Tag Archives: Ambrosia

Artemisia franserioides

Botanical Name :Artemisia franserioides
Family : Asteraceae
Genus : Artemisia L.
Species:  Artemisia franserioides Greene
Kingdom : Plantae
Subkingdom ; Tracheobionta
Superdivision : Spermatophyta
Division ; Magnoliophyta
Class : Magnoliopsida
Subclass : Asteridae
Order : Asterales

Common Name :Mugwort, Mountain

Habitat :Artemisia franserioides is native to North America north of Mexico.This is one of our higher elevation Sagebrushes, found at up to 10,000 feet elevation

Description:
Artemisia franserioides is a perennial herb with glabrous bipinnatifid and simply pinnatifid leaves.  Stem is Herbaceous is Not woody, lacking lignified tissues.It is flowering in the autumn.

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Medicinal Uses:
As a cold and flu medicine it is drunk cold to settle the stomach, and hot to bring on and to reduce fever.  It also is brewed as a bitter tonic for stomach pains and acidosis from greasy and rancid foods. Also used for diarrhea.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pollenlibrary.com/Specie/Artemisia+franserioides/
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ARFR3
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/White%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/artemisia%20franserioides.htm

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Ambrosia trifida

Botanical Name : Ambrosia trifida
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Heliantheae
Subtribe: Ambrosiinae
Genus: Ambrosia
Species: A. trifida
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names: Buffalo Weed, Great Ragweed, Giant Ragweed, Bitterweed, Bloodweed, Horse Cane, Tall Ambrosia

Habitat : Ambrosia trifida is  native throughout much of North America. ( Eastern N. America – Quebec to Florida, west to Manitoba, Colorado and Mexico.)  It grows on the alluvial waste places, sometimes forming vast pure stands.

Description:
Ambrosia trifida is an annual plant in the aster family, native throughout much of North America. Its flowers are green and are pollinated by wind rather than by insects, and the pollen is one of the main causes of late summer hay fever. Flowers are borne from midsummer through early fall.

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The plant is erect, growing to over 6 meters[2], though 2– 3 meters is more typical.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species but suggest growing it in a sunny position in a well-drained soil. This plant is sometimes cultivated by the N. American Indians for food and medicine. Special Features: North American native, Invasive, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – we have no details for this species but suggest sowing the seed in situ in April.

Edible Uses: ….Oil……This plant was cultivated by the pre-Columbian N. American Indians, seeds found in pre-historic sites are 4 – 5 times larger than those of the present-day wild plant, which seems to indicate selective breeding by the Indians. The following report is for A. artemesifolia, it quite possibly also applies to this species. An oil is obtained from the seed. It has been suggested for edible purposes because it contains little linolenic acid. The seed contains up to 19% oil, it has slightly better drying properties than soya bean oil.

Medicinal Uses:

The leaves are very astringent, emetic and febrifuge. They are applied externally to insect bites and various skin complaints, internally they are used as a tea in the treatment of pneumonia, fevers, nausea, intestinal cramps, diarrhoea and mucous discharges. The juice of wilted leaves is disinfectant and is applied to infected toes. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of menstrual disorders and stroke. The pollen is harvested commercially and manufactured into pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of allergies to the plant

A poultice of the crushed plant has been used to treat poison sumac symptoms. It has been used to treat gonorrhea, diarrhea, and other intestinal disturbances. In Mexico, it is believed to be useful for treating intestinal worms and reducing fever. The leaves are applied externally to insect bites and various skin complaints, internally they are used as a tea in the treatment of pneumonia, fevers, nausea, intestinal cramps, diarrhea and mucous discharges. The juice of wilted leaves is disinfectant and is applied to infected toes. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of menstrual disorders and stroke. The pollen is harvested commercially and manufactured into pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of allergies to the plant.

Other Uses:
Dye; Oil.

A red colour is obtained from the crushed heads. (This probably refers to the seed heads.) The sap of the plant can stain the skin red.

Known Hazards :  The pollen of this plant is a major cause of hayfever in N. America. Ingesting or touching the plant can cause allergic reactions in some people. 

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrosia_trifida
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ambrosia+trifida

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Roman Wormwood (Ambrosia artemesiifolia )

Botanical Name :Ambrosia artemesiifolia
Family : Compositae
Genus : Ambrosia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Species: A. artemisiifolia

Synonyms: Ambrosia absynthifolia (Michx., 1803), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. subsp. diversifolia (Piper, 1837), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. jamaicensis (Griseb. 1861), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. octocornis (Kuntze, 1891), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. quadricornis (Kuntze, 1891), Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. artemisiifolia, Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior (Descourt., 1821), Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior f. villosa (Fernald & Griscom, 1935), Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. paniculata (Michx.), Ambrosia diversifolia (Piper), Ambrosia elata (Salisbury, 1796), Ambrosia elatior L., Ambrosia elatior L. var. heterophylla (Muhlenburg ex Willedenow, 1913), Ambrosia glandulosa (Scheele, 1849), Ambrosia heterophylla (Muhlenburg ex Willdenow, 1803), Ambrosia longistylus (Nuttall, 1840), Ambrosia media (Rydberg, 1910), Ambrosia monophylla (Rydberg, 1922), Ambrosia paniculata (Michaux, 1803, Ambrosia simplicifolia (Raeuschel, 1797), Iva monophylla (Walter, 1788)

Common names
: ambroisie à feuille d’armoise (French-France), ambroisie annuelle (French-France), ambroisie élevée (French-France), ambrosia aux feuilles d’armoise (French-France), ambrosia con foglie di atremisia (Italian-Italy), ambrosia de hojas de ajenjo (Spanish), ambrozja bylicolistna (Poland), ambrozja bylicowata (Poland), annual ragweed (English), artemisia del pais (Spanish), Aufrechte Ambrosie (German-Germany), Aufrechtes Traubenkraut (German-Switzerland), bastard wormwood (English-United Kingdom), Beifußambrosie (German-Germany), Beifussblättriges Ambrosie (German-Germany), Beifussblättriges Traubenkraut (German-Germany), beiskambrosia (Norway), bitterweed (English), blackweed (English-Canada), bynke-ambrosie (Danish-Denmark), carrot-weed (English-Canada), common ragweed (English), hay-fever weed (English-Canada), hog-weed (English), Hohes Traubenkraut (German-Germany), kietine ambrozija (Lithuanian-Lithuania), low ragweed (English), malörstambrosia (Sweden), marunatuoksukki (Finland), parlagfu (Hungary), petite herbe à poux (French-Canada), pujulehine ambroosia (Estonia), ragweed (English), roman bitterweed (English-Canada), Roman wormwood (English), römischer Wermut (German-Germany), Shinners ragweed (English-South Korea), short ragweed (English), small ragweed (English), Stalin weed (English-Hungary), stammerweed (English-Canada), stickweed (English-Canada), vadkender (Hungary), vermellapu ambrozija (Latvian-Latvia), wild tansy (English-Canada)


Other Names :
Annual Ragweed, Bitterweed, Blackweed, Carrot Weed, Hay Fever Weed, Roman Wormwood, Stammerwort, Stickweed, Tassel Weed, Wild Tansy, and American Wormwood.

Habitat : N. America – British Columbia to Nova Scotia and Florida. it is invasive in some European countries and Japan, known as butakusa Locally established casual in Britain. Waste places in Western N. America. Found in dry soils, it can become a pernicious weed in cultivated soils.


Description:

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a summer annual herbaceous plant that is erect, with many branches (AWCNI, undated) and can reach heights between 1-2 metres (NRW, 2007) with a grooved, reddish, hairy stem (Wittenberg, R. (ed.) 2005). The leaves are opposite, compound, and toothed (Wittenberg, R. (ed.) 2005) reaching lengths of 4-10cm long (VTWIG, undated). The tops of the leaves are green and hairy, with white hairs adpressed on the underside of the leaf (Wittenberg, R. (ed.) 2005). Male flowers are green, small, 4-5mm, with bractless flowers arranged in a terminal spike located in the upper portions of the plant (Wittenberg, R. (ed.) 2005), often drooping (AWCNI, undated). The female flowers are located in the axils of the upper leaves, sessile, and inconspicuous in either small clusters or singly (Wittenberg, R. (ed.) 2005). The fruit of the common ragweed is a woody achene, 3-4mm long and 1-2mm wide, with 4-7 spine-like projections, resembling a crown (VTWIG, undated). The leaves are bright green on both sides with whitish nerves. On older plants the lower leaves can be arranged opposite and the upper leaves can be alternately arranged on the stem (C. Bohren., pers.comm., 2007).

 

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It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from August to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind. Common Ragweed emerges in the late spring and sets seed in later summer or fall.

Common ragweed is a very competitive weed and can produce yield losses in soybeans as high as 30%. Control with night tillage reduces emergence by around 45%. Small grains in rotation will also suppress common ragweed if they are overseeded with clover. Otherwise, the ragweed will grow and mature and produce seed in the small grain stubble. Several herbicides are effective against common ragweed, although resistant populations are known to exist

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :

We have very little information on this species but suggest growing it in a sunny position in a well-drained soil. It has been suggested for commercial cultivation. Some plants produce mainly sterile heads. The pollen from the flowers of this species is an important cause of hay-fever in N. America.

Propagation
Seed – we have no details for this species but suggest sowing the seed in situ in April.

Uses:
An essential oil of Ambrosia artemisiifolia acts as an antimicrobial, having antibacterial and antifungal compounds.

Edible Uses
Edible Uses: Oil.

An oil is obtained from the seed. It has been suggested for edible purposes because it contains little linolenic acid. The seed contains up to 19% oil, it has slightly better drying properties than soya bean oil.

Medicinal  Actions & Uses
Antidote; Astringent; Disinfectant; Emetic; Febrifuge; Women’s complaints.

The leaves are very astringent, emetic and febrifuge. They are applied externally to insect bites, rheumatic joints and various skin complaints, internally they are used as a tea in the treatment of fevers, pneumonia, nausea, intestinal cramps, diarrhoea and mucous discharges. Juice from the wilted leaves is disinfectant and is applied to infected toes. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of menstrual disorders and stroke. The pollen is harvested commercially and manufactured into pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of allergies to the plant.

Known Hazards : The pollen of this plant is a major cause of hayfever in N. America. Ingesting or touching the plant can cause allergic reactions in some people.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Ambrosia+artemesiifolia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrosia_artemisiifolia
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1125&fr=1&sts=
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=AMAR2&photoID=amar2_1v.jpg

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Bee Propolis

Honey bee on Geraldton Wax Flower, NSW, AustraliaImage via Wikipedia

Other name: Propolis
Definition:
Propolis is a resinous mixture that bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. Propolis is used for small gaps (approximately 6.35 millimeters (0.3 in) or less), while larger spaces are usually filled with beeswax. Its color varies depending on its botanical source, the most common being dark brown. Propolis is sticky at and above room temperature. At lower temperatures it becomes hard and very brittle.

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Propolis is a sticky resin that seeps from the buds of some trees and oozes from the bark of other trees, chiefly conifers. The bees gather propolis, sometimes called bee glue, and carry it home in their  pollen baskets.  They blend it with wax flakes secreted from special glands on their abdomens. Propolis is used to slickly line the interior of brood cells in preparation for the queen’s laying of eggs, a most important procedure.  With its antiseptic properties, this propolis lining insures a hospital-clean environment for the rearing of brood.

For centuries, beekeepers assumed that bees sealed the beehive with propolis to protect the colony from the elements, such as rain and cold winter drafts. However, 20th century research has revealed that bees not only survive, but also thrive, with increased ventilation during the winter months throughout most temperate regions of the world.

Propolis as hive sealing Propolis is now believed to do the following:

1.To reinforce the structural stability of the hive.

2.To reduce vibration

3.To make the hive more defensible by sealing alternate entrances

4.To prevent diseases and parasites from entering the hive

5.To prevent putrefaction within the hive. Bees usually carry waste out of and away from the hive. However if a small lizard or mouse, for example, found its way into the hive and died there, bees may be unable to carry it out through the hive entrance. In that case, they would attempt instead to seal the carcass in propolis, essentially mummifying it and making it odorless and harmless.

Composition
The composition of propolis will vary from hive to hive, district to district, and from season to season. Normally it is dark brown in color, but it can be found in green, red, black and white hues, depending on the sources of resin found in the particular hive area. Honey bees are opportunists, and will gather what they need from available sources, and detailed analyses show that propolis chemical composition varies considerably from region to region, along with the vegetation. In northern temperate climates, for example, bees collect resins from trees, such as poplars and conifers (the biological role of resin in trees is to seal wounds and defend against bacteria, fungi and insects). Poplar resin is rich in flavanoids. “Typical” northern temperate propolis has approximately 50 constituents, primarily resins and vegetable balsams (50%), waxes (30%), essential oils (10%), and pollen (5%). In neotropical regions, in additional to a large variety of trees, bees may also gather resin from flowers in the genera Clusia and Dalechampia, which are the only known plant genera that produce floral resins to attract pollinators. Clusia resin contains polyprenylated benzophenones. In some areas of Chile, propolis contains viscidone, a terpene from Baccharis shrubs, and in Brazil, naphthoquinone epoxide has recently isolated from red propolis, and prenylated acids such as 4-hydroxy-3,5-diprenyl cinnamic acid have been documented[8]. An analysis of propolis from Henan, China found sinapic acid, isoferulic acid, caffeic acid and chrysin, with the first three compounds demonstrating anti-bacterial properties[9]. Occasionally worker bees will even gather various caulking compounds of human manufacture, when the usual sources are more difficult to obtain. The properties of the propolis depend on the exact sources used by each individual hive, therefore any potential medicinal properties that may be present in one hive’s propolis may be absent from another’s, and the distributors of propolis products cannot control such factors. This may account for the many and varied claims regarding medicinal properties, and the difficulty in replicating previous scientific studies investigating these claims. Even propolis samples taken from within a single colony can vary, making controlled clinical tests difficult, and the results of any given study cannot be reliably extrapolated to propolis samples from other areas.

Side Effects
Propolis shouldn’t be applied to the eye area. Repeated use of propolis may make people more prone to developing allergies.

Other uses
Propolis is used by certain music instrument makers to enhance the appearance of the wood grain. It is a component of some varnishes and was reportedly used.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propolis
http://altmedicine.about.com/cs/herbsvitaminsa1/a/Bee_propolis.htm

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