Tag Archives: Agricultural Research Service

Allium kurrat

Botanical Name : Allium kurrat
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Name : Egyptian Leek

Habitat :Allium kurrat is native to N. AfricaEgypt. It grows on cultivated bed.

Description:
Allium kurrat is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in).

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Cultivated in Egypt for at least 2,500 years, this species is closely related to the leek, A. ampeloprasum porrum, and has similar uses. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.
Edible Uses:

Bulb – raw or cooked. Leaves – raw or cooked. Eaten raw or used as a flavouring in cooked dishes. The whole plant can be cooked and used like leeks (A. porrum). Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses
Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and mole.

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_ampeloprasum
http://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+kurrat

Linaria canadensis

Botanical Name : Linaria canadensis
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Nuttallanthus
Species: N. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumort., Antirrhinum canadense L.; Blue toadflax, Canada toadflax, Old-field toadflax.

Common Name: Blue Toadflax

Habitat : Linaria canadensis is native to eastern North America from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south to Texas and Florida. It has been introduced to western North America and Europe, and is now locally naturalized, from Washington south to California, and also in Russia. It grows on dry sterile or sandy soils, often a weed in sandy loams.

Description:
It is an annual or biennial plant growing to 25–80 cm tall, with slender, erect flowering stems. The leaves are slender, 15–30 mm long and 1-2.5 mm broad. The flowers are purple to off-white, 10–15 mm long, appearing from mid spring to late summer. It typically grows in bare areas and grassland.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
A very drought resistant plant once established, it thrives in a poor gravelly soil. Nitrogen-rich soils produce excessive leaf growth at the expense of flowering. Prefers a sunny position.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. An autumn sowing can also be made in areas with mild winters. This sowing will produce larger plants.
Medicinal Uses: The leaves are antihaemorrhoidal, diuretic and laxative. They are applied externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids.

Other Uses: Linaria canadensis is grown as an ornamental plant in its native area.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuttallanthus_canadensis
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Linaria+canadensis

Mazus pumilus

Botanical Name: Mazus pumilus
Family: Mazaceae
Genus: Mazus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names: Japanese mazus, Asian mazus • Nepali : Taapre Jhaar, Maalati Jhaar

Habitat : Mazus pumilus is native to E. Asia – Himalayas from Kashmir to China, Japan, Korea and eastern Russia. It grows on wet grassland, along streams, trailsides, waste fields, wet places and the edges of forests, grassland on mountain slopes at elevations of 1200 – 3800 metres in China.

Description:
Mazus pumilus is an annual herb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is in flower from May to October, and the seeds ripen from May to October.

Flower petal color: blue to purple & white

Leaf type: the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)

Leaf arrangement:

*alternate: there is one leaf per node along the stem
*opposite: there are two leaves per node along the stem

Leaf blade edges: the edge of the leaf blade has teeth

Flower symmetry: there is only one way to evenly divide the flower (the flower is bilaterally symmetrical)

Number of sepals, petals or tepals: there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower

Fusion of sepals and petals: the petals or the sepals are fused into a cup or tube

Stamen number: 4

Fruit type (general) : the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in any moderately fertile well-drained but moisture-retentive loamy soil in a sunny position.

Propagation :
Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame in the spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring.
Edible Uses: Young leaves – cooked & eaten.
Medicinal Uses:
Aperient; Emmenagogue; Febrifuge; Tonic.

The plant is aperient, emmenagogue, febrifuge and tonic. The juice of the plant is used in the treatment of typhoid.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mazus
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mazus+pumilus
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Asian%20Mazus.html
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/mazus/pumilus/

Potentilla supina

Botanical Name: Potentilla supina
Family : Rose Family (Rosaceae)
Subfamily :Rosoideae
Category :Finger Herbs ( Potentilla )
Type : Low finger herb
Order : Rosey (Rosales)

Common Name : Lower fingerwort

Habitat : Potentilla supina is native to C. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on dampish waste ground and ditches, 200 – 2500 metres in Turkey.

Description:
Potentilla supina is a annual/perennial herb growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is a bald to soft-haired, one- year to short-lived perennial, krautige plant . It usually has several, descending, ascending, 10 to 40 centimeter long, branched and rich-flowered stems . The leaves are unpaired feathered two to six pairs of leaflets . The lateral leaflets are elongated to obedient, egg-shaped, coarse-sawed to spatially split, and the endblade is often deeply split, with a length of 1 to 3 centimeters. The top of the page and bottom is green.

The flowering period is rich from May to September. The leaves are inflated in the inflorescence up to the leaf-like shape of the leaves and surpass the young flowers. The flowers are foliage-shaped or seemingly armpit and sit on 5 to 20 millimeters long, after the anthesis downwards bent bloom stalks. The bipedal flowers are radial symmetric and five-fold in diameter from 6 to 10 millimeters. The five sepals are 3 to 4 millimeters long and triangular. The five free, yellow petals are usually shorter than the sepals.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:     Young leaves – cooked. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails.
Medicinal Uses:

Astringent; Febrifuge; Odontalgic; Tonic.

The root is astringent, febrifuge and tonic. Pieces of the root are held in the mouth for 1 – 2 hours to relieve toothache. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of indigestion.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resurces:
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niedriges_Fingerkraut
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+supina

Potentilla norvegica

Botanical Name : Potentilla norvegica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Potentilla
Species: P. norvegica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Potentilla monspeliensis.

Common Name : Norwegian Cinquefoil

Habitat : Norwegian cinquefoil is native to much of Europe, Asia, and parts of North America, and it can be found in other parts of the world as an introduced species. Its natural habitat is arable fields, gardens, banks, hedgerows, wasteland, logging clearings, loading areas and occasionally shores, often on sandy or gravelly soils

Description:
Norwegian cinquefoil is usually an annual but may be a short-lived perennial. It produces a basal rosette of leaves from a taproot, then a green or red stem growing erect up to about 50 cm (20 in) in maximum length, and branching in its upper parts. The leaves are stalked and are either divided into five leaflets, or have three leaflets with the terminal leaflet being divided into three lobes. The basal leaves have narrow, sharp-tipped stipules while the upper leaves have elliptical stipules which are longer than the leaf stalks. Each leaflet is up to 5 cm (2 in) long and is widely lance-shaped with toothed edges. The inflorescence is a cyme of several flowers. Each flower has five rounded yellow petals no more than 4 mm (0.2 in) long inside a calyx of hairy, pointed sepals with reddish tips. There are twenty stamens, a separate gynoecium and many pistils. The calyx lengthens after flowering and the fruit is a cluster of pale brown achenes.
It is in flower from Jun to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained loam, preferring a position in full sun but tolerating shade. Prefers an alkaline soil but tolerates a slightly acid soil. An annual, biennial or short-lived perennial plant. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Medicinal Uses:
The root is astringent. A decoction of the root has been gargled, or the root has been chewed, in the treatment of sore throats. A cold infusion of the whole plant has been used to relieve pain. The plant has been burnt and the fumes used to treat sexual infections. All the above uses are recorded for the sub-species P. norvegica monspeliensis. (L.)Aschers.&Graebn.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentilla_norvegica
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Potentilla+norvegica

Inula royleana

Botanical Name : Inula royleana
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Inula
Species: I. racemosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Habitats; Inula royleana is native to E. Asia – Himalayas from Pakistan to Kashmir. It grows on scrub and grassy clearings in forests, 2100 – 4000 metres. Exposed dry slopes, 3100 – 3600 metres in Kashmir.

Description:
Inula royleana is a perennial plant growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in).
It is in flower from Aug to October, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in a sunny position in ordinary garden soil. Requires a moist well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. This species is hardy to about -20°c. Plants take some years to become fully established.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring or autumn.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is disinfectant. It is also considered to be poisonous. The root has been used to adulterate the roots of Saussurea lappa. It contains 3% of an alkaloid that produces a fall in blood pressure and stimulates tone and peristaltic movements in the intestines.
Other Uses:
Disinfectant; Insecticide; Parasiticide.

Used as a parasiticide. The plant is insecticidal.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inula_racemosa
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Inula+royleana

Digitalis laevigata

Botanical Name : Digitalis laevigata
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Digitalis
Species: D. laevigata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common names: Grecian Foxglove or Giraffe Foxglove

Habitat :Digitalis laevigata is native to southern Europe. It grows wild in The Balkans.

Description:
Digitalis laevigata is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It has has erect stems with lance-shaped leaves, while basal leaves are oblong to ovate. It produces spires of orange or yellow-brown bell-shaped flowers with a large whitish lower lip and purple veined, speckled interiors. It blooms from May to July.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, especially if it is rich in organic matter. It also succeeds in dry soils and, once established, is drought tolerant. It prefers semi-shade but succeeds in full sun if the soil is moist. Plants are hardy to about -15°c. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow early spring in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 4 weeks at 20°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.
Medicinal Uses:
The leaves are cardiac, stimulant and tonic. They are much used in the treatment of certain heart complaints, but cause distress when used in large doses.
Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digitalis_laevigata
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Digitalis+laevigata

Fritillaria sewerzowii

Botanical Name: Fritillaria sewerzowii
Family: Liliaceae
Subfamily: Lilioideae
Tribe: Lilieae
Genus: Fritillaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Synonyms: F. discolor. Korolkowia sewerzowii. (Regel.)Regel.

Habitat : Fritillaria sewerzowii is native to C. Asia – Tien Shan and Pamir Alai. It grows on the cliff ledges, amongst scrub and on steep earthy slopes, 1000 – 3000 metres.
Description:
Fritillaria sewerzowii is a bulb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). It is in flower from Mar to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

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Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained loam that is kept dry in the summer. The soil must be kept quite firm. Established plants are drought tolerant[190]. This species is best grown in a bulb frame, the light being left off (except in severe weather) whilst growth is in progress but then put on in the summer when growth dies down to ensure that the ground is baked. Do not disturb the plants and only hand weed them.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.

Medicinal Uses: Anaesthetic. The plant contains an alkaloid that is a good local anaesthetic.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provide
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+sewerzowii

Viola cucullata

Botanical Name: Viola cucullata
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola
Species: V. cucullata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Synonyms: Viola obliqua Hill

Common Names: Hooded blue violet, Marsh blue violet or Purple violet

Habitat : Viola cucullata is native to eastern North America, from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota, and south to Georgia. It grows on wet places, often in open woods. Wet meadows, springs, bogs, swamps etc.

Description:
Viola cucullata is a low-growing perennial herbaceous plant up to 20 cm tall. The leaves form a basal cluster; they are simple, up to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) broad, with an entire margin and a long petiole. It is in flower from May to July. The flowers are violet, dark blue and occasionally white. with five petals. The fruit is a capsule 10–15 mm long, which splits into three sections at maturity to release the numerous small seeds.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, cleistogamous.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES:
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a cool moist well-drained humus-rich soil in partial or dappled shade and protection from scorching winds. Very intolerant of drought. Succeeds in dense shade. Tolerates sandstone and limestone soils but becomes chlorotic if the pH is too high. Prefers a pH between 6 and 6.5. This plant produces cleistogamous flowers as well as the usual insect pollinated flowers. It usually self-sows freely. All members of this genus have more or less edible leaves and flower buds, though those species with yellow flowers can cause diarrhoea if eaten in large quantities. A polymorphic species. there are many named forms, selected for their ornamental value.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in early spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Division in the autumn or just after flowering. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though we have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.

Edible Uses:
Young leaves and flower buds – raw or cooked. When added to soup they thicken it in much the same way as okra[85, 159, 177]. A tea can be made from the leaves.
Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds and dysentery. A poultice of the leaves has been used to reduce the pain of headaches. A poultice of the crushed root has been applied to boils.

Other Uses: Repellent and a good ground cover plant but it is slow to thicken up and may need weeding for the first year or so. An infusion of the root has been used to soak corn seeds before planting them in order to keep off insects.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_cucullata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viola+cucullata

Lactuca quercina

Botanical Name : Lactuca quercina
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Common Names: Wild Lettuce

Habitat: Lactuca quercina is native to Europe. It grows in woods and scrub.

Description:
Lactuca quercina is an annual/biennial plant growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a light sandy loam. Requires a nitrogen-rich soil. Cultivated, especially in France. (Is this for its medicinal properties?)

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.
Edible Uses: Leaves- eaten – raw or cooked

Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air[4]. The sap contains ‘lactucarium‘, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets[4], nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts.
Known Hazards : Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+quercina