Tag Archives: American English

Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus

Botanical Name : Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Eleutherococcus
Species: Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus

Synonyms: Acanthopanax sessiliflorus

Common Names:

Habitat : Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus is native to E. Asia – China, Korea, Manchuria. It grows in moist woods, wooded riverbanks, forest edges and clearings.

Description:
Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft 9in). Branches unarmed or with scattered, erect or recurved prickles. Petiole 3-12 cm, unarmed or with small prickles; petiolules 2-10 mm; leaflets 3-5, obovate, oblong-obovate, or oblong-lanceolate, 8-18 × 3-7 cm, papery, secondary veins 5-7 pairs, distinct, adaxially glabrous or slightly scabrous, base cuneate, margin irregularly serrate, apex acuminate. Inflorescence terminal, a raceme of umbels, borne on leafy shoots, with 3-6 capitate umbels; peduncles 0.5-3 cm, densely pubescent; pedicels absent (flowers sessile). Calyx with 5 teeth, white pubescent. Corolla dull purplish. Ovary 2-carpellate; styles united basally into a column, free apically. Fruit obovoid-globose, 1-1.5 cm; styles persistent, ca. 3 mm.

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It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in an open loamy soil, preferring a well-drained humus-rich soil in full sun. Tolerates poor soils and atmospheric pollution. A very cold resistant plant if it is sheltered from cold winds, tolerating temperatures down to at least -15°c. A very ornamental plant, it spreads vigorously by means of suckers. This species is closely related to E. divaricatus.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can be slow to germinate. Stored seed requires 6 months warm followed by 3 months cold stratification and can be very slow to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of ripe wood of the current season’s growth, 15 – 30cm long in a cold frame. Root cuttings in late winter. Division of suckers in the dormant season.

Edible Uses:... Drink; Tea….Young leaves – raw or cooked and used as a vegetable. Old leaves are dried and used as a tea substitute. A wine is made from the bark. It is highly fancied by the Chinese. It is probably used mainly for medicinal purposes.

Medicinal Uses:
Adaptogen; Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antipyretic; Diuretic.

The root bark contains saponins, acanthosides, cardiac glycosides and polysaccharides. It is adaptogenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and diuretic. It is used in Korea in the treatment of lumbago, neuralgia, arthritis and oedema.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Eleutherococcus_sessiliflorus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Eleutherococcus+sessiliflorus
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242320208

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Solidago nemoralis

Boytanical Name : Solidago nemoralis
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. nemoralis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Aster hispidus (Muhl. ex Willd.) Kuntze not Thunb. 1783

*Doria pulcherrima (A.Nelson) Lunell

Common Names: Gray goldenrod, Gray-stem goldenrod, Old-field goldenrod, Field goldenrod, Prairie goldenrod, Dwarf goldenrod, and Dyersweed goldenrod

Habitat : Solidago nemoralis is native to North America, where it is widely Canada (every province except Newfoundland/Labrador) and the United States (all states wholly or partially east of the Rocky Mountains). It grows on the dry open places in foothills, valleys and plains.

Description:
Like other goldenrods, this species is a perennial herb. One of the smaller goldenrods, It grows 20 centimeters to one meter (8-40 inches) tall from a branching underground caudex. There are 1 to 6 erect stems, sometimes more. The stems are reddish to gray-green and have lines of short, white hairs. The lower leaves are up to 10 centimeters (4 inches long and the blades are borne on winged petioles. Leaves on the upper half of the stem are narrower and shorter and lack petioles. The spreading inflorescence can carry up to 300 flower heads. The head contains 5 to 11 yellow ray florets each a few millimeters long surrounding up to 10 yellow disc florets. Flowering occurs in late summer and fall. The fruit is a rough-texured cypsela about 2 millimeters long tipped with a pappus of bristles slightly longer….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

There are two subspecies:
*Solidago nemoralis ssp. decemflora – tetraploid taxon with larger flower heads and narrower basal leaves in west-central North America
*Solidago nemoralis ssp. nemoralis – diploid or tetraploid taxon in the eastern regions of the species’ range.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will succeed in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses:…….Seed……Native American people, the Goshute used the seeds for food.
Medicinal Uses:
The plant had various uses among Native American peoples. The Houma people used it medicinally to treat jaundice. The Navajo used it as incense.
An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used as an antiseptic.

Other Uses.: Mustard, orange and brown dyes can be obtained from the whole plant. It is cultivated in landscaping and gardens, such as butterfly gardens.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidago_nemoralis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+nemoralis

Rumex acetus

Botanical Name: Rumex acetus
Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Rumex
Species: R. acetosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms: Acetosa hastulata Raf. Acetosa hastifolia Schur. Acetosa angustata Raf.

Common Names: Sorrel , Common sorrel , Garden sorrel

Other Names: Spinach dock and Narrow-leaved dock

Habitat : Rumex acetosa occurs in grassland habitats throughout Europe from the northern Mediterranean coast to the north of Scandinavia and in parts of Central Asia. It occurs as an introduced species in parts of North America.It grows in meadows, by streams and in open places in woodland. Often found as a weed of acid soils

Description:
Sorrel is a slender herbaceous perennial plant about 60 centimetres (24 in) high by 0.3 m (1ft in), with roots that run deep into the ground, as well as juicy stems and edible, arrow-shaped (sagittate) leaves. The leaves, when consumed raw, taste like a sour green apple candy. The lower leaves are 7 to 15 centimetres (2.8 to 5.9 in) in length with long petioles and a membranous ocrea formed of fused, sheathing stipules. The upper ones are sessile, and frequently become crimson. It has whorled spikes of reddish-green flowers, which bloom in early summer, becoming purplish. The species is dioecious, with stamens and pistils on different plants.

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It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jun to August. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The leaves are eaten by the larvae of several species of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) including the blood-vein moth.
Cultivation:
A very easily grown and tolerant plant, it succeeds in most soils, preferring a moist moderately fertile well-drained soil in a sunny position. Shade tolerant. Established plants are tolerant of considerable neglect, surviving even in dense weed growth. Sorrel has been used since ancient times as a food and medicinal plant. It is still occasionally cultivated for its edible leaves, there are some named varieties. The plant stops producing leaves when it flowers in the summer, regrowing after the seed has set. Plants also usually die down in the winter. Cutting down the flowering stem will encourage the growth of fresh young leaves. ‘Blonde de Lyon’ has large, only slightly acid leaves and is much less likely to flower than the type. This means that the leaves of this cultivar are often available all through the summer and are often also produced throughout the winter, especially if the winter is mild. A food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterfly, it is a good plant to grow in the spring meadow. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. Leaves can be harvested within 8 weeks from sowing. Division in spring. Division is very simple at almost any time of the year, though the plants establish more rapidly in the spring. Use a sharp spade or knife to divide the rootstock, ensuring that there is at least one growth bud on each section of root. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seed.
Edible Uses: Curdling agent.

Leaves – raw or cooked. They make a thirst-quenching on their own, or can be added to salads, used as a potherb or pureed and used in soups. A delicious lemon-like flavour, liked by most people who try them, they can be rather overpowering in quantity and are more generally used as a flavouring in mixed salads. The leaves can also be dried for later use. The leaves can be available all through the winter, especially in mild weather or if a little protection is given to the plants. The leaves should be used sparingly in the diet, see the notes on toxicity above. Flowers – cooked as a vegetable or used as a garnish. Root – cooked. It is dried, ground into a powder and made into noodles. Seed – raw or cooked. Ground into a powder and mixed with other flours to make bread. The seed is easy to harvest, but is rather small and fiddly to use. The juice of the leaves can be used as a curdling agent for milks.

Medicinal Uses:

Anthelmintic; Antiscorbutic; Astringent; Depurative; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Homeopathy; Laxative; Refrigerant; Stomachic.

The fresh or dried leaves are astringent, diuretic, laxative and refrigerant. They are used to make a cooling drink in the treatment of fevers and are especially useful in the treatment of scurvy. The leaf juice, mixed with fumitory, has been used as a cure for itchy skin and ringworm. An infusion of the root is astringent, diuretic and haemostatic. It has been used in the treatment of jaundice, gravel and kidney stones. Both the roots and the seeds have been used to stem haemorrhages. A paste of the root is applied to set dislocated bones. The plant is depurative and stomachic. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the treatment of spasms and skin ailments.

Other Uses:
Cleanser; Dye; Polish.

Dark green to brown and dark grey dyes can be obtained from the roots, they do not need a mordant. A grey-blue dye is obtained from the leaves and stems. An infusion of the stems is used as a polish for bamboo and wicker furniture and also for silver. The juice of the plant removes stains from linen and also ink stains (but not ball-point ink) from white material. It is sometimes sold as ‘essential salt of lemon

Known Hazards : Rumex acetus plants can contain quite high levels of oxalic acid, which is what gives the leaves of many members of this genus an acid-lemon flavour. Perfectly alright in small quantities, the leaves should not be eaten in large amounts since the oxalic acid can lock-up other nutrients in the food, especially calcium, thus causing mineral deficiencies. The oxalic acid content will be reduced if the plant is cooked. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sorrel
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/d/docks-15.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rumex+acetosa

 

Thapsia garganica

Botanical Name : Thapsia garganica
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Thapsia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonym: Drias, Thapsia decussata.

Common Name : Drias Plant ,Deadly carrots

Habitat :Thapsia garganica is native to EuropeMediterranean. It grows in rocky places, fields and sunny slopes.
Description:
Thapsia garganica is a herbaceous perennial plant, growing 50 to 200 cm high. The inflorescences are large, regularly distributed umbels. The seeds have four wings, and are the main characteristic of the genus, which is distributed in the Mediterranean, on the Iberian peninsula, and North Africa. It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species, it probably requires a well drained light fertile soil in a sunny position. One report says that it is not hardy in Britain requiring greenhouse or half-hardy treatment. We have grown it in the past in Cornwall, it survived 3 winters in a cold greenhouse with us before succumbing to slugs.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Root cuttings.

Medicinal Uses:

Diuretic; Purgative.

The root is diuretic, emetic and purgative. A resin is extracted with alcohol from the bark of the root. The plant has been considered specific in treating pain, though caution is advised since it is poisonous to some mammals. The plant is also strongly rubefacient, producing blisters and intense itching.

Other Uses:…Resin……Yields a resin that is used in plasters. No further details are given.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thapsia_(plant)
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Thapsia+garganica

Pimples

Other Names: Acne,Acne vulgaris, Zit or Spot

Definition;
Pimple is a kind of comedo and one of the many results of excess oil getting trapped in the pores. Some of the varieties are pustules or papules.It is an inflammatory skin condition that causes spots.Spots result from the build up of dead skin cells and grease that block the pores or hair follicles, typically on the face, upper arms, upper back and chest.

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It is not contagious and is nothing to do with not being clean.Hormonal changes, such as those related to puberty, menstruation and pregnancy, can contribute to acne.
Some medicines will also make it worse, including some contraceptive pills and steroids.

Pimples can be treated by various acne medications prescribed by a physician, or purchased at a pharmacy with a wide variety of treatments.

Acne occurs most commonly during adolescence, affecting an estimated 80–90% of teenagers in the Western world. Lower rates are reported in some rural societies.

It is 8th most common disease in the world. People may also be affected before and after puberty. Though it becomes less common in adulthood than in adolescence, nearly half of people in their twenties and thirties continue to have acne. About 4% continue to have difficulties into their forties.

Clasification:
Acne is commonly classified by severity as mild, moderate, or severe. This type of categorization can be an important factor in determining the appropriate treatment regimen. Mild acne is classically defined as open (blackheads) and closed comedones (whiteheads) limited to the face with occasional inflammatory lesions. Acne may be considered to be of moderate severity when a higher number of inflammatory papules and pustules occur on the face compared to mild cases of acne and acne lesions also occur on the trunk of the body. Lastly, severe acne is said to occur when nodules and cysts are the characteristic facial lesions and involvement of the trunk is extensive
Symptoms:
As the pores of the skin become blocked, blackheads develop and small, tender, red spots appear. These can turn into pimples or whiteheads filled with pus.Typical features of acne include seborrhea (increased oil secretion), microcomedones, comedones, papules, pustules, nodules (large papules), and possibly scarring. The appearance of acne varies with skin color. It may result in psychological and social problems.

Some of the large nodules were previously called cysts and the term nodulocystic has been used to describe severe cases of inflammatory acne.

Scars:
Acne scars are the result of inflammation within the dermal layer of skin brought on by acne and are estimated to affect 95% of people with acne vulgaris. The scar is created by an abnormal form of healing following this dermal inflammation. Scarring is most likely to occur with severe nodulocystic acne, but may occur with any form of acne vulgaris. Acne scars are classified based on whether the abnormal healing response following dermal inflammation leads to excess collagen deposition or collagen loss at the site of the acne lesion.

Atrophic acne scars are the most common type of acne scar and have lost collagen from this healing response.  Atrophic scars may be further classified as ice-pick scars, boxcar scars, and rolling scars. Ice pick scars are typically described as narrow (less than 2 mm across), deep scars that extend into the dermis.[19] Rolling scars are wider than ice pick scars (4–5 mm across) and have a wave-like pattern of depth in the skin. Boxcar scars are round or ovoid indented scars with sharp borders and vary in size from 1.5–4 mm across.

Hypertrophic scars are less common and are characterized by increased collagen content after the abnormal healing response. They are described as firm and raised from the skin. Hypertrophic scars remain within the original margins of the wound whereas keloid scars can form scar tissue outside of these borders. Keloid scars from acne usually occur in men and on the trunk of the body rather than the face.

Pigmentation:
Postinflammatory hyper pigmentation (PIH) is usually the result of nodular or cystic acne (the painful ‘bumps’ lying under the skin). They often leave behind an inflamed red mark after the original acne lesion has resolved. PIH occurs more often in people with darker skin color. Pigmented scar is a common but misleading term, as it suggests the color change is permanent. Often, PIH can be avoided by avoiding aggravation of the nodule or cyst. These scars can fade with time. However, untreated scars can last for months, years, or even be permanent if deeper layers of skin are affected. Daily use of SPF 15 or higher sunscreen can minimize pigmentation associated with acne.

Causes:
Inside the pore are sebaceous glands which produce sebum. When the outer layers of skin shed (as they do continuously), the dead skin cells left behind may become ‘glued’ together by the sebum. This causes the blockage in the pore, especially when the skin becomes thicker at puberty. The sebaceous glands produce more sebum which builds up behind the blockage, and this sebum harbours various bacteria including the species Propionibacterium acnes, causing infection and inflammation.

Genetic:
The predisposition for specific individuals to acne is likely explained in part by a genetic component, which has been supported by twin studies as well as studies that have looked at rates of acne among first degree relatives. The genetics of acne susceptibility is likely polygenic, as the disease does not follow classic Mendelian inheritance pattern. There are multiple candidates for genes which are possibly related to acne, including polymorphisms in TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 among others.

Hormonal:
Hormonal activity, such as menstrual cycles and puberty, may contribute to the formation of acne. During puberty, an increase in sex hormones called androgens cause the follicular glands to grow larger and make more sebum. A similar increase in androgens occurs during pregnancy, also leading to increased sebum production.[25]

Several hormones have been linked to acne including the androgens testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and growth hormone. Use of anabolic steroids may have a similar effect.

Acne that develops between the ages of 21 and 25 is uncommon. True acne vulgaris in adult women may be due to pregnancy or polycystic ovary syndrome.

Infectious:
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the anaerobic bacterium species that is widely suspected to contribute to the development of acne, but its exact role in this process is not entirely clear. There are specific sub-strains of P. acnes associated with normal skin and others with moderate or severe inflammatory acne. It is unclear whether these undesirable strains evolve on-site or are acquired, or possibly both depending on the person. These strains either have the capability of changing, perpetuating, or adapting to, the abnormal cycle of inflammation, oil production, and inadequate sloughing of acne pores. One particularly virulent strain has been circulating in Europe for at least 87 years. Infection with the parasitic mite Demodex is associated with the development of acne. However, it is unclear if eradication of these mites improves acne.

Lifestyle:
Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of developing acne. Additionally, acne severity worsens as the number of cigarettes a person smokes increases. The relationship between diet and acne is unclear as there is no high-quality evidence. However, a high glycemic load diet is associated with worsening acne. There is weak evidence of a positive association between the consumption of milk and a greater rate and severity of acne. Other associations such as chocolate and salt are not supported by the evidence. Chocolate does contain a varying amount of sugar that can lead to a high glycemic load and it can be made with or without milk. There may be a relationship between acne and insulin metabolism and one trial found a relationship between acne and obesity. Vitamin B12 may trigger acneiform eruptions, or exacerbate existing acne, when taken in doses exceeding the recommended daily intake.

Psychological:
While the connection between acne and stress has been debated, research indicates that increased acne severity is associated with high stress levels.

Acne excorie is a type of acne in which a person picks and scratches pimples due to stress.

Diagnosis:
There are multiple scales for grading the severity of acne vulgaris, three of these being:

*Leeds acne grading technique: Counts and categorizes lesions into inflammatory and non-inflammatory (ranges from 0–10.0).
*Cook’s acne grading scale: Uses photographs to grade severity from 0 to 8 (0 being the least severe and 8 being the most severe).
*Pillsbury scale: Simply classifies the severity of the acne from 1 (least severe) to 4 (most severe).

Differential diagnosis:
Similar conditions include rosacea, folliculitis, keratosis pilaris, perioral dermatitis, and angiofibromas among others. Age is one factor that may help a physician distinguish between these disorders. Skin disorders such as perioral dermatitis and keratosis pilaris can mimic acne but tend to occur more frequently in childhood whereas rosacea tends to occur more frequently in older adults. Facial redness triggered by heat or the consumption of alcohol or spicy food is suggestive of rosacea. The presence of comedones can also help health professionals differentiate acne from skin disorders that are similar in appearance

Treatment:
Many different treatments exist for acne including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, antiseborrheic medications, anti-androgen medications, hormonal treatments, salicylic acid, alpha hydroxy acid, azelaic acid, nicotinamide, and keratolytic soaps. They are believed to work in at least four different ways, including the following: normalizing skin cell shedding and sebum production into the pore to prevent blockage, killing P. acnes, anti-inflammatory effects, and hormonal manipulation.

Commonly used medical treatments include topical therapies such as retinoids, antibiotics, and benzoyl peroxide and systemic therapies including oral retinoids, antibiotics, and hormonal agents. Procedures such as light therapy and laser therapy are not considered to be first-line treatments and typically have an adjunctive role due to their high cost and limited evidence of efficacy
Over-the-counter medications:
Common over-the-counter medications for pimples are benzoyl peroxide and/or salicylic acid and antibacterial agents such as triclosan. Both medications can be found in many creams and gels used to treat acne (acne vulgaris) through topical application. Both medications help skin slough off more easily, which helps to remove bacteria faster. Before applying them the patient needs to wash his or her face with warm water and dry. A cleanser may also be used for that purpose. Acne rosacea is not caused by bacterial infection. It is commonly treated with tretinoin. A regimen of keeping the affected skin area clean plus the regular application of these topical medications is usually enough to keep acne under control, if not at bay altogether. The most common product is a topical treatment of benzoyl peroxide, which has minimal risk apart from minor skin irritation that may present similar as a mild allergy. Recently nicotinamide, applied topically, has been shown to be more effective in treatment of pimples than antibiotics such as clindamycin. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) is not an antibiotic and has no side-effects typically associated with antibiotics. It has the added advantage of reducing skin hyperpigmentation which results in pimple scars.

Prescription medication:
Severe acne usually indicates the necessity of prescription medication to treat the pimples. Prescription medications used to treat acne and pimples include isotretinoin, which is a retinoid. Historically, antibiotics such as tetracyclines and erythromycin were prescribed. While they were more effective than topical applications of benzoyl peroxide, the bacteria eventually grew resistant to the antibiotics and the treatments became less and less effective. Also, antibiotics had more side effects than topical applications, such as stomach cramps and severe discoloration of teeth. Common antibiotics prescribed by dermatologists include doxycycline and minocycline.  For more severe cases of acne dermatologists might recommend accutane, a retinoid that is the most potent of acne treatments. However, accutane can cause various side effects including vomiting, diarrhea, and birth defects (women).

Hygiene:
Practicing good hygiene, including regularly washing skin areas with neutral cleansers, can reduce the amount of dead skin cells and other external contaminants on the skin that can contribute to the development of pimples. However, it is not always possible to completely prevent pimples, even with good hygiene practices.

Alternative medicine:
Numerous natural products have been investigated for treating people with acne. Low-quality evidence suggests topical application of tea tree oil or bee venom may reduce the total number of skin lesions in those with acne. There is a lack of high-quality evidence for the use of acupuncture, medicine, and cupping therapy for acne.

Perfectly balanced hormones give a person a pimple-free face. One could try to correct internal hormonal levels by exercising aerobically (jog, swim, run, cycle) for 40 minutes a day, preferably in the fresh air. This needs to be balanced with 20 minutes of stretching and yoga with pranayama.

Prognosis:
Acne usually improves around the age of 20 but may persist into adulthood. Permanent physical scarring may occur. There is good evidence to support the idea that acne has a negative psychological impact and worsens mood, lowers self-esteem, and is associated with a higher risk of anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts.

Research:
In 2007, the first genome sequencing of a P. acnes bacteriophage (PA6) was reported. The authors proposed applying this research toward development of bacteriophage therapy as an acne treatment in order to overcome the problems associated with long-term antibiotic therapy, such as bacterial resistance.

A vaccine against inflammatory acne has been tested successfully in mice, but has not yet been proven to be effective in humans. Other workers have voiced concerns related to creating a vaccine designed to neutralize a stable community of normal skin bacteria that is known to protect the skin from colonization by more harmful microorganisms.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acne_vulgaris#Management

Acne


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pimple
http://www.telegraphindia.com/1150810/jsp/knowhow/story_36267.jsp