness in the area of the new kidney or a change in the amount of urine you make—is important. Report any such changes to your health care team.

Even if you do everything you’re supposed to do, your body may still reject the new kidney and you may need to go back on dialysis. Unless your health care team determines that you’re no longer a good candidate for transplantation, you can go back on the waiting list for another kidney.

Side Effects of Immunosuppressants:
Immunosuppressants can weaken your immune system, which can lead to infections. Some drugs may also change your appearance. Your face may get fuller; you may gain weight or develop acne or facial hair. Not all patients have these problems, though, and diet and makeup can help.

Immunosuppressants work by diminishing the ability of immune cells to function. In some patients, over long periods of time, this diminished immunity can increase the risk of developing cancer. Some immunosuppressants cause cataracts, diabetes, extra stomach acid, high blood pressure, and bone disease. When used over time, these drugs may also cause liver or kidney damage in a few patients.

Hope through Research:-
The NIDDK, through its Division of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases, supports several programs and studies devoted to improving treatment for patients with progressive kidney disease and permanent kidney failure, including patients who receive a transplanted kidney.

•The End-Stage Renal Disease Program promotes research to reduce medical problems from bone, blood, nervous system, metabolic, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and endocrine abnormalities in kidney failure and to improve the effectiveness of dialysis and transplantation. The program seeks to increase kidney graft and patient survival and to maximize quality of life.

•The NIH Organ/Tissue Transplant Center, located at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, is a collaborative project of NIH, the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, the Naval Medical Research Center, and the Diabetes Research Institute at the University of Miami. The site includes a state-of-the-art clinical transplant ward, operating facility, and outpatient clinic designed for the study of new drugs or techniques that may improve the success of organ and tissue transplants.

•The U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS) collects, analyzes, and distributes information about the use of dialysis and transplantation to treat kidney failure in the United States. The USRDS is funded directly by NIDDK in conjunction with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. The USRDS publishes an Annual Data Report, which characterizes the total population of people being treated for kidney failure; reports on incidence, prevalence, mortality rates, and trends over time; and develops data on the effects of various treatment modalities. The report also helps identify problems and opportunities for more focused special studies of renal research issues.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

 

Resources:
http://www.topnews.in/health/kidney-transplant-patients-low-physical-activity-likely-die-early-211177
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/kidneytransplantation.html
http://www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/transplant/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/in_depth/kidneys/kidneys_transplant.shtml

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Addison’s Disease

Definition:
Addison’s disease is a disorder that results when your body produces insufficient amounts of certain hormones produced by your adrenal glands. In Addison’s disease, your adrenal glands produce too little cortisol, and often insufficient levels of aldosterone as well.

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Also called adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism, Addison’s disease can occur at any age, but is most common in people ages 30 to 50. Addison’s disease can be life-threatening.

Symptoms:

Addison’s disease symptoms usually develop slowly, often over several months, and may include:
*Muscle weakness and fatigue
*Weight loss and decreased appetite
*Darkening of your skin (hyperpigmentation)
*Low blood pressure, even fainting
*Salt craving
*Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
*Nausea, diarrhea or vomiting
*Muscle or joint pains
*Irritability
*Depression

Acute adrenal failure (addisonian crisis)
Sometimes, however, the signs and symptoms of Addison’s disease may appear suddenly. In acute adrenal failure (addisonian crisis), the signs and symptoms may also include:

*Pain in your lower back, abdomen or legs
*Severe vomiting and diarrhea, leading to dehydration
*Low blood pressure
*Loss of consciousness
*High potassium (hyperkalemia)

Causes :
Your adrenal glands are located just above each of your two kidneys. These glands are part of your endocrine system, and they produce hormones that give instructions to virtually every organ and tissue in your body.

Your adrenal glands are composed of two sections. The interior (medulla) produces adrenaline-like hormones. The outer layer (cortex) produces a group of hormones called corticosteroids, which include glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and male sex hormones (androgens).

Some of the hormones the cortex produces are essential for life — the glucocorticoids and the mineralocorticoids.

*Glucocorticoids. These hormones, which include cortisol, influence your body’s ability to convert food fuels into energy, play a role in your immune system’s inflammatory response and help your body respond to stress.

*Mineralocorticoids. These hormones, which include aldosterone, maintain your body’s balance of sodium and potassium and water to keep your blood pressure normal.

*Primary adrenal insufficiency: Addison’s disease occurs when the cortex is damaged and doesn’t produce its hormones in adequate quantities. Doctors refer to the condition involving damage to the adrenal glands as primary adrenal insufficiency.

The failure of your adrenal glands to produce adrenocortical hormones is most commonly the result of the body attacking itself (autoimmune disease). For unknown reasons, your immune system views the adrenal cortex as foreign, something to attack and destroy.

Other causes of adrenal gland failure may include:
*Tuberculosis
*Other infections of the adrenal glands
*Spread of cancer to the adrenal glands
*Bleeding into the adrenal glands

Secondary adrenal insufficiency
Adrenal insufficiency can also occur if your pituitary gland is diseased. The pituitary gland makes a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce its hormones. Inadequate production of ACTH can lead to insufficient production of hormones normally produced by your adrenal glands, even though your adrenal glands aren’t damaged. Doctors call this condition secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Another more common possible cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when people who take corticosteroids for treatment of chronic conditions, such as asthma or arthritis, abruptly stop taking the corticosteroids.

Addisonian crisis
If you have untreated Addison’s disease, an addisonian crisis may be provoked by physical stress, such as an injury, infection or illness.

When to seek medical advice:
See your doctor if you have signs and symptoms that commonly occur in people with Addison’s disease. Most people with this condition experience darkening areas of skin (hyperpigmentation), severe fatigue, unintentional weight loss, and gastrointestinal problems, such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Dizziness or fainting, salt cravings, and muscle or joint pains also are common.

Your doctor can determine whether Addison’s disease or some other medical condition may be causing these problems.

Tests and diagnosis:-

Your doctor will talk to you first about your medical history and your signs and symptoms. If your doctor thinks that you may have Addison’s disease, you may undergo some of the following tests:

*Blood test. Measuring your blood levels of sodium, potassium, cortisol and ACTH gives your doctor an initial indication of whether adrenal insufficiency may be causing your signs and symptoms. A blood test can also measure antibodies associated with autoimmune Addison’s disease.

*ACTH stimulation test. This test involves measuring the level of cortisol in your blood before and after an injection of synthetic ACTH. ACTH signals your adrenal glands to produce cortisol. If your adrenal glands are damaged, the ACTH stimulation test shows that your output of cortisol in response to synthetic ACTH is blunted or nonexistent.

*Insulin-induced hypoglycemia test. Occasionally, doctors suggest this test if pituitary disease is a possible cause of adrenal insufficiency (secondary adrenal insufficiency). The test involves checking your blood sugar (blood glucose) and cortisol levels at various intervals after an injection of insulin. In healthy people, glucose levels fall and cortisol levels increase.

*Imaging tests. Your doctor may have you undergo a computerized tomography (CT) scan of your abdomen to check the size of your adrenal glands and look for other abnormalities that may give insight to the cause of the adrenal insufficiency. Your doctor may also suggest a CT scan or MRI scan of your pituitary gland if testing indicates you have secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Treatments and drugs:-
If you receive an early diagnosis of Addison’s disease, treatment may involve taking prescription corticosteroids. Because your body isn’t producing sufficient steroid hormones, your doctor may have you take one or more hormones to replace the deficiency. Cortisol is replaced using hydrocortisone (Cortef), prednisone or cortisone acetate. Fludrocortisone (Florinef) replaces aldosterone, which controls your body’s sodium and potassium needs and keeps your blood pressure normal.

You take these hormones orally in daily doses that mimic the amount your body normally would make, thereby minimizing side effects. If you’re facing a stressful situation, such as an operation, an infection or a minor illness, your doctor will suggest a temporary increase in your dosage. If you’re ill with vomiting and can’t retain oral medications, you may need corticosteroid injections.

In addition, your doctor may recommend treating androgen deficiency with an androgen replacement called dehydroepiandrosterone. Some studies indicate that, for women with Addison’s disease, androgen replacement therapy may improve overall sense of well-being, libido and sexual satisfaction.

You may click to learn more about:-
-> Natural Addison’s Disease Treatment
->Natural Help for Addison’s Disease
->AN ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE RESOURCE GUIDE
->Treatment For Addison’s Disease – Herbal Remedies – Natural Cures

Addisonian crisis
An addisonian crisis is a life-threatening situation that results in low blood pressure, low blood levels of sugar and high blood levels of potassium. This situation requires immediate medical care. Treatment typically includes intravenous injections of:

*Hydrocortisone
*Saline solution
*Sugar (dextrose

Coping and support:-

These steps may help you cope better with a medical emergency if you have Addison’s disease:

Carry a medical alert card and bracelet at all times. In the event you’re incapacitated, emergency medical personnel know what kind of care you need.

Keep extra medication handy. Because missing even one day of therapy may be dangerous, it’s a good idea to keep a small supply of medication at work, at a vacation home and in your travel bag, in the event you forget to take your pills. Also, have your doctor prescribe a needle, syringe and injectable form of corticosteroids to have with you in case of an emergency.

Stay in contact with your doctor. Keep an ongoing relationship with your doctor to make sure that the doses or replacement hormones are adequate but not excessive. If you’re having persistent problems with your medications, you may need adjustments in the doses or timing of the medications.

Sources:http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/addisons-disease/DS00361/DSECTION=symptoms

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Melasma

Alternative Names : Chloasma; Mask of pregnancy; Pregnancy mask

Definition:-
Melasma is a dark skin discoloration found on sun-exposed areas of the face.
Melasma (also known as chloasma or the mask of pregnancy when present in pregnant women) is a tan or dark facial skin discoloration. Although it can affect anyone, melasma is particularly common in women, especially pregnant women and those who are taking oral or patch contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) medications. It is also prevalent in men and women of Native American descent (on the forearms) and in men and women of German/Russian Jewish descent (on the face).

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Symptoms:-

Melasma doesn’t cause any other symptoms besides skin discoloration but may be of great cosmetic concern.A uniform brown color is usually seen over the cheeks, forehead, nose, or upper lip. It is most often symmetrical (matching on both sides of the face).
The symptoms of melasma are dark, irregular patches commonly found on the upper cheek, nose, lips, upper lip, and forehead. These patches often develop gradually over time. Melasma does not cause any other symptoms beyond the cosmetic discoloration.

Cause:-

Melasma is a very common skin disorder. Though it can affect anyone, young women with brownish skin tones are at greatest risk.

Melasma is often associated with the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. It is especially common in pregnant women, women who are taking oral contraceptives (“the pill”), and women taking hormone replacement therapy during menopause.

Sun exposure is also a strong risk factor for melasma. It is particularly common in tropical climates.
Melasma is thought to be the stimulation of melanocytes or pigment-producing cells by the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone to produce more melanin pigments when the skin is exposed to sun. Women with a light brown skin type who are living in regions with intense sun exposure are particularly susceptible to developing this condition.

Genetic predisposition is also a major factor in determining whether someone will develop melasma.

The incidence of melasma also increases in patients with thyroid disease. It is thought that the overproduction of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) brought on by stress can cause outbreaks of this condition. Other rare causes of melasma include allergic reaction to medications and cosmetics.

Melasma Suprarenale (Latin – of the adrenals) is a symptom of Addison’s disease, particularly when caused by pressure or minor injury to the skin, as discovered by Dr. FJJ Schmidt of Rotterdam in 1859.

Diagnosis:-
Your health care provider can usually diagnose melasma based upon the appearance of your skin. A closer examination using a Wood’s lamp may help guide your treatment.Melasma is usually diagnosed visually or with assistance of a Wood’s lamp (340 – 400 nm wavelength). Under Wood’s lamp, excess melanin in the epidermis can be distinguished from that of the dermis.

Treatment:-
The discoloration usually disappears spontaneously over a period of several months after giving birth or stopping the oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy.

Treatments to hasten the fading of the discolored patches include:

*Topical depigmenting agents, such as hydroquinone (HQ) either in over-the-counter (2%) or prescription (4%) strength. HQ is a chemical that inhibits tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in the production of melanin.

*Tretinoin, an acid that increases skin cell (keratinocyte) turnover. This treatment cannot be used during pregnancy.
Azelaic acid (20%), thought to decrease the activity of melanocytes.

*Facial peel with alpha hydroxyacids or chemical peels with glycolic acid.

*Laser treatment. A Wood’s lamp test should be used to determine whether the melasma is epidermal or dermal. If the melasma is dermal, laser (or “IPL”) will acually DARKEN and worsen the appearance of the spots. Dermal melasma is generally unresponsive to most treaments, and has only been found to lighten with products containing mandelic acid.

In all of these treatments the effects are gradual and a strict avoidance of sunlight is required. The use of broad-spectrum sunscreens with physical blockers, such as titanium dioxide and zinc dioxide is preferred over that with only chemical blockers. This is because UV-A, UV-B and visible lights are all capable of stimulating pigment production.

Cosmetic cover-ups can also be used to reduce the appearance of melasma.

Click for Herbal & Ayurvedic Treatment of Melasma….>………….(1)……(2)…..(3)…...(4)……(5)

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Prognosis:
Melasma often fades over several months after stopping oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy or after delivering a child. It may return with additional pregnancies or use of these medications.

Prevention :
Daily sunscreen use not only helps prevent melasma but is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer and wrinkles.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melasma
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/article/000836.htm

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Hog Weed

Scientific Name: Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.
Family: Nyctaginaceae

Synonyms: . B. repens; B. repens var. diffusa

Family Name: Hog weed, Horse Purslane

Common Indian Names
Gujarati: Dholia-saturdo, Moto-satoda.
Hindi: Snathikari
Canarese: Kommegida
Marathi: Tambadivasu
Sanskrit: Punarnava, Raktakanda, Shothaghni, Varshabhu
Bengali: Punurnava
Tamil: Mukaratee-Kirei
Telugu: Punernava

Habitat: Hog weed is indigenous to India. It grows wild all over the country as a common creeping weed and is specially abundant during the rains. It grows as common weed.

Useful Parts: Root, leaves and seeds.

Description;
Hog weed is a creeping and spreading perennial herb, with a stout root-stock and many erect or spreading branches. It grows upto 2 metres in length. The leaves of the plant are simple, broad, somewhat rough, thick and brittle. The flowers are pink or red in color. The fruits are oval in shape, dull-green or brownish in color and about the size of caraway bean.

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The plant contains a crystalline acid known as boerhavic acid, potassium nitrate and a brown mass consisting of tannins, phlobaphenes and reducing sugars. The active principle of hog weed is the alkaloid punarnavine. The drug contains large quantities of potassium salts, which accounts for its diuretic properties.

Chemical Constituents: Hog Weed contains b-Sitosterol, a-2-sitosterol, palmitic acid, ester of b-sitosterol, tetracosanoic, hexacosonoic, stearic, arachidic acid, urosilic acid, Hentriacontane, b-Ecdysone, triacontanol etc.

Healing Power and Curative Properties
The herb has been used in indigenous medicine from time immemorial. It is laxative and produces a cooling sensation. In large doses it induces vomiting. Medicinally, the most important part of the herb is the root. It has a bitter and nauseous taste. It is beneficial in the treatment of several common ailments.

Medicinal Uses: According to Ayurveda, Hog Weed is bitter, cooling, astringent to bowels, useful in biliousness, blood impurities, leucorrhoea, anaemia, inflammations, heart diseases, asthma, alternatives etc. The leaves are useful in dyspepsia, tumours, spleen enlargement, abdominal pains. According to Unani system of medicine, the leaves are appetizer, alexiteric, useful in opthalmia, in joint pains. Seeds are tonic expectorant, carminative, useful in lumbago, scabies. The seeds are considered as promising blood purifier.

Traditional Medicinal Uses: In many parts of India, different parts of Hog Weed are used as folk medicine.

Ayurveda Properties: Punarnavastaka, Punaravataila, Punarnavaleha etc.
Hog Weed or Boerhaavia diffusa extract curbs experimental melanoma metastasis
Chemical Examination of Punar-nava or Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. Proc Acad

Punarnava Boerhaavia diffusa – Pure Herbal :: Shopeastwest

Uses In Different Diseases:

Dropsy

Hog weed increases the secretion and discharge of urine. It is effective in the treatment of dropsy, a disease marked by an excessive collection of a watery fluid in the tissues and cavities or natural hollows of the body. The fresh boiled herb should be given in the treatment of this disease. A liquid extract of the fresh or dry plant can also be given in doses of 4 to 16 grams.

.Ascities

The herb is useful in the treatment of ascites, a disease characterized by accumulation of fluid inside the peritoneal cavity of the abdomen. Much more powerful effect on certain types of ascites that is, those caused due to the cirrhosis of the liver and chronic peritonitis-than some of the other important diuretics known. The herb can be administered m the same manner as for dropsy.

.Stomach Disorders

The drug is useful in strengthening the stomach and promoting its action. It is beneficial in the treatment of several stomach disorders, particularly intestinal colic. A powder of the root is given in doses of 5 grams thrice a day. It is also useful in killing or expelling intestinal worms.

Asthma

Hog weed promotes the removal of catarrhal matter and phlegm from the bronchial tubes. It is, therefore, beneficial in the treatment of asthma. A powder of the root can be taken in small doses three times a day.

Fevers

Hog weed is beneficial in the treatment of fevers. It brings down temperature by inducing copious perspiration.

Other Diseases

The root of the plant is useful in the treatment of several diseases — particularly of the kidney and heart — as well as gonorrhea. It is also valuable in oedema, anemia, cough, pleurisy, nervous weakness, constipation and paralysis..

Skin Diseases

The root of the plant is a~ effective remedy for several skin diseases. A paste of the root can be applied beneficially as a dressing for oedematous swellings. A hot poultice of the root can be applied with gratifying results to ulcers, abscesses and similar skin diseases. It is also used for extracting guinea-worms. Charaka, the great physician of ancient India, used it in the form of ointment in leprosy and other skin diseases.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Source : http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/CropFactSheets/punanrnava.html and Herbs That Heal

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