Tag Archives: Alzheimer’s disease

Why Coconut Oil Is So Good

Reasons:

*If you’ve stayed away from coconut oil because you’ve been misled to believe it is fattening, you’ll be pleasantly surprised to learn that incorporating this fat into a healthy diet can actually help you lose weight

*Coconut oil is loaded with medium-chain fats that are easily metabolized

*Coconut oil is one of the most versatile oils and has many benefits as both a health food and personal-care product
Despite more than 1,700 medical studies being performed on coconut oil, it continues to be vilified mainly because 90 percent of its fat content is saturated fat. However, saturated fats, and most particularly coconut oil, are a vital part of the human diet. For decades, we’ve labored under the false belief that saturated fat is a leading cause of heart disease. Research suggests there is no significant evidence demonstrating that saturated fat clogs your arteries or puts you at risk for a heart attack or stroke.

In fact, particular types of saturated fat, including coconut oil, are necessary for optimal health. If you have bought into the media hype that saturated fats are unhealthy and will raise your risk of heart disease, please reconsider your position. If you’ve been avoiding coconut oil, you’ll find that it has many beneficial properties that make it a worthwhile addition to your diet.

Certainly, if you’ve stayed away from coconut oil because you’ve been misled to believe it is fattening, you deserve to know the truth that it can actually help you lose weight, not gain it. Having said that, if you are allergic to coconut oil or you simply don’t like the taste, then it’s best not to use it.
Where Coconut Oil Has Been Used, People Thrive:

It’s no secret that coconut products, particularly coconut oil, have been used by certain populations around the world for millennia. In places where coconut oil is consumed as part of the standard diet, people seem to thrive. So, what do they know about coconut oil that you may not?

Take, for example, Polynesian populations such as the Pukapuka and Tokelau, where people eat a lot of coconut. As such, their diet tends to be high in saturated fat and low in cholesterol and sugar. Researchers found that “vascular disease is uncommon in both populations and there is no evidence of the high saturated-fat intake having a harmful effect.”

Another study focused on the Kitevan people in Papua New Guinea, whose subsistence lifestyle and diet has remained untarnished by the poor dietary habits of the Western world. Besides eating a lot of fish, fruit and tubers, the people also consume coconut as a prominent staple.

None of the people involved in the study reported stroke, sudden death, chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease (CHD). In fact, the researchers concluded that stroke and CHD appeared to be absent in this population. Based on those two studies, we can infer that the plentiful inclusion of coconut oil in traditional diets around the world contributes positively to the health and well-being of those eating it.

According to Dr. Bruce Fife, author of “The Coconut Oil Miracle” and director of the Coconut Research Center in Colorado Springs, Colorado:

“Asian and Polynesian people who rely on coconut and coconut oil as a part of their daily diet have the lowest heart-disease rates in the world. Some of these people get as much as 50 percent of their total daily calories as saturated fat, primarily from coconut oil.

If coconut oil caused heart disease, as some people used to believe, these islanders would have all died off centuries ago. Those populations who consume large quantities of coconut oil have remarkably good cardiovascular health. Absent are the heart attacks and strokes characteristic in Western countries where coconut oil is rarely used.”
Conventional Medicine Says All Saturated Fats Are the Same:

In Western conventional medicine, coconut oil faces some tough critics who are less convinced of its health benefits. Andrew Freeman, director of the American College of Cardiology‘s nutrition and lifestyle working group, suggested to CBS News that coconut oil is nothing more than a fad, and one he wishes would go away.

“People seem to be eating it and drinking it with everything — adding it to coffee, cooking their vegetables with it — and it’s giving them large quantities of fat. …

It’s not a recommended oil by any of the guidelines that is know of. In general, it can contribute to cardiovascular-disease risk because of its very high saturated-fat content. The standard American diet … is already high-fat and full of a lot of processed meats and cheese, and now everyone’s adding coconut oil, and we’re going in the wrong direction.”

Libby Mills, a registered dietitian nutritionist and spokesperson for the U.S. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, says coconut oil is a mixed bag, though she understands why it’s being talked about so much.

“As a society, we’re always looking for the panacea — the one thing that’s really going to fix it all. While some of the research is promising, and the MCT (medium-chain triglyceride) oils in coconut oil are very attractive, unfortunately they come with a lot of saturated fat packaging.”
Coconut Oil is Different From Other Saturated Fats:-

What Freeman and others may not realize is that coconut oil is different from other types of saturated fat. The saturated fat in coconut oil is unlike the types of saturated fat found in vegetable oils, meat and cheese, for example. Whereas those fats are known as long-chain fats, about two-thirds of the fat in coconut oil are medium-chain fats, also referred to as a medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs).

Long-chain fats are digested slowly and absorbed through your intestinal wall where they are combined into bundles of fat and protein called lipoproteins. These lipoproteins are distributed throughout your body through your bloodstream. Your body metabolizes MCTs, such as coconut oil, differently from other fats. Normally, fats taken into your body must first be mixed with bile released from your gallbladder, and second be acted on by pancreatic enzymes. Only then can fats be broken down in your digestive system.

MCTs, however, don’t require bile or pancreatic enzymes to be digested. Once they reach your intestine, they diffuse through your intestinal membrane into your bloodstream. From there, they are transported directly to your liver, which naturally converts MCTs into ketones. Your liver then releases the ketones back into your bloodstream, where they are transported throughout your body.

Notably, MCTs are readily available and used for energy, not stored as fat. MCTs can even pass the blood-brain barrier to supply your brain with energy. This is one of the reasons coconut oil is thought to have positive effects on those suffering from Alzheimer’s disease.

Coconut Oil Contains Four Types of MCTs:

As a general rule, the shorter the carbon chain, the more efficiently the MCT is converted into ketones, which are an excellent, clean source of energy for your body — far preferable to glucose, as ketones produce far less reactive oxygen species that produce excessive dangerous free radicals. MCTs can be divided into four groups based on their carbon length:

*6 carbons (C6), caproic acid
*8 carbons (C8), caprylic acid
*10 carbons (C10), capric acid
*12 carbons (C12), lauric acid

Coconut oil provides a mix of all the medium-chain fats, including C6, C8, C10 and C12 fats, the latter of which (lauric acid) makes up over 40 percent of the fat in coconut oil. (The exception is MCT oil, which is fractionated coconut oil or palm oil, which contains primarily C8 and C10.8) There are benefits to all of these fatty acids. However, caprylic and capric fatty acids increase ketone levels far more effectively.

Lauric acid is most well-known for its antibacterial, antimicrobial and antiviral properties. The shorter-chained MCTs, on the other hand, are more readily converted into ketones, which are an excellent mitochondrial fuel. Ketones also help suppress ghrelin (aka the hunger hormone) and enhance another hormone that signals your brain when you’re full.

Most commercial brands of MCT oil contain close to a 50/50 combination of C8 and C10 fats. My personal preference, even though it is more expensive, is straight C8 (caprylic acid), as it converts to ketones far more rapidly than do C10 fats, and may be easier on your digestion. That said, coconut oil is a less expensive option overall, and can readily be used in all sorts of cooking and other household uses.

Is Coconut Oil Fattening?
A study conducted on 40 women with abdominal obesity revealed positive effects related to coconut-oil supplementation.9 After 12 weeks, the women consuming coconut oil daily showed a reduction in waist circumference, as compared to the group who consumed soybean oil.

In addition, coconut oil increased the participants’ HDL (high-density lipoprotein), or “good” cholesterol, and lowered their ration of LDL (low-density lipoprotein), or “bad” cholesterol to HDL. Soybean oil led to decreases in HDL. Although it seems counterintuitive to add fat to your diet to lose weight, Dr. Bruce Fife, featured in the video above, says:10

“Adding fat into your diet can be the key to your weight loss success. Low-fat dieting actually causes weight gain, and is one of the reasons for our current obesity epidemic. You can lose weight on these diets temporarily, but in the long run you end up gaining all your weight back, and then some. In fact, studies show that 95 percent of those people who go on low-fat diets eventually regain all their weight.

That’s a 95 percent failure rate! It should be obvious that what we’ve been doing isn’t working. …Fat also satisfies hunger so that you don’t feel like you are starving. You feel satisfied. In fact, with an adequate amount of fat, you don’t get hungry even when you cut down on total calorie intake. Your metabolism and energy levels remain elevated. You feel a lot better and get better results.”

Dr.Mercola’ new book, “Fat for Fuel,” explains many of the health benefits associated with a diet high in healthy fats, including coconut oil. Indeed, the ketogenic diet, featuring low net carb and high fat intake, has been shown to be beneficial for many chronic health conditions, including cancer, and can significantly improve your chances of weight loss.

At the New York Obesity Research Center at Columbia University, in a study of 49 overweight men and women, researchers noted that participants consuming MCT oil lost more weight than those consuming olive oil. Researchers reported:11 “Consumption of MCT oil as part of a weight loss plan improves weight loss compared with olive oil and can thus be successfully included in a weight loss diet. Small changes in the quality of fat intake can therefore be useful to enhance weight loss.”

Are You Familiar With the Benefits of Coconut Oil?

If you haven’t had a chance to explore all the extraordinary uses for coconut oil, you may be in for a pleasant surprise. Unlike other saturated fats, coconut oil contains no trans-fatty acids. Coconut oil won’t oxidize when heated, so it’s great for cooking and baking. It is also shelf-stable and won’t go rancid. Beyond these intrinsic qualities, coconut oil has many benefits, some of which may surprise you.

Lauric acid makes up about half of the fatty acids in coconut oil. When lauric acid is digested, it morphs into a monoglyceride called monolaurin. Both lauric acid and monolaurin help rid your gut of harmful pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

These substances have been shown to kill the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and Candida albicans, a common source of yeast infections.

Coconut oil also works on fungal infections such as athlete’s foot and ringworm. The European Journal of Pediatrics reported research suggesting a blend of coconut oil and anise was almost twice as effective as the commonly prescribed (and toxic) permethrin lotion for treating head lice.
The Effects of Coconut Oil on Brain Function:

As mentioned above, the MCTs in coconut oil are digested through your liver, which creates ketones that supply energy directly to your brain. Research focused on determining the effect of a ketogenic agent on individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease suggests there are some benefits to MCT supplementation with respect to cognitive impairment:

“In small-scale human trials,MCT supplementation boosted cognition in individuals with cognitive impairment and mild forms of Alzheimer’s disease after just a single dose. While not everyone improved from the MCT treatment, those with certain genetics experienced notable improvement.”

Ketones are the preferred source of energy for your brain in people affected by Alzheimer’s diabetes, Parkinson’s and maybe even ALS, because in these diseases, certain neurons have become insulin resistant or have lost the ability to efficiently utilize glucose. As a result, neurons slowly die off.

The introduction of ketones may rescue these neurons, enabling them to potentially survive and thrive. One study promoted the positive effects of ketone ester in treating Alzheimer’s disease, noting improvements in patient behavior, cognition and performance of daily activities.

Coconut Oil Prevents Heart Disease and High Blood Pressure:

Heart disease, which includes heart attacks, stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, is the No. 1 cause of death in the U.S. Someone in the U.S. has a heart attack every 34 seconds, and someone dies from a heart disease-related event every 60 seconds.16 Despite what you may have been led to believe, saturated fats like coconut oil are not to blame for the spike in coronary heart disease. On the contrary, coconut oil:

Increases your HDL cholesterol:

*Helps convert your LDL cholesterol into good cholesterol
*Fosters heart health and lowers your risk of heart disease due to the increase in HDL17
*Use Coconut Oil to Prevent Gum Disease and Tooth Decay

* Coconut oil as a superb way to cleanse and flush harmful bacteria from your mouth. This technique is especially beneficial if you’ve been diagnosed with periodontal disease. Because of its high concentration of antibacterial MCTs, coconut oil is ideal for oil pulling. One of the positive side effects of oil pulling is that coconut oil also naturally whitens your teeth. This is an oral hygiene habit that can be done every day.

Coconut Oil for Personal Care and Insect Repellent:

Coconut oil is not only a useful food, but can also be a great personal-care product. Here are some additional ways you can use coconut oil:

*Apply it to dry or cracked skin for instant relief
*Use it as a facial cleanser, lip balm or makeup remover
*Try it as a shaving lotion; its antiseptic properties will soothe any cuts or nicks
*Slather it on dry, lifeless hair for 15 minutes to help restore lost moisture and shine

In addition, while coconut oil doesn’t impart the minty aftertaste that accompanies most toothpaste, brushing your teeth with it before bed helps kill bacteria that cause plaque and other problems. If you miss the minty taste, just add a drop of peppermint essential oil. If you want more grit, mix it with a little baking soda. If you’re looking for a natural deodorant that will give lasting protection without the potential health risks from added aluminum, mix the following ingredients and apply to clean underarms:

*3 Tbsp. organic coconut oil
*3 Tbsp. non-GMO cornstarch or arrowroot powder
*3 Tbsp. baking soda
*2 drops of essential oil of your choice, or a pinch of clove powder

As for an insect repellent, a good recipe combines coconut oil with a high-quality essential oil such as peppermint, lemon balm, rosemary, tea tree or vanilla. This is a good alternative to toxic sprays such as DEET and smells a lot better too!

Resources:  Dr. Mercola’ article

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Pneumothorax

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Definition:
A pneumothorax is a collapsed lung. A pneumothorax occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall. This air pushes on the outside of your lung and makes it collapse. In most cases, only a portion of the lung collapses..

It is the collection of air or gas in the space inside the chest around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse.

Normally, the pressure in the lungs is greater than the pressure in the pleural space surrounding the lungs. However, if air enters the pleural space, the pressure in the pleura then becomes greater than the pressure in the lungs, causing the lung to collapse partially or completely. Pneumothorax can be either spontaneous or due to trauma.

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If a pneumothorax occurs suddenly or for no known reason, it is called a spontaneous pneumothorax. This condition most often strikes tall, thin men between the ages of 20 to 40. In addition, people with lung disorders, such as emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and tuberculosis, are at higher risk for spontaneous pneumothorax. Traumatic pneumothorax is the result of accident or injury due to medical procedures performed to the chest cavity, such as thoracentesis or mechanical ventilation. Tension pneumothorax is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that may be caused by traumatic injury, chronic lung disease, or as a complication of a medical procedure. In this type of pneumothorax, air enters the chest cavity, but cannot escape. This greatly increased pressure in the pleural space causes the lung to collapse completely, compresses the heart, and pushes the heart and associated blood vessels toward the unaffected side.
Symptoms:
The symptoms of pneumothrax depend on how much air enters the chest, how much the lung collapses, and the extent of lung disease.

The main symptoms of a pneumothorax are sudden chest pain and shortness of breath. But these symptoms can be caused by a variety of health problems, and some can be life-threatening. If your chest pain is severe or breathing becomes increasingly difficult, get immediate emergency care.
Symptoms include the following, according to the cause of the pneumothorax:

*Spontaneous pneumothorax. Simple spontaneous pneumothorax is caused by a rupture of a small air sac or fluid-filled sac in the lung. It may be related to activity in otherwise healthy people or may occur during scuba diving or flying at high altitudes. Complicated spontaneous pneumothorax, also generally caused by rupture of a small sac in the lung, occurs in people with lung diseases. The symptoms of complicated spontaneous pneumothorax tend to be worse than those of simple pneumothorax, due to the underlying lung disease. Spontaneous pneumothorax is characterized by dull, sharp, or stabbing chest pain that begins suddenly and becomes worse with deep breathing or coughing. Other symptoms are shortness of breath, rapid breathing, abnormal breathing movement (that is, little chest wall movement when breathing), and cough.

*Tension pneumothorax. Following trauma, air may enter the chest cavity. A penetrating chest wound allows outside air to enter the chest, causing the lung to collapse. Certain medical procedures performed in the chest cavity, such as thoracentesis, also may cause a lung to collapse. Tension pneumothorax may be the immediate result of an injury; the delayed complication of a hidden injury, such as a fractured rib, that punctures the lung; or the result of lung damage from asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. Symptoms of tension pneumothorax tend to be severe with sudden onset. There is marked anxiety, distended neck veins, weak pulse, decreased breath sounds on the affected side, and a shift of the mediastinum to the opposite side.

Risk factors:

Risk factors for a pneumothorax include the following:

In general, men are far more likely to have a pneumothorax than are women.

1)Smoking. The risk increases with the length of time and the number of cigarettes smoked, even without emphysema.

2)Age. The type of pneumothorax caused by ruptured air blisters is most likely to occur in people between 20 and 40 years old, especially if the person is a very tall and underweight.

3)Genetics. Certain types of pneumothorax appear to run in families.

4)Lung disease. Having an underlying lung disease — especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) — makes a collapsed lung more likely.

5)Mechanical ventilation. People who need mechanical ventilation to assist their breathing are at higher risk of pneumothorax.
Previous pneumothorax. Anyone who has had one pneumothorax is at increased risk of another, usually within one to two years of the first.

Complications:
Many people who have had one pneumothorax can have another, usually within one to two years of the first. Air may sometimes continue to leak if the opening in the lung won’t close. Surgery may eventually be needed to close the air leak.

Diagnosis:
To diagnose pneumothorax, it is necessary for the health care provider to listen to the chest (auscultation) during a physical examination. By using a stethoscope, the physician may note that one part of the chest does not transmit the normal sounds of breathing. A chest x ray will show the air pocket and the collapsed lung. An electrocardiogram (ECG) will be performed to record the electrical impulses that control the heart’s activity. Blood samples may be taken to check for the level of arterial blood gases.

Treatment:
A small pneumothorax may resolve on its own, but most require medical treatment. The object of treatment is to remove air from the chest and allow the lung to re-expand. This is done by inserting a needle and syringe (if the pneumothorax is small) or chest tube through the chest wall. This allows the air to escape without allowing any air back in. The lung will then re-expand itself within a few days. Surgery may be needed for repeat occurrences.

Regular doing Yoga with meditation  under the guideline of some expert will  cure  pneumothorax totally.

CLICK & SEE THE ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR PNEUMOTHORAX:

1)  Alternative Treatments of Pneumothorax 

2)  Top 10 Doctor insights on: Alternative Treatments For Pneumothorax 

3) Alternative Treatments of Pneumothorax 
4) Pnuemothorax Exercises : 

5)  5 Top Home Remedies For Pneumothorax

Prognosis:
Most people recover fully from spontaneous pneumothorax. Up to half of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax experience recurrence. Recovery from a collapsed lung generally takes one to two weeks. Tension pneumothorax can cause death rapidly due to inadequate heart output or insufficient blood oxygen (hypoxemia), and must be treated as a medical emergency.

Prevention:
Preventive measures for a non-injury related pneumothorax include stopping smoking and seeking medical attention for respiratory problems. If the pneumothorax occurs in both lungs or more than once in the same lung, surgery may be needed to prevent it from occurring again.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pneumothorax/symptoms-causes/dxc-20179900
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Pneumothorax
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pneumothorax/home/ovc-20179880

Lactuca perennis

Botanical Name: Lactuca perennis
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. perennis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names: Mountain lettuce,Blue lettuce or Perennial lettuce
Other Names:
Nome italiano: Lattuga rupestre
English name: Mountain Lettuce
French name: Laitue perenne
Spanish name: lechuga azul
German name: Blauer Lattich
Swedish name: blåsallat

Habitat: Lactuca perennis is native to S. Europe. It grows on the rocky or other dry places, especially on calcareous soils.
Description:
Lactuca perennis is a perennial plant. It reaches on average 60 centimetres (24 in) of height, with a minimum height of 20 centimetres (7.9 in). This plant is glabrous, the stems is erect and branched, leaves are greyish-green, the lower ones with a small petioles, the upper ones partly amplexicaul. It is hermaphrodite and entomophilous. The flowers are violet-blue, with a size of 30–40 millimetres (1.2–1.6 in). It is not frost tender. The flowering period extends from April through August and the seeds ripen from July until September.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a light well-drained sandy loam and a sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -25°c.

Propagation:
Seed – sow April in a greenhouse, only just covering the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. It is best to pot up the divisions and keep them in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer. Root cuttings in spring.
Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. The leaves are often blanched to reduce any bitterness. They are fairly acceptable raw in salads (even without being blanched), especially in late winter and spring when the flavour is quite mild. The leaves do become much more bitter in the summer, however, especially as the plant comes into flower.

Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains ‘lactucarium‘, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts. It is especially useful as sedative, but the plant should be used with caution.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca_perennis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+perennis
http://luirig.altervista.org/flora/taxa/index1.php?scientific-name=lactuca+perennis

 

Crataegus azarolus

Botanical Name : Crataegus azarolus
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Series: Orientales
Species:C. azarolus
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonym(s):
*Crataegus aronia (L.) DC.
*Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. variety aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC.
*Crataegus azarolus subsp. aronia H. Riedl
*Mespilus azarolus (L.) All

Common Names: Mediterranean Hawthorn, Mediterranian Medler, Azarole, Crete Hawthorn, Mosfilia, Oriental Hawthorn

Habitat : Crataegus azarolus is native to S. Europe to W. Asia. It grows on dry hillsides and mountains in woods and hedges.

Description:
Crataegus azarolus is a deciduous Tree growing to 10 m (32ft 10in) at a medium rate.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.

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It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked in pies, preserves etc. The fruit can be used fresh or dried for later use. A pleasant acid taste. In warm temperate areas the fruit develops more fruit sugars and has a fragrant sugary pulp with a slightly acid flavour. It can be eaten out of hand. In cooler zones, however, the fruit does not develop so well and is best cooked or used in preserves. The fruit is very variable in size and colour, it is up to 25mm in diameter. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.

Medicinal Uses:
Cardiotonic; Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses : Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_azarolus
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/33987/0
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+azarolus

Aralia elata

Botanical Name: Aralia elata
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Aralia
Species:A. elata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms: Dimorphanthus elatus.

Common Name : Japanese Angelica Tree, Angelica Tree (In Japan it is known as tara-no-ki, and in Korea as dureup namu.)

Habitat: Aralia elata is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows in thin woodland and thickets on rich well moistened slopes, 900 – 2000 metres in N. Hupeh.

Description:
Aralia elata is an upright deciduous small tree or shrub growing up to 10 m (33 ft) in height at a medium rate. The bark is rough and gray with prickles. The leaves are alternate, large, 60–120 cm long, and double pinnate. The flowers are produced in large umbels in late summer, each flower small and white. The fruit is a small black drupe…CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils.

It prefers deep loamy soils in partial shade, but will grow in poorer soils and in full sun. The plant is sometimes cultivated, often in a variegated form, for its exotic appearance.

Aralia elata is closely related to the American species Aralia spinosa, with which it is easily confused.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Specimen. Prefers a good deep loam and a position in semi-shade but it also succeeds in a sunny position. Requires a sheltered position. Plants are hardier when grown on poorer soils. Prefers an acid soil. Dormant plants are hardy to at least -15°. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun. A very ornamental species, there are a number of named varieties. It is usually a single stemmed shrub, spreading by means of suckers. This species is closely allied to A. chinensis. Special Features: Not North American native, Blooms are very showy.

Propagation: 
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 3 – 5 months of cold stratification. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 4 months at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Once the plants are 25cm or more tall, they can be planted out into their permanent positions, late spring or early summer being the best time to do this. Root cuttings 8cm long, December in a cold frame. Store the roots upside down in sand and pot up in March/April. High percentage. Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.
Edible Uses: Young shoots – cooked. They can also be blanched and used in salads.

In Japan, the shoots (taranome) are eaten in the spring. They are picked from the end of the branches and are fried in a tempura batter.

In Korean cuisine, its shoots called dureup are used for various dishes, such as dureup jeon, that is a variety of jeon (pancake-like dish) made by pan-frying the shoots covered with minced beef and batter.

Dureup namul, also called dureup muchim is a dish made by blanching dureup seasoned with chojang (chili pepper and vinegar sauce).

It is also common to eat Aralia elata as Dureup bugak, fried shoots of the plant coated with glutinous rice paste, usually served along with chal jeonbyeong, a kind of pancake made by pan-frying glutinous rice flour. …...CLICK & SEE : 
Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Cancer; Carminative.

The roots and stems are anodyne and carminative. All parts of the plant are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthralgia, coughs, diabetes, jaundice, stomach ulcers and stomach cancers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aralia_elata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aralia+elata