Tag Archives: Adverse event

Wart

Alternative Names :
Plane juvenile warts; Periungual warts; Subungual warts; Plantar warts; Verruca; Verrucae planae juveniles; Filiform warts; Verruca vulgaris

Definition:
Warts are small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by a virus. They are generally harmless. However, warts can be disfiguring and embarrassing, and occasionally they itch or hurt (particularly on the feet).

It is generally a small, rough tumor, typically on hands and feet, that can resemble a cauliflower or a solid blister. Warts are common, and are caused by a viral infection, specifically by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and are contagious when in contact with the skin of another. It is also possible to get warts from using towels or other objects. They typically disappear after a few months but can last for years and can recur. A few papilloma viruses are known to cause cervical cancer.

Types of Wort:

A range of different types of wart has been identified, varying in shape and site affected, as well as the type of human papillomavirus involved.

These include:

(YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES)

 

*Common wart (Verruca vulgaris): a raised wart with roughened surface, most common on hands and knees.

Common wart> CLICK & SEE
*Flat wart (Verruca plana):
a small, smooth flattened wart, tan or flesh coloured, which can occur in large numbers; most common on the face, neck, hands, wrists and knees

.Flat wart>...CLICK & SEE

*Genital wart (venereal wart, Condyloma acuminatum, Verruca acuminata):They are usually found on the genitals, in the pubic area, and the area between the thighs, but can appear inside the vagina and anal canal.

Genital.wart>...CLICK & SEE

*Plantar warts (verruca, Verruca pedis): a hard sometimes painful lump, often with multiple black specks in the center; usually only found on pressure points on the soles of the feet.

Plantar wart>CLICK & SEE


*Subungual and periungual warts
appear under and around the fingernails or toenails .

Subungual wart >CLICK & SEE

*Filiform or digitate wart: a thread- or finger-like wart, most common on the face, especially near the eyelids and lips.

A filiform wart on the eyelid.>..CLICK & SEE

*Mosaic wart: a group of tightly clustered plantar-type warts, commonly on the hands or soles of the feet…..CLICK & SEE

Causes:
The typical wart is a raised round or oval growth on the skin with a rough surface. Compared with the surrounding normal skin, warts may appear light, dark, or black (rare). Most adults are familiar with the look of a typical wart and have little trouble recognizing them. Unusual warts with smooth surfaces or flat warts in children may be more difficult for parents to recognize.

Common warts tend to cause no discomfort unless they are in areas of repeated friction or pressure. Plantar warts, for example, can become extremely painful. Large numbers of plantar warts on the foot may cause difficulty running and even walking.

Warts around and under your nails are much more difficult to cure than warts elsewhere.

Some warts will disappear without treatment, although it can sometimes take a couple years. Treated or not, warts that go away often reappear. Genital warts are quite contagious, while common, flat, and plantar warts are much less likely to spread from person to person. All warts can spread from one part of your own body to another.

Because people generally consider warts unsightly and there is often a social stigma, treatment is often sought.
Symptoms :

*Small, hard, flat or raised skin lesion or lump

*Abnormally dark or light skin surrounding the lesion

*Numerous small, smooth, flat (pinhead sized) lesions on forehead, cheeks, arms, or legs

*Rough, round, or oval lesions on soles of feet — flat to slightly raised — painful to pressure

*Rough growths around or under fingernails or toenails

Diagnosis:
Exams and Tests
Warts can generally be diagnosed simply by their location and appearance. Your doctor may want to cut into a wart (called a biopsy) to confirm that it is not a corn, callus, or other similar-appearing growth.

Treatment:
Prescription
Treatments that may be prescribed by a medical professional include:

*Keratolysis, removal of dead surface skin cells usually using salicylic acid, blistering agents, immune system modifiers (“immunomodulators”), or formaldehyde.

*Cryosurgery, which involves freezing the wart (generally with liquid nitrogen), creating a blister between the wart and epidermal layer,after which the wart and surrounding dead skin falls off by itself.

*Surgical curettage of the wart.

*Laser treatment.

*Imiquimod, a topical cream that helps the body’s immune system fight the wart virus by encouraging interferon production.

*Candida injections at the site of the wart, which also stimulate the body’s immune system.

*Cantharidin, a chemical found naturally in many members of the beetle family Meloidae which causes dermal blistering…...CLICK & SEE
Two viral warts on a middle finger, being treated with a mixture of acids (like salicylic acid) to remove them. A white precipitation forms on the area where the product was applied.

The wart often regrows after the skin has healed.One review of 52 clinical trials of various cutaneous wart treatments concluded that topical treatments containing salicylic acid were the best supported, with an average cure rate of 75% observed with salicylic acid compared with 48% for placebo in six placebo-controlled trials including a total of 376 participants. The reviewers also concluded that there was little evidence of a significant benefit of Cryotherapy over placebo or no treatment.

Over-the-counter
There are several over-the-counter options. The most common ones involve salicylic acid. These products are readily available at drugstores and supermarkets. There are typically two types of products: adhesive pads treated with salicylic acid or a bottle of concentrated salicylic acid solution. Removing a wart with salicylic acid requires a strict regimen of cleaning the area, applying the acid, and removing the dead skin with a pumice stone or emery board. It may take up to 12 weeks to remove a wart.

Another over-the-counter product that can aid in wart removal is silver nitrate in the form of a caustic pencil, which is also available at drug stores. This method generally takes three to six daily treatments to be effective. The instructions must be followed to minimize staining of skin and clothing.

Over-the-counter cryosurgery kits are also available, however they can often cost three times as much as the previously named products.Like prescription treatments, over-the-counter treatments usually require multiple applications and are only necessary if the warts are problematic. Additionally, these treatments are capable of destroying healthy skin as well as warts, so caution must be exercised by those attempting them without medical supervision.

Household remedies
Duct tape occlusion therapy involves placing a piece of duct tape (or medical tape) over the affected area for a week at a time. The procedure is otherwise identical to that of using salicylic acid adhesive pads. One study by Focht et al. found that the duct tape method was 85% effective, compared to a 60% success rate in the study’s cryotherapy group. Another study by Wenner and coworkers, however, found no statistically significant effect in a double-blind, randomized and controlled clinical trial in 90 adults when duct tape was compared to moleskin.There was no statistically significant difference for resolution of the target wart between patients treated with moleskin versus patients treated with duct tape. Eight of 39 patients [21%] in the treatment group vs 9 of 41 patients in the control group [22%] had complete resolution of the target wart. Fewer of the patients achieving resolution of their wart in the moleskin group had recurrence of their wart. Of the patients who had complete resolution, 6 (75%) in the treatment group and 3 (33%) in the control group had recurrence of the target wart by the sixth month. “Whether or not the standard type of duct tape is effective is up in the air,” said co-author

Dr. Rachel Wenner of the University of Minnesota, who started the new study as a medical student. “Theoretically, the rubber adhesive could somehow stimulate the immune system or irritate the skin in a different manner.”Other household remedies include the application of common household items. These include various fruits and vegetables such
as a bruised garlic, banana skin, unskinned potatoes, potato or cauliflower or tomato juice, or other food products like green tea, vinegar, salt, or vegemite. Other common household products used include rubbing alcohol, hot water and washing liquid, aerosol sprays or compressed air, and tempera paint. Oils and saps from milkweed, dandelion, and poison ivy, tea tree, Thuja occidentalis, and fig trees have also been used. Accounts vary in regards to how long these remedies must be applied with each session and how long they take to work.

As there have been no controlled studies for most household remedies, it is impossible to know if warts that disappear after such treatments do so because the treatment was effective, or because warts often disappear due to the individual’s own immune system regardless of treatment. The evidence that hypnosis may effectively treat warts suggests that the condition may be amenable to the placebo effect, that is, that belief in a remedy rather than any property of the remedy itself is what’s effective.

Some household remedies are potentially dangerous. These include attempts to cut or burn away the warts. Incense is sometimes used in Asian countries to burn warts. These methods are very painful, and can lead to infection and/or permanent scarring.

Prognosis:
Warts are generally harmless growths that often go away on their own within two years. They can be contagious, but transmission from person to person is uncommon. Warts may be unsightly or cause discomfort, especially on the feet.

Possible Complications:
*Spread of warts
*Return of warts that disappeared
*Minor scar formation if the wart is removed
*Formation of keloids after removal

Call for an appointment with your doctor if:
*There are signs of infection (red streaking, pus, discharge, or fever) or bleeding. Warts can bleed a little, but if bleeding is significant or not easily stopped by light pressure, see a doctor.

*The wart does not respond to self-care and you want it removed.

*You have pain associated with the wart.

*You have anal or genital warts.

*You have diabetes or a weakened immune system (for example, HIV) and have developed warts.

*There is any change in the color or appearance of the wart.

Prevention:
Avoid direct skin contact with a wart on someone else.
After filing your wart, wash the file carefully since you can spread the virus to other parts of your body.
After touching any of your warts, wash your hands carefully.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wart
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000885.htm

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The Truth About Coffee

Pregnant women should not drink coffee, as declared the newspaper article. Coffee consumption was always considered undesirable for children and pregnant women. Now this old wives’ tale has been vindicated and proven, based on scientific facts….CLICK & SEE

….Self medication can be harmful, consult a doctor when your child is sick….

 The problem with coffee is that it contains caffeine, a xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant. But it is not just coffee that contains caffeine. The compound is also found in tea, carbonated beverages and chocolate.

Coffee contains 40 to 120 milligrams of caffeine per 120 ml, tea 15-30mgm/120ml, chocolate 3mg/30gm and cola drinks 20 to 50mgm/240ml. There can be an acute overdose of caffeine if more than three or four cups of brewed coffee, tea or cola drinks (providing 400 milligrams) are consumed in a short time. This causes caffeine intoxication with restlessness, nervousness, agitation, excitement, insomnia, flushing, urination, muscle twitching, rambling thought processes and speech, irritability and palpitations.

Caffeine ingestion can be fatal if more than 150 to 200 mgm per kilogram (80 to 100 cups of coffee for an average adult) is consumed within a short while. Overdose fatalities can occur in addicted people who snort pure caffeine powder. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system. It makes the person alert with faster and clearer thought processes, improved focus, coordination, endurance and peak performance, especially in sports.

If large amounts are consumed over a prolonged period, caffeinism, addiction or dependency can occur. The person exhibits nervousness, irritability, anxiety, tremulousness, muscle twitching, insomnia, headaches, palpitations, peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Tolerance develops quickly, especially among heavy coffee and cola drink consumers. Withdrawal is associated with symptoms such as headache, irritability and an inability to concentrate, which may last for days.

About 10 per cent of heavy coffee or tea drinkers develop symptoms that mimic organic mental disorders with anxiety, agitation and panic attacks. They may be misdiagnosed and unnecessarily medicated. Withholding caffeine would have actually cured them in a few days. Children should not be given tea or coffee, because caffeine stimulates their nervous system. They cannot tolerate more than 45 mgm of caffeine a day. Children who consume more than this become nervous, jittery, hyperactive, have difficulty concentrating and sleeping and have a rapid heart rate.

Parents sometimes do give their children cola drinks. Some of the orange or lime and lemony flavoured drinks also contain caffeine. The ingredients should be carefully checked on the beverage label before it is given to the child.

During the hot summer months, drinking caffeine-containing beverages to overcome thirst is actually counterproductive. Caffeine acts a mild diuretic (it increases urine production). Thirst is not assuaged and dehydration may be aggravated.

However, coffee and tea drinking is not entirely bad. Caffeine increases alertness and reduces drowsiness, two qualities essential for those on night shift work or driving a vehicle for a prolonged period of time.

Also, coffee enhances the action of many painkillers. The onset of action is faster as absorption is rapid and eventual relief is 40 per cent better. Many over-the-counter (OTC) headache, cold and flu drugs contain caffeine.

Coffee and tea drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, gallstone disease, rheumatoid arthritis, alcoholic cirrhosis and Parkinson’s disease. Adults can safely consume two to three cups of coffee daily as it has no detrimental long-term health consequences and may even confer some health benefits.

Menopausal women are more sensitive to caffeine than their menstruating counterparts. It may produce jitteriness and interfere with sleep at lower levels. The traditional tea time consumption may need to be curtailed to ensure a good night’s rest.

Women have to be careful about their caffeine intake from all sources (not just tea and coffee) if they are pregnant or are planning to have a baby. The best time to stop is around a month before the pregnancy is planned. This abstinence should ideally be continued throughout the pregnancy. The caffeine is harmful because it stimulates the baby’s immature metabolism and stresses it. It is also suspected to decrease blood flow to the placenta. This in turn increases the risk of miscarriage and may eventually result in a small, underweight baby.

If you want to enjoy your cup of tea or coffee:-

• Start after you are an adult

• Restrict yourself to three or four cups a day

• Avoid additional caffeine in carbonated beverages

• Have your last cup at least six hours before your bedtime

• Avoid both tea and coffee during pregnancy.

Sources: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

Alternative Therapies for Migraine Sufferers

Some 30 million Americans suffer from recurring headaches or migraines, with women three times more likely than men to suffer migraines, according to a recent American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study by the National Headache Foundation.

Migraine is listed as the 19th most common cause of disability   ahead of Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis, according to the World Health Organization.

While many sufferers turn to over-the-counter painkillers or prescription drugs for a quick fix, more and more Americans are now looking for alternative therapies. Make sure to ask your doctor before trying any of these remedies, and don’t try them all at once. Lastly, be patient while waiting for results.

Alternative Therapies

Liz Weiss, contributing editor at Health magazine, suggested these alternative migraine remedies:

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Riboflavin, which is vitamin B2, converts energy from carbohydrates. There’s a belief that people with migraines have low levels of energy in their brains, which causes hypersensitivity to things like light or noise. The riboflavin gives your brain more energy, which makes it less likely to be bothered by migraine triggers.

Magnesium
Studies show that people who take more magnesium than they need have fewer migraines. Magnesium also combats hypersensitivity in the brain, and it has been shown to decrease migraine pain. So, even if you do get a migraine, it’s not going to be as bad.

Butterbur
For years people have been taking butterbur, an herb you can buy in health food stores, to fight allergies. Now this anti-inflammatory is seen as one of the newer migraine treatments, because migraines are basically an inflammation of blood vessels in your brain. Studies show you have to take butterbur for a while before you discover a decrease in migraines. But you can take this preventative along with your prescription.

Coenzyme Q
This antioxidant found in meat and nuts has been shown to give the brain more energy. It also cuts the frequency of migraine attacks and reduces nausea. Coenzyme Q, found in health food stores, is expensive and probably not the first alternative remedy to try.

Botox
Doctors noticed that patients who were getting Botox injections for wrinkles not only had fewer wrinkles, but fewer migraines as well. Botox blocks the pain, basically by deadening the area. It is extremely expensive compared to other alternative remedies and is not covered by insurance. But if you have severe migraines, you might want to consider it.

Worth Noting

It’s worth noting that coenzyme Q has not been studied much in healthy people; it’s mainly been studied in connection with heart disease. Also, placebo-controlled trials find that vitamin B and magnesium are no better than placebo at improving migraine headaches. The placebo effect in migraine headache studies is pretty high: If you think you are doing something to help your headache, you often will see a large improvement — usually around 50 percent, experts say.

Alternative therapies may offer safer alternatives to drugs. But remember that although vitamins and herbs may be natural, they are not without health consequences. Even at moderate levels, some vitamins have been shown to slighly increase risk of death. You definitely don’t want people overdosing on them.

It’s alway a good idea to talk to your doctor about which vitamins and herbs to try as well as to ask him or her how many pills are safe to take.

Source:ABC News