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Pyrola minor

Botanical Name: Pyrola minor
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Pyrola
Species: P. minor
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Common Names:Wintergreen, Snowline wintergreen, Lesser wintergreen, and Common wintergreen

Habitat:Pyrola minor is native to Europe, including Britain, from Iceland south and east to Spain, N. Asia to Japan. North N. America. It grows in coniferous woods, moors, damp rock ledges and dunes, on acid and calcareous soils in full sun or deep shade.

Description:
Pyrola minor is an evergreen Perennial plant, growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.3 m (1ft).

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is in leaf 12-Jan.Leaf type: the leaves are simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets)
Leaf arrangement: basal: the leaves are growing only at the base of the plant
Leaf blade edges: the edge of the leaf blade has teeth...click & see

It is in flower from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.click & see

Flower petal color: pink to red and white
Flower symmetry: there are two or more ways to evenly divide the flower (the flower is radially symmetrical)
Number of sepals, petals or tepals
there are five petals, sepals, or tepals in the flower

Fusion of sepals and petals: both the petals and sepals are separate and not fused
the petals or the sepals are fused into a cup or tube

Fruit type (general): the fruit is dry and splits open when ripe
Fruit length: 3–4 mm..click & see
Cultivation:
Prefers a moist sandy woodland soil in a cool position with partial shade. This is a very ornamental but difficult plant to grow. It requires a mycorrhizal relationship in the soil and therefore needs to be grown initially in soil collected from around an established plant. It is also very difficult from seed as well as being intolerant of root disturbance which makes division difficult. The flowers have a soft almond scent.

Propagation:
Seed – the only information we have on this species is that it is difficult from seed and germinates infrequently. We would suggest sowing the seed as soon as it is ripe if this is possible. Sow it into soil collected from around an established plant, only just covering the seed, and put the pot in a shady part of a cold frame. Pot up any young seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle, once again using soil from around an established plant. Plant out into their permanent positions when the plants are large enough. You should not need to use soil from around an established plant to do this since the soil in the pot will contain the necessary micorrhiza. Division with great care in the spring[1, 111]. Pot up the divisions using some soil from around an established plant, grow on in a lightly shaded part of a greenhouse or frame and do not plant out until the plants are growing away vigorously

Edible Uses: Edible Parts: Fruit; Leaves…..Fruits & Leaves are said to be eaten raw

Medicinal Uses: The plant is antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic and tonic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrola_minor
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pyrola+minor
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/pyrola/minor/

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Pyrola elliptica

Botanical Name : Pyrola elliptica
Family: Ericaceae/Pyrolaceae
Subfamily: Monotropoideae
Tribes: Pyroleae
Genus: Pyrola
Species: Pyrola elliptica
Kingdom:Plantae
Order    Ericales

Synonym(s): Pyrola compacta

Common Name : Waxflower Shinleaf

Habitat: Pyrola elliptica is native to Northern N. America – Newfoundland to Alaska and south to Virginia and Nebraska.It grows on rich, mainly dry woods.

Description:
Pyrola elliptica is an evergreen Perennial plant, growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft). It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Greenish-white, waxy, fragrant flowers are in an elongated cluster on a stalk that rises above evergreen basal leaves. The nodding, white flowers of shinleaf occur on a 6-10 in. stalk and each has five petals; a long, curved style; and ten stamens with yellow anthers. Each stalk bears 3-21 flowers. The thick, basal, evergreen leaves are broadly oval and cluster in a rosette at ground level.

One of the most common of several species of Pyrola. Round-leaved Pyrola (P. americana), has leathery, roundish leaves. The Pyrolas yield a drug closely related to aspirin; the leaves have been used on bruises and wounds to reduce pain. Such a leaf plaster has been referred to as a shin plaster, which accounts for the common name of this plant.
Cultivation:
Prefers a moist sandy woodland soil in a cool position with partial shade. Requires a peaty or leafy acid soil that remains moist in the summer. The flowers have a delicate sweet perfume. This is a very difficult plant to grow. It requires a mycorrhizal relationship in the soil and therefore needs to be grown initially in soil collected from around an established plant. It is also very difficult from seed as well as being intolerant of root disturbance which makes division difficult. This species is extremely rare and endangered in the wild.
Propagation:
Seed – the only information we have on this species is that it is difficult from seed and germinates infrequently. We would suggest sowing the seed as soon as it is ripe if this is possible. Sow it into soil collected from around an established plant, only just covering the seed, and put the pot in a shady part of a cold frame. Pot up any young seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle, once again using soil from around an established plant. Plant out into their permanent positions when the plants are large enough. You should not need to use soil from around an established plant to do this since the soil in the pot will contain the necessary micorrhiza. Division with great care in the spring. Pot up the divisions using some soil from around an established plant, grow on in a lightly shaded part of a greenhouse or frame and do not plant out until the plants are growing away vigorously

Medicinal Uses:
The Pyrolas contain a drug closely related to aspirin; the leaves have been used on bruises and wounds to reduce pain. Such a leaf plaster has been referred to as a shin plaster, which accounts for the common name of this plant. (Niering)The leaves have analgesic properties and were used as a poultice on bruised shins and other sores and wounds.

A tea made from the whole plant was used to treat epileptic fits in babies. A decoction of the whole plant has been used as eye drops to treat sore eyes, sties and inflamed eyelids. A tea made from the leaves was used as a gargle for sore throats and cankers in the mouth. A tea made from the roots is tonic
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrola
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Pyrola_elliptica
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=PYEL

American Cranesbill (Geranium maculatum)

Botanical Name : Geranium maculatum
Family:    Geraniaceae
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Geraniales
Genus:    Geranium
Species:    G. maculatum

Popular Name(s): Alumroot, Storksbill, Wild Geranium

Common Names: Spotted Cranesbill, Spotted geranium, Crowfoot, Wild Geranium, Cranesbill

Other Names: Alumroot, storksbill, spotted geranium, wild geranium, wild cranesbill, spotted cranesbill, alum bloom, crowfoot, dove’s foot, old maid’s nightcap, shameface, tormentil.
Flowers: April – June
Parts Used: Root & rhizome
Habitat: Geranium maculatum  is native to Canada and Eastern United States; Maine to Georgia; Arkansas and Kansas to Manitoba. It grows  on  wet places in woods, wet rocks and in swamps. Woodlands, thickets and meadows.

Description & Identification:: American Cranesbill is a perennial herbaceous plant growing to 60 cm tall, producing upright usually unbranched stems and flowers in spring to early summer. The leaves are palmately lobed with five or seven deeply cut lobes, 10–12.5 cm broad, with a petiole up to 30 cm long arising from the rootstock. They are deeply parted into three or five divisions, each of which is again cleft and toothed. The flowers are 2.5–4 cm diameter, with five rose-purple, pale or violet-purple (rarely white) petals and ten stamens; they appear from April to June in loose clusters of two to five at the top of the stems. The fruit capsule, which springs open when ripe, consists of five cells each containing one seed joined to a long beak-like column 2–3 cm long (resembling a crane’s bill) produced from the center of the old flower. The rhizome is long, and 5 to 10 cm thick, with numerous branches. The rhizomes are covered with scars, showing the remains of stems of previous years growth. When dry it has a somewhat purplish color internally. Plants go dormant in early summer after seed is ripe and dispersed.

click to see the pictures

The stem is erect and unbranched, the leaves 5-parted, deeply divided, and toothed.
The 5-petaled pink to purple flowers grow in pairs on axillary peduncles. Distinct “crane’s bill” in center of flower enlarges into seedpod, divided into five cells with a seed in each cell.

History: Native Americans used a decoction of Wild Grape and Cranesbill as a mouthwash for children with thrush. Once used to stop bleeding, diarrhea, dysentery, relieve piles, hum diseases, kidney and stomach ailments. Powdered root applied to canker sores. Externally, used as a folk remedy for cancer.

Constituents: 12-25% tannins including gallic acid, with the level being highest just before flowering.

Medicinal Properties & Uses:

Astringent, antihaemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, styptic, tonic, vulnerary.Cranesbill reduces inflammation in peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcers, enteritis, and bowel disease and is gentle enough for children and the elderly. It is also used to treat melaena, menorrhagia (blood loss during menstruation), and metrorrhagia (uterine hemorrhage). As a douche, it can be used in leucorrhoea.

An effective astringent used in diarrhea, dysentery, and hemorrhoids. When bleeding accompanies duodenal or gastric ulceration, this remedy is used in combination with other relevent herbs.
The powdered root is an effective blood coagulant and can be used to stem external bleeding.
Combinations: In peptic ulcers it may be used with Meadowsweet, Comfrey, Marshmallow, or Agrimony. In leucorrhoea it can be combined with Trillium.

Preparation & Dosages:
Decoction – Put 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls of the root in a cup of cold water and bring to boiling. Let simmer for 10 to 15 minutes. This should be drunk three times a day.
Root Tincture – [1:5, 45% alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoon, up to 3 times a day.
Liquid Extract – [1:1, 45% alcohol], 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon, up to 3 times a day.

The herb is often prescribed for irritable bowel syndrome and hemorrhoids, and it is used to staunch wounds.  It may also be used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding and excessive vaginal discharge.  As a douche it can be used in leucorrhea.  Its powerful astringent action is used in secondary dysentery, diarrhea, and infantile cholera (Boil with milk to which a little cinnamon has been added and the milk cooked down to half its liquid volume.).  Troublesome bleeding from the nose, wounds or small vessels, and from the extraction of teeth may be checked effectively by applying the powder to the bleeding orifice and, if possible, covering with a compress of cotton.  For Diabetes and Brights disease a decoction taken internally has proven effective of Unicorn root and Cranesbill.   One of the safest and most effective astringent herbs for gastrointestinal problems.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geranium_maculatum

http://www.indianspringherbs.com/American_Cranesbill.htm
http://www.herbsguide.net/american-cranesbill.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Geranium+maculatum

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