Tag Archives: Amaranth

Amaranthus viridis (Bengali : Bon notay)

Botanical Name : Amaranthus  viridis
Family:    Amaranthaceae
Genus:    Amaranthus
Species:A. viridis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Caryophyllales

Synonyms :   A. gracilis.

Common Names: Slender Amaranth or Green Amaranth.

Bengali name is Bon notey or notay sak. In Kerala it is called Kuppacheera.In Manipur it is known as Cheng-kruk
In Greece it is called vlita

Habitat : Original habitat is not very well known. But this plant occurs in Tropical  countries of the world.

Description:
Amaranthus viridis is a annual plant growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in).
It is frost tender. It is in leaf 10-Apr It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind, self.The plant is self-fertile.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:       
Prefers a well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position. Requires a hot sheltered position if it is to do well. Plants should not be given inorganic fertilizers, see notes above on toxicity. Cultivated as a food plant in the tropics.

Propagation:      
Seed – sow late spring in situ. An earlier sowing can be made in a greenhouse and the plants put out after the last expected frosts. Germination is usually rapid and good if the soil is warm. A drop in temperature overnight aids germination. Cuttings of growing plants root easily.

Edible Uses  :
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Seed.

Leaves – cooked as a spinach. A mild flavour. The leafy stems and flower clusters are similarly used. On a zero moisture basis, 100g of leaves contains 283 calories, 34.2g protein, 5.3g fat, 44.1g carbohydrate, 6.6g fibre, 16.4g ash, 2243mg calcium, 500mg phosphorus, 27mg iron, 336mg sodium, 2910mg potassium, 50mg vitamin A, 0.07mg thiamine, 2.43mg riboflavin, 11.8mg niacin and 790mg ascorbic acid. Seed – cooked. Very small, about 1mm in diameter, but it is easy to harvest and very nutritious. The seed can be cooked whole, and becomes very gelatinous like this, but it is rather difficult to crush all of the small seeds in the mouth and thus some of the seed will pass right through the digestive system without being assimilated. The seed contains 14 – 16% protein and 4.7 – 7% fat.

Chemical Constituents: Leaves (Dry weight) 283 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 34.2g; Fat: 5.3g; Carbohydrate: 44.1g; Fibre: 6.6g; Ash: 16.4g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 2243mg; Phosphorus: 500mg; Iron: 27mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 336mg; Potassium: 2910mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 50mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.07mg; Riboflavin (B2): 2.43mg; Niacin: 11.8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 790mg;
Medicinal Uses:
Amaranthus viridis is used as a medicinal herb in traditional Ayurvedic medicine, under the Sanskrit name Tanduliya.

A decoction of the entire plant is used to stop dysentery and inflammation. The plant is emollient and vermifuge. The root juice is used to treat inflammation during urination. It is also taken to treat constipation.

Other Uses:Yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the whole plant.
Known Hazards: No members of this genus are known to be poisonous, but when grown on nitrogen-rich soils they are known to concentrate nitrates in the leaves. This is especially noticeable on land where chemical fertilizers are used. Nitrates are implicated in stomach cancers, blue babies and some other health problems. It is inadvisable, therefore, to eat this plant if it is grown inorganically.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Amaranthus+viridis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranthus_viridis

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Amaranthus tricolor

Botanical Name : Amaranthus tricolor
Family:    Amaranthaceae
Genus:    Amaranthus
Species:A. tricolor
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:   Caryophyllales

Synonyms: A. gangeticus. L. A. melanocholicus.

Common Names: Tandaljo or Tandalja bhaji  (In India),callaloo in the Caribbean and Joseph’s coat after the Biblical figure Joseph. It is commonly known as Lal sak  or ranga sak in Bengal.

Common Names in Chinese: Hong Xian (Taiwan), Xian
Common Names in Danish: Papegøjeamarant
Common Names in English:Chinese Spinach, Chinese Amaranth, Chinese-Spinach, Early Splendor Amaranthus, Een Choy, Joseph´s Coat, Joseph´s-Coat, Joseph’s Coat, Joseph’s-Coat, Josephs Coat, Summer Poinsettia, Summer-Poinsettia, Tampala, Vegetable amaranth
Common Names in French:Amarante Comestible, Amarante De Gange, Amarante Du Gange, Amarante Tricolore, Pariétaire Noire, Pariétaire Sauvage
Common Names in German:Chinesischer Salat, Dreifarbiger Fuchsschwanz, Gemüseamarant, Surinamesischer Fuchsschwanz
Common Names in Hindi:Chaulaai (Chaulai), Chauli, Chavleri, Lal Bhaji, Lal Sag, Rajgeera, Rajgira, Rajkiri
Common Names in Indonesian:Aupa
Common Names in Japanese:Ha Geitou ganraikou, Hageito, Hiyu
Common Names in Portuguese:Amarantos, Amarantos a Folhas, Carurú, Espinafre Africano
Common Names in Russian:Amarant Trekhtsvetnyi, shiritsa Trekhtsvetnaia
Common Names in Sinhalese:Tampala
Common Names in Spanish:Amaranto, Moco De Pavo
Common Names in Swedish:Papegojamarant
Common Names in Tamil:Cerikkirai, Cirukirai, Thandukkeerai
Common Names in Thai:Phak Khom Suan

Habitat : Amaranthus tricolor is native to South America, many varieties of amaranth can be found across the world in a myriad of different climates due to it being a C4 carbon fixation plant, which allows it to convert carbon dioxide into biomass at an extremely efficient rate when compared to other plants. Cultivars have striking yellow, red and green foliage.

Description:
Amaranthus tricolor is a annual flowering plant, growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a medium rate. Form: Pyramidal, Upright or erect.
It is in leaf 10-Apr It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. Bloom Color is Red.The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind, self.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:  
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Foundation, Specimen. Prefers a light well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position, though it does succeed in heavier soils. Tolerates fairly acid soils. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 7.8. This is basically a tropical plant and so requires a hot sheltered position in temperate climates if it is to do well. Plants should not be given inorganic fertilizers, see notes above on toxicity. A polymorphic species, it is often cultivated for its edible leaves, there are many named varieties. This species is often cultivated in Asia for its edible leaves and seed. It is a very ornamental plant and is often grown in the flower garden. Most if not all members of this genus photosynthesize by a more efficient method than most plants. Called the ‘C4 carbon-fixation pathway’, this process is particularly efficient at high temperatures, in bright sunlight and under dry conditions. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Edible, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers.

Propagation:
Seed – sow late spring in situ. An earlier sowing can be made in a greenhouse and the plants put out after the last expected frosts. Germination is usually rapid and good if the soil is warm. A minimum soil temperature of 10°c is required for germination, germination is better at temperatures above 20°c. A drop in temperature overnight aids germination. Cuttings of growing plants root easil

Edible Uses:
The leaves may be eaten as a salad vegetable as well as the stems. In Africa, it is usually cooked as a leafy vegetable. It is usually steamed as a side dish in both China and Japan.

It appears on the coat of arms of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge where it is called “flowers gentle”.

Chemical constituents: Leaves (Dry weight)
*0 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 0g; Fat: 0g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 0g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 2441mg; Phosphorus: 1008mg; Iron: 51mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 34mg; Potassium: 4475mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 37623mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.68mg; Riboflavin (B2): 2.37mg; Niacin: 11.5mg; B6: 0mg; C: 730mg;

Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is astringent. A decoction of the root is used with Cucurbita moschata to control haemorrhage following abortion. A decoction of very old plants is taken internally to improve vision and strengthen the liver.

Other Uses: Dye.
Yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the whole plant.

Known Hazards:    No members of this genus are known to be poisonous, but when grown on nitrogen-rich soils they are known to concentrate nitrates in the leaves. This is especially noticeable on land where chemical fertilizers are used. Nitrates are implicated in stomach cancers, blue babies and some other health problems. It is inadvisable, therefore, to eat this plant if it is grown inorganically.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/A/Amaranthus_tricolor/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranthus_tricolor
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amaranthus+tricolor

Amaranthus hypochondriacus

Botanical Name : Amaranthus hypochondriacus
Family: Amaranthaceae
Genus: Amaranthus
Species: A. hypochondriacus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms: Love-Lies-Bleeding. Red Cockscomb. Velvet Flower.

Common Names :   Amaranths,Prince-of-Wales feather or prince’s feather (it is called quelite, blero and quintonil in Spanish.)

Habitat: The Amaranths are met with most abundantly in the tropics, especially in tropical America, but are not plentiful in cold countries.It grows as weed of wasteland and agricultural land.

Many species are widely distributed as pernicious weeds. Their economic importance is slight, their properties chiefly proteid nutrient. Many abound in mucilage and sugar and many species are used as pot-herbs, resembling those of Chenopodiaceae. Many, also, are excellent fodder-plants, though not cultivated.

Description;
Amaranthus hypochondriacus is a annual herb, growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in).
It is frost tender. It is in leaf 10-Apr It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind, self.The plant is self-fertile.  CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:                                            
Prefers a well-drained fertile soil in a sunny position. Requires a hot sheltered position if it is to do well. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.2 to 7.5. Plants should not be given inorganic fertilizers, see notes above on toxicity. Often cultivated, especially in tropical areas, for its edible leaves and seeds, there are many named varieties. This is the most robust and highest yielding of the grain amaranths, though it is late maturing and therefore less suitable for northern areas. Most if not all members of this genus photosynthesize by a more efficient method than most plants. Called the ‘C4 carbon-fixation pathway’, this process is particularly efficient at high temperatures, in bright sunlight and under dry conditions.

Propagation: 
Seed – sow late spring in situ. An earlier sowing can be made in a greenhouse and the plants put out after the last expected frosts. Germination is usually rapid and good if the soil is warm. A drop in temperature overnight aids germination. Cuttings of growing plants root easily

Edible Uses:    
Young leaves are eaten cooked as a spinach. Rich in vitamins and minerals, they have a mild flavour.

Seed are eaten raw or cooked. They can be used as a cereal substitute. They can also be popped in much the same way as popcorn. The seed can be soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then allowed to sprout for about 11 days. They can then be added to salads. Very small but the seed is easy to harvest and very nutritious. The seed can be cooked whole, and becomes very gelatinous like this, but it is rather difficult to crush all of the small seeds in the mouth and thus some of the seed will pass right through the digestive system without being assimilated. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used as a food colouring.

 

Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant contains tannin and is astringent. It is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea and excessive menstruation. It can be used as a gargle to soothe inflammation of the pharynx and to hasten the healing of ulcerated mouths, whilst it can also be applied externally to treat vaginal discharges, nosebleeds and wounds. The plant can be used fresh or it can also be harvested when coming into flower and dried for later use.

Other Uses
Dye…..Yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the whole plant. A red dye obtained from the plant (the report does not specify which part of the plant) is used as a colouring in foods and medicines.

Known Hazards:  No members of this genus are known to be poisonous, but when grown on nitrogen-rich soils they are known to concentrate nitrates in the leaves. This is especially noticeable on land where chemical fertilizers are used. Nitrates are implicated in stomach cancers, blue babies and some other health problems. It is inadvisable, therefore, to eat this plant if it is grown inorganically.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/amara030.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranthus_hypochondriacus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Amaranthus+hypochondriacus

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Erysimum cheiranthoides

Botanical Name : Erysimum cheiranthoides
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Erysimum
Species: E. cheiranthoides
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Common Name:Treacle-mustard, Wormseed Mustard

Habitat :Erysimum cheiranthoides is   native to most of central and northern Europe and northern and central Asia.It is widely naturalised outside of its native range, including in western and southern Europe, and North America . Found in many habitats from southern British Columbia to California at elevations of 750 – 3600 metres.

Description:
Erysimum cheiranthoides is a herbaceous annual plant similar in appearance to many other mustards, growing an erect stem 15–100 cm (rarely 150 cm) tall. The leaves are lanceolate to elliptic, 2–11 cm long and 0.5–1 cm broad, with an entire to coarsely toothed margin. The flowers are bright yellow, 5–12 mm diameter, produced in an erect inflorescence. It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects The fruit is a slender cylindrical capsule 1–3 cm (rarely 5 cm) long, containing several small, dark brown seeds.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender.

Cultivation :  
Requires a well-drained soil and a sunny position. Dislikes acid soils. Tolerates poor soils.

Propagation:  
Seed – sow in situ in the spring. Germination should take place within 3 weeks.

Medicinal Uses
Skin;  Vermifuge.
A drink made from the crushed seed is used as a vermifuge. It is intensely bitter but has been used on children and expels the worms both by vomit and by excretion. A decoction of the root has been applied to skin eruptions. Occasionally used as an anthelmintic.  It is also used in folk medicine to treat rhueumatism, jaundice, dropsy and asthma. The root mixed in water was applied to skin eruptions

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Erysimum+cheiranthoides
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erysimum_cheiranthoides
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

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Amaranthus hybridus

Botanical Name : Amaranthus hybridus
Family: Amaranthaceae
Genus: Amaranthus
Species: A. hybridus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Common Names :Smooth Amaranth, Smooth Pigweed, Red Amaranth, or Slim Amaranth

Habitat : Amaranthus hybridus was originally a pioneer plant in Eastern North America. It has been reported to have been found in every state except Wyoming, Utah, and Alaska. It is also found in many provinces of Canada, and in parts of Mexico, the West Indies, Central America, and South America. It has been naturalized in many places of warmer climate. It grows in many different places, including disturbed habitats

Description:
Amaranthus hybridus is a species of annual flowering plant. It is a weedy species. It grows from a short taproot and can be up to 2.5 m in height. It is a glabrous or glabrescent plant.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
As a weed  although it is easily controlled and not particularly competitive, it is recognized as a harmful weed of North American crops.

The plant was used for food and medicine by several Native American groups and in traditional African medicine.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves are considered useful for reducing tissue swelling, and have a cleansing effect.  The plant has been used to treat dysentery, diarrhea, excessive menstrual flow, ulcers and intestinal hemorrhaging. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of intestinal bleeding, diarrhea, excessive menstruation etc

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranthus_hybridus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Show/SAfrica/sapaper/photo38.htm

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